Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.
open access

Analysis of Zero Power Experiments on SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I

Description: Abstract: An analysis of SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I zero power experiments was made by comparing these cores to each other and to AM-1 Core I on the basis of critical bank positions, bank calibrations and available chemical analyses of the fuel plate compositions. The effects of replacing boron absorbers by europium absorbers upon rod worth and stuck rod conditions were studied. Comparisons of measured and calculated power distributions were made. It was concluded that both SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I contain nearly identical B-10 loading of 17.79 grams, compared to the best estimate of 15.75 grams for SM-1 Core I. The available data indicates that all three cores possess similar nuclear characteristics.
Date: October 5, 1960
Creator: Paluszkiewicz, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

SM-1 Research and Development Program: Long-lived Induced Activity Buildup During SM-1 Core I Lifetime. Task XVIII, Phase I

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 performed during Core I lifetime (June 3, 1957 to April 28, 1960) are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as mathematical equations used to account for the observed activity levels. The data have shown that Co60 is the major contributor to radiation levels in the SM-1. Co60 activity arises from the cobalt in Haynes 25 alloy flux suppressors, and the cobalt impurity in stainless steel. After 35 months operation at an average power level of 55%, deposited Co60 activity accounted for approximately 83% of the total radiation level (mr/hr) contributed by the long-lived gamma emitting nuclides. The contribution of the primary coolant activity to the total radiation level is insignificant when compared to the contribution of the activity deposited on the walls of the system. The radiation level on the super-heater side of the steam generator was about 1400 mr/hr after 35 months of reactor operation. The percentages of Co60 activity in the coolant and in the deposits were not the same. This indicates either that nuclides are depositing irreversibly on the surface of the system, or that all nuclides are not exchanging at the same rate. The ratio of Co58/Co60 in the deposits shows that a major fraction of the nuclides are irreversibly deposited. Mathematical equations derived during the course of work were used to predict the observed activity buildup on SM-1 primary system surfaces. Certain constants in the the equations were obtained from the experimental data. Calculated values of activity levels based on the equations were in good agreement with the activity levels found on the primary system. The equations may be …
Date: November 30, 1960
Creator: Bergmann, C. A.; Bergen, C.; Cox, J. F.; Chupak, J. & Grant, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Summary Report for the SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation: Task XIV

Description: Abstract; This technical report describes the changes in the SM-1 incurred by the experiment, Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV), and evaluates the possible hazard involved in these changes. Temperature and flow measurements will be taken on a Task XIV instrumented stationary fuel element, instrumented control rod fuel element and other selected points in the SM-1 core to provide data on the core steady state and transient performance. The hazards evaluation consists of a nuclear evaluation, thermal and hydraulic analysis, description of tests to be performed, and discussion of containment integrity and maximum accident considerations.
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Brondel, J. O.; Lee, D. H. & Matthews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Evaluation of the SM-1 Penetrated Gasket

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the as-constructed SM-1 penetrated gasket designed for SM-1 Core and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV). This report supplements APAE No. 79, The Summary Hazards Report for Task XIV, and evaluates the effects of a postulated failure of this gasket. The effects of failure on the Maximum Credible Accident are determined and conclusions and recommendations for the use of this gasket are made.
Date: September 8, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Gebhardt, F. G. & James, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV) Covering Special Test Procedures.

Description: Abstract: Test procedures for special tests involving in-core SM-1 temperature and flow instrumentation are described (Task XIV Package Tests). These tests involve in-core steady state flow and temperature measurements, loss of flow transients, load transients, reduced primary system pressure operations and reduced element flow. The thermal and hydraulic conditions prevailing in these tests, including steady state and transient burnout rations, are developed. The effects of reduced system pressure and flow on the burnout ratios are determined as are the expected stuck rod conditions when Task XIV test elements are installed. The effect on the maximum credible accident is included and a recommendation to conduct these Task XIV package tests is made.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Bradley, P. L. & Coombe, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Report for the SM-1 Core II With Special Components

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the changes incurred in the SM-1 by the insertion of the SM-1 Core II and special components. The special components consist of impact specimens, a boron gradient rod, SM-2 elements, a PM-1-M element, and high burnup SM-1 Core I elements. The change in hazards, due to operation of SM-1 with Core II and the special components is evaluated. The analysis indicates there is no change in hazards.
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J.; Lee, D.; Segalman, I. & Robertson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Report for the SM-1 Core II Without Special Components

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the changes incurred in the SM-1 by the insertion of the SM-1 Core II without special components. The SM-1 Core II components were made to specifications very nearly identical to those of SM-1 Core I. The differences consist of europium absorber sections, internal europium flux suppressors in the control rod fuel elements, and low impurity cladding. Each of the SM-1 Core II components with the exception of the five absorber sections new in SM-1 Core I were subjected to a Zero Power Experiment at the Alco Critical Facility. The results of this experiment indicate that the SM-1 Core II will have nuclear characteristics very similar to that of the SM-1 Core I. Since SM-1 Core II will be operated with the same mode of rod control, in the same core support structure, and with the same primary coolant flow conditions, the thermal characteristics should be essentially identical to that of SM-1 Core I. Also, all kinetic characteristics of SM-1 Core II should be identical to those of SM-1 Core I. This report demonstrates that there is no increase in potential for a hazardous situation at SM-1 due to the replacement of SM-1 Core I by SM-1 Core II.
Date: April 19, 1961
Creator: Gallagher, J. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Report for Insertion of the PM-1-M-2 Element in the SM-1 Core II

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the Martin Co. PM-1-M-2 test element and analyzes the potential hazard incurred by its inclusion in the SM-1 Core II. A nuclear analysis develops power distributions and reactivity effects. Hydraulic and thermal analyses develop anticipated burnout heat flux ratios. An evaluation of the risk involved with the inclusion of this element is presented. In view of the narrow margin by which the PM-1-M-2 test element meets the minimum burnout ratios as defined by Alco Products, Inc., it is recommended that if time permits that critical facility design verification be accomplished. The PM-1-M-2 test element meets the minimum requirements for insertion in SM-1 Core II and in view of the importance of this element to the PM-1 and PM-3A program, should be considered for insertion.
Date: September 1, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Scoles, J. F.; Brondel, J. O. & Lee, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core II Without the SM-1 Core I High Burnup Elements and With the PM-1-M-2 Element

Description: Abstract: The removal of both SM-1 Core I high burnup elements from SM-1 Core II and the insertion of the PM-1-M-2 element and the SM-1 Core I spare element in SM-1 Core II is discussed. Nuclear and thermal characteristics of Core II with these changes are presented and conclusions related to the changes in the hazard potential are made. If the core change indicated by this report is made, local peaking factors will be decreased and burnout ratios will be increased. This, of course, in itself leads to a more conservative estimate of core safety. There is no conceivable reason why the perturbation may not be safely made in the SM-1 Core II.
Date: October 7, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Lee, D. H. & Mathews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core II With the SM-1 Core II High Burnup Elements Replaced with SM-1 Core I Spare Elements

Description: Abstract: The removal of both SM-1 Core I high burnup elements from the SM-1 Core II and the insertion of two SM-1 Core I spare elements i their places are discussed. Nuclear and thermal characteristics of Core II with the change are presented and conclusion related to the change in hazard potential are made. If the core change indicated by this report is made, local peaking factors will be decreased and burnout ratios will be increased. This, of course, in itself leads to a more conservative estimate of core safety. There is no conceivable reason why this perturbation may not be safely made in the SM-1 Core II.
Date: October 9, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Lee, D. H. & Matthews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core II With the SM-1 Core II With the Silver-Cadmium-Indium Control Rod Absorber Section

Description: Abstract: In the March-April 1962 shutdown of SM-1 Core II, the SM-28 element will be re-inserted in SM-1 Core II and an SM-1 Core I element will be removed. An SM-1 Core II europium absorber will be replaced by a Ag-Cd-In absorber, and surveillance specimens will be inserted above the core support structure. Analysis of these changes concludes that re-insertion of the SM-2B stationary element and insertion of surveillance specimens do not affect hazards potential previously defined for SM-1. Replacement of the europium absorber by the Ag-Cd-In absorber will have negligible effect on reactivity control worth of the rod. The absorber meat section is encapsulated to prevent exposure of silver alloy to the primary coolant; postulated release of silver due to a cladding defect, after 2 years irradiation in SM-1, would not cause a hazard such as to restrict access to the vapor container. Possibility of steam formation in the air gap between the absorber core and cladding, causing a cladding failure, is remote. Deformation of the absorber section sufficient to cause the rod to stick, would not impair the ability of the other rods to shut down the reactor safely.
Date: March 15, 1962
Creator: Stephenson, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Experiments and Analysis for SM-1 Core II With Special Components

Description: Abstract: This technical report contains a summary of analytical and experimental work performed on SM-1 Core II, with special components is presented. The effects of these special assemblies upon power distribution and core reactivity were calculated and compared to experimental measurements. A thermal analysis was conducted to determine steady state and transient performance of the special test components of the core as well as some of the hotter standard Core II components. Experimental work discussed includes individual reactivity effects of all the special elements and the total effect of all of the elements. Power mappings were also made and are reported.
Date: January 1, 1961
Creator: Lee, D. H.; Robinson, R. A. & Segalman, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Preliminary Technical Report SM-1 Core III with Type 3 Elements

Description: Abstract: This preliminary technical report covers design of the SM Type 3 element, its use .in.. SM-1 Core III, and planned use in the Type 3 Core for PM-2A. The Type:3 element characteristics are compared with Type 1 (SM-1 Core I) element nuclear, metallurgical, thermal and hydraulic characteristics and fabrication. The effect of using the Type 3 element in SM-1 Core III and. its planned use in a Type 3 Core for PM-2A is discussed with regard to operation, shielding, reactor safety and all conceivable special problems.
Date: March 30, 1962
Creator: Inglima, J. N.; Beam, R. H.; Davidson, S. L. & Edgar, E. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

PWR Preliminary Design for PL-3

Description: Abstract: The pressurized water reactor preliminary design presented in this volume is the preferred design developed under Phase I of the PL-3 contact. This technical report presents plant design criteria, summary of plant selection, plant description, reactor and primary system description, thermal and hydraulic analysis, nuclear analysis, control and instrumentation description, shielding description, auxiliary systems, power plant equipment, waste disposal, buildings and tunnels, services, operation and maintenance, logistics, erection, cost information and a training program outline.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Humphries, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

PL-3 Phase I Task 3 Research and Development Report

Description: Abstract: This technical report summarizes the results of research and development tasks performed during Phase I of this contract and presents recommendations for future development work. Work is reported in the areas of plant assembly and relocation, housings and footings, waste heat dissipation, instrumentation, refueling systems, waste disposal, shielding, core nuclear thermal and hydraulic studies, gaseous waste processing (BWR), and critical experiments on a 5 x 5 array of Type 3 fuel elements.
Date: March 12, 1962
Creator: Humphries, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Silver - Cadmium - Indium Absorber Development

Description: Abstract: This technical report covers development of an AG-Cd-In alternate absorber section for Army Type SM reactors. It describes the absorber material composition and the geometric configuration. It gives the nuclear and thermal analyses supporting this configuration and a detailed description of the manufacturing practice employed in fabricating the final design component.
Date: June 13, 1962
Creator: Shaw, R. A. & Harris, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Power Distributions for Type 3 Replacement Cores for SM-1, SM-1A and PM-2A

Description: Abstract: The most adverse power distribution and power peaking factors have been developed for Type 3 replacement cores for SM-1, SM-1A, and PM-2A. Also included is the 37 element Type 3 core for SM-1, which is known as SM-1 Core III and is a prototype of a Type 3 core for PM-2A. The power distributions were compared with measured distributions obtained on type 3 fuel elements in SM-1, SM-1A and PM-2A core configurations. Using the measured data as a standard, correction factors were obtained and applied to the analytical predictions of the most adverse power distribution.
Date: July 25, 1962
Creator: Oggerino, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Hazards Report for PM-2A Core II

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the changes incurred in the PM-2A by the planned insertion of PM-2A Core II and the replacement of the startup and check sources. PM-2A Core II components were fabricated to specifications very nearly identical to those of PM-2A Core I. The essential difference in the cores is the boron loading which permits PM-2A Core II to meet a "one-stuck rod criteria" at beginning of life. This core has been subjected to a zero power experiment and loading procedures have been developed at the Alco Critical Facility. The nuclear and thermal and hydraulic characteristics are essentially identical to those of Core I and the replacement of the startup and check sources represent no increase in the potential for or magnitude of a hazardous situation.
Date: June 21, 1962
Creator: Coombe, John R. & Stephenson, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Mid-Year Summary Report October 1, 1960-March 31, 1961 Army Pwr Support and Development Program

Description: Abstract: A cyclic stress analysis of the SM-1 primary system was carried out. Problems encountered in the fabrication of PM-2A Core II and SM-lA Core II are described, and the results of an examination of damaged SM-lA Core I stationary fuel elements reported. A preliminary study of the radiation damage to SM-1 reactor vessel was made and the possibility of annealing the vessel discussed. Performance analyses are presented for five cores: SM-1 Core, SM-1 Core 1 rearranged and spiked, SM-1 Core II with special components, PM-2A Core 1, and SM- 1A Core 1. Preliminary critical experiments were made with SM-2 elements in a SM- 1 core configuration and nuclear and thermal analyses of the use of SM-2 elements in SM-1, SM-1A, and PM-2A completed. A throttling steam calorimeter was selected for measuring moisture carry-over on the PM-2A steam generator. Test procedures for evaluating the shielding of the SM-1, SM-lA, and PM-2A plants are summarized. Radiochemical and chemical analyses of SM-1 coolant and crud are summarized, and methods of activity control discussed. Preliminary results of studies of the properties of reactor pressure vessels under irradiation and no irradiation conditions are summarized briefly.
Date: June 2, 1961
Creator: Hoover, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Investigation of Local Boiling of SM-1

Description: Abstract; SM-1 Reactor Core I Rearranged and Spiked, and Core II with Special Components were analyzed under various off-design conditions to induce nucleate boiling. The steady state code, STDY-3, written for the thermal analysis of pressurized water cores, was employed for the analysis. The code performs a complete steady state parallel channel thermal analysis for both nominal and hot channels. Thermal characteristics of individual elements were investigated while changing the parameters of primary pressure or inlet temperature to introduce the phenomenon of nucleate boiling in the the core. Reduction of system pressures to 1000, 800, and 600 psia and increasing core inlet temperatures to 465 and 500 degree F were studied as the means to induce boiling in the core. This analysis indicates that SM-1 Core I Rearranged and Spiked can be safely operated at the reduced pressure of 910 psia without introducing extensive boiling in the core. SM-1 Core II with Special Components can be operated at 800 psia or at an inlet temperature of 500 degree F at 1200 psia.
Date: June 20, 1961
Creator: Bradley, P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

SM-2 Full Scale Flow Studies Termination Report

Description: Abstract: Hydrodynamic flow studies were conducted on a full scale model of the SM-2 reactor vessel and core. Test fluid was water at 200 psi and 200 degree F. Test facilities, model, and instrumentation design are discussed. Flow distribution in the stationary fuel elements, lattices, and control rods of the second pass was investigated. Pressure losses through the various core components were measured and are compared with calculated values. Observed over-all pressure drop was 71 feet of water at 200 degree F, 31% higher than predicted, part of which was due to presence of instrument leads. Element to element flow distribution varied approximately +-8% from pass average. Channel-to-channel stationary element flow distribution varied approximately +-10% from element average and control rod flow distribution varied from +-8.9% to +-6.4 and -11.6% depending upon rod locations. These variations exceed the original goals of a +-10% and +-12% combined deviation for stationary and control rod elements respectively, but are satisfactory in relation to thermal design. There was no indication of unsatisfactory structural performance of any components under hydrodynamic loadings up to 130% of design values. The test program was terminated after determining flow distribution in the reference core design, omitting any work on the less critical first pass. Based on present understanding of the causes for the observed non-uniformity in distribution, achievement of the target tolerances throughout the reactor should be possible if the test program is to be continued. Recommendations for some of the modifications are contained in this report.
Date: July 30, 1961
Creator: Christenson, J. A.; Richards, W. M. S. & Davidson, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Steady State and Transient Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of SM-2 Termination Report

Description: Abstract: Thermal characteristics of the SM-2 core were analyzed at steady state and loss of flow conditions. For steady state operation, the steady state code STDY-3 was used. For transients during a loss of flow accident, ART-02, a one-dimensional code, was used. This analysis indicates the SM-2 core is safe from burnout under steady state operation at design power level (28 tMW) because (1) no nucleate boiling exists, and (2) the minimum burnout ratio is above 2.0. The core is safe from burnout under loss of flow transient because the minimum burnout ratio in the hottest element channel of 1. 82 is above the minimum design criteria of 1. 5.
Date: September 8, 1961
Creator: Segalman, I. & Bradley, P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Startup Testing of the PM-2A Nuclear Power Plant

Description: Abstract: A detailed description of the PM-2A reactor, primary system and instrumentation is presented. A general description of the secondary system and plant arrangement at Camp Century, Greenland is included. The results of the startup physics, shielding, thermal and hydraulics and radiochemistry test are presented. the analysis performed on the shielding and thermal and hydraulic tests is included. The shielding problem at startup and the shielding modification made to the plant are described along with the radiation measurements made in these areas.
Date: March 31, 1962
Creator: McCool, W. J.; Ryan, R. M.; Richards, W. M. S.; Bradley, P. L.; Stephenson, L. D. & Cox, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Summary Report of Physics Measurements on SM-1 Core I

Description: Abstract: This technical report summarizes all core physics experiments performed on SM-1 Core I and SM-2 Rearranged and Spiked Core I throughout core life. These measurements were obtained on site during the 16.4 MWYR lifetime of SM-1 Core I and 1.6 MWYR lifetime of SM-1 Rearranged and Spiked Core I. SM-1 Core I was the first stainless steel - UO2 dispersion core to burn out in the Army Nuclear Power Program. Experimental techniques are described and a complete history of fuel movements in the core presented. Measurements include control rod bank positions during all core conditions, temperature and pressure coefficients, control rod calibrations, transient poison effects, source multiplication, and stuck rod positions. The effect of core rearrangement and spiking on core reactivity and core life is also reported. Applicable measurements from the SM-1 zero power experiments are included.
Date: February 6, 1962
Creator: Weiss, S. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Back to Top of Screen