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THE FACTORS LIMITING THE UTILIZATION OF ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS IN SUPERHEATED STEAM

Description: New experimental data and literature data are utilized to determine the upper temperature of usefulness of zirconium alloys. Three basic engineering assumptions are used: (1) service life requirements are on the order of four years; (2) tubular fuel cladding for rod-type fuel is considered with a maximum wall thickness of 1.27 cm; and (3) heat fluxes are above 157 watts/cm/sup 2/. The interrelation of three basic factors, corrosion rate, corrosion embrittiement by hydrogen and oxygen, and strength are considered. An upper limit for an acceptable corrosion rate for a long-term service of 1 mg/dm/sup 2//day is set primarily by the effect of heat-transfer on corrosion. For the best alloys anticipated, this requirement (even without considering transient conditions) limits cladding surface temperatures to less than 540 C. Oxygen embrittiement of the alloy substrate by oxide film dissolution is not expected to be a limiting factor. Corrosion hydrogen embrittiement was studied in detail and found to limit acceptable service to cladding surface temperatures of less than 525 deg C for established experimental alloys. Hydrogen embrittlement may not be a limiting factor if alloys corrosion resistant enough to be acceptable above 600 deg C could be developed. Zirconium alloys designed for higher strength to overcome their inherent rapid loss of creep strength at temperatures above 540 deg C are expected to be more susceptible to corrosion hydrogen embrittlement. The results of this study indicate that there is good promise for developing zirconium alloys for fuel cladding application at temperatures up to 475 deg C. (auth)
Date: November 20, 1963
Creator: Klepfer, H H & Douglass, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEAN SQUARE VOLTAGE FLUCTUATION MEASUREMENTS WITH NEUTRON-SENSITIVE ION CHAMBERS

Description: The mean square fluctuation voltage in neutron sensitiv ion chambers was measured rather than the d-c current to improve gamma discrimination and eliminate d-c cable leakage interference currents. The circuitry and chambe are described, and performance in the mean square volta mode is compared with that in the d-c current mode. (D.C.W.)
Date: November 1, 1963
Creator: DuBridge, R A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department