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Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

Description: The bromide anion has been used extensively as a tracer for mapping the flow of groundwater. It has proven to be both a safe and reliable groundwater tracer. The goal in this study is to find several tracing compounds with characteristics similar to the bromide anion to be used in multiple well tracing tests. Four groups of fluorinated organic acids were selected as candidates for groundwater tracers. These groups include fluorinated benzoic acids (FBA), fluorinated salicylic acids (FSA), fluorinated toluic acids (FTA), and fluorinated cinnamic acids (FCA). These compounds have been shown to move readily with the flow of water and do not adsorb to soil. They are also non-toxic. In this study, the retention of the fluorinated organic acids on to a soil column is compared to that of the bromide ion. The time required for the elution of each analyte from the soil column is measured using a UV-Vis detector. The soils consist of the light, medium, and dark tuffs used in the batch study. The work performed during this quarter consists of the continuation of the batch studies for the fluorinated benzoic acids and column studies for several potential tracer compounds.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Stetzenbach, K. & Farnham, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fingerprinting of groundwater by ICP-MS. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: This document is a progress report for the Fingerprinting of Ground Water by ICP-MS project during the time period from October 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. The groundwater fingerprinting study has been expanded by including samples from more wells on the Nevada Test Site and from the region east and north of Yucca Mountain as well as from several more springs in the area. Geochemical analyses of these new samples were performed in order to more thoroughly evaluate the regional groundwater chemistry and flow regime. The results of the geochemical analyses are described in this report.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Stetzenbach, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study. Progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

Description: Fluorinated organic acids were utilized in a test study as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Project. Fluorinated acids included cinnamic acid; benzoic acid, and toluic acid. Results are discussed pertaining to retention time, elution time, and stability.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Stetzenbach, K. & Farnham, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fingerprinting of ground water by ICP-MS. Progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

Description: This report contains the results of the chemical analysis of water from springs in Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada. Each spring was sampled two to five times between July, 1992 and March, 1994. Samples were collected and analyzed by the Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) Environmental/Analytical Laboratory, at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Chemical analyses included major cations and anions and trace elements. The analyses for the major anions were performed by atomic absorption (AA) spectrophotometry, the anions by ion chromatography (IC) and the trace elements by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The standard operating procedures (SOP) used for each method are included. The concentrations of the analytes range from the part per million (ppm) levels for the major cations and anions to the sub part per trillion (ppt) levels for a number of the trace elements. Approximately nine orders of magnitude are covered from the highest to the lowest concentrations. The formation of molecular species in the ICP-MS, plasma produces false positives for a number of elements. None of the elements reported here, that the HRC is aware of, are subject to these isobaric interferences, with the exception of europium (Eu). Europium values are reported for samplings four and five where the HRC used an extraction procedure that extracted Eu but not barium (Ba), whose oxides cause the interference. In order to overcome matrix effects in the samples from high concentrations of cations and other elements, the method of standard additions was instituted for the analysis of samplings four and five as an alternative to external standardization. It is believed that these data, and those for the Death Valley Spring reported in January, 1995 are the first efforts at such a comprehensive trace element analysis of ground waters. HRC has had to develop, ...
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Stetzenbach, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fingerprinting of ground water by ICP-MS. Final report

Description: Geochemical investigations of groundwater sources and mixing have relied heavily on the major solutes (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, {plus_minus}F{sup -}, Br{sup -} , PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}), stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O), and, occasionally, radionuclides such as tritium ({sup 3}H) and carbon-14 ({sup 14}C). Problems with geochemical interpretations of such analyses arise from the low number of major solutes (typically between 7 and 8 are reported) which results in insufficient information for definitive interpretations. Moreover, isotopic analyses can be very costly. We present an alternative approach using numerous trace elements that occur naturally in all ground waters and that can now be measured rapidly and routinely using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at the Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) at a fraction of the cost of isotopic analysis. The tremendous number of solutes that can be measured by ICP-MS necessitates the examination of each data set by multivariate statistical techniques that help to reduce the data and illuminate correlations between trace elements and, therefore, ground waters of similar and/or different origins.
Date: April 30, 1996
Creator: Stetzenbach, K. & Johannesson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study; Progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

Description: This report is in two parts one for the fluorinated benzoic acids and one for the fluorinated aliphatic acids. The assumptions made in the report regarding the amount of tracer that will be used, dilution of the tracer during the test and the length of exposure (if any) to individuals drinking the water were made by the authors. These assumptions must really come from the USGS hydrologists in charge of the c-well tracer testing program. Accurate estimates of dilution of the tracer during the test are also important because of solubility limitations of some of the tracers. Three of the difluorobenzoic acids have relatively low solubilities and may not be usable if the dilution estimates are large. The toxicologist that reviewed the document agreed with our conclusion that the fluorinated benzoic and toluic acids do not represent a health hazard if used under the conditions as outlined in the report. We are currently testing 15 of these compounds, and if even if three difluorobenzoic acids cannot be used because of solubility limitations we will still have 12 tracers. The toxicologist felt that the aliphatic fluorinated acids potentially present more of a health risk than the aromatic. This assessment was based on the fact of a known allergic response to halothane anesthetic. This risk, although minimal, is known and he felt that was enough reason to recommend against their use. The authors feel that the toxicologists interpretation of this risk was overly conservative, however, we will not go against his recommendation at this time for the following reasons. First, without the aliphatic compounds we still have 12 to 15 fluorinated aromatic acids which, should be enough for the c-well tests. Second, to get a permit to use aliphatic compounds would undoubtedly require a hearing which could be quite lengthy.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Dombrowski, T. & Stetzenbach, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fingerprinting of ground water by ICP-MS; Progress report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

Description: The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of minor constituents of ground water and vadose zone water such as the rare earths and some lighter elements, to delineate ground water flow paths and recharge zones in the Yucca Mountain area. The major piece of equipment required to perform this task is an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). This instrument has been purchased and should be delivered in February 1992. During this reporting period, three ICP-MS systems were evaluated the Perkin-Elmer Elan 5000 was chosen. As part of the evaluation process, samples of J-13 water and tuff were prepared and analyzed by each of the competing companies. This gave us the opportunity to make initial observations as to the number of compounds and their concentrations present in the J-13 samples. Table 1 lists the results of the analysis of J-13 water. Once the ICP-MS is operational, we will be collecting and analyzing waters from existing wells, springs, and seeps to determine which of these minor chemical constituents will be most helpful in establishing chemical signatures for the ground waters beneath Yucca Mountain.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Stetzenbach, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical laboratory and mobile sampling platform

Description: This is the final report for the Analytical Laboratory and Mobile Sampling Platform project. This report contains only major findings and conclusions resulting from this project. Detailed reports of all activities performed for this project were provided to the Project Office every quarter since the beginning of the project. This report contains water chemistry data for samples collected in the Nevada section of Death Valley National Park (Triangle Area Springs), Nevada Test Site springs, Pahranagat Valley springs, Nevada Test Site wells, Spring Mountain springs and Crater Flat and Amargosa Valley wells.
Date: April 30, 1996
Creator: Stetzenbach, K. & Smiecinski, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical laboratory and mobile sampling platform. Progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

Description: This paper is a quarterly report describing the use of a new soil gas collection device which allows the collection of soil gas in the field for later analysis in the laboratory. It describes the installation of this sampling device and the procedure for setting the probe, extraction of soil gas beneath the surface, and sealing of the soil gas for transport. The sites used for initial testing was the top of Yucca Mountain and Crystal Spring in Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. The results from this initial test showed no volatile matter present in the soil at these locations.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Stetzenbach, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PCR detection of groundwater bacteria associated with colloidal transport

Description: Colloidal transport may increase the amount of contaminant material than that which could be transported by water flow alone. The role of colloids in groundwater contaminant transport is complicated and may involve many different processes, including sorption of elements onto colloidal particles, coagulation/dissolution, adsorption onto solid surfaces, filtration, and migration. Bacteria are known to concentrate minerals and influence the transport of compounds in aqueous environments and may also serve as organic colloids, thereby influencing subsurface transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. The initial phase of the project consisted of assembling a list of bacteria capable of sequestering or facilitating mineral transport. The development and optimization of the PCR amplification assay for the detection of the organisms of interest, and the examination of regional groundwaters for those organisms, are presented for subsequent research.
Date: February 29, 1996
Creator: Cruz-Perez, P.; Stetzenbach, L. D. & Alvarez, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain; Second quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

Description: The primary effort of this past quarter was to develop a procedure where accumulated data files could be evaluated to determine the naming consistency and inter-relationships of the various species which have been identified by the Microbial Identification System (MIDI) system. This involved a series of steps, including the clustering of similarly named organisms in a dendrogram format to determine how closely similarly named isolates are related. The experience of other researchers using the MIDI system has shown that clusters which are joined at a Euclidian distance of 10 or less belong to the same species. Strains which are very similar cluster at less than 6 Euclidian units and clusters below two units have nearly identical fatty acid patterns. When the dendrograms derived from the springs were scrutinized, some organisms were found which did not match the pattern of their named group. Then a decision was made whether to rename the isolates and exclude them from the group or redefine the group. This decision was assisted by plotting the principal components derived from an analysis of the fatty acid composition of members of the genus. Each species can be examined by the same procedure to determine group homogeneity. In these 2-dimensional plots members of the same species are roughly bounded by a box of 100 squared units while closely related strains are grouped more tightly together. The 2-dimensional plot of isolates of Micrococcus luteus demonstrates the presence of three identifiable sub-species.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Stetzenbach, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

Description: Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Stetzenbach, K. & Farnham, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization project: Quality Assurance Project Plan, Revision 1; Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

Description: The purpose of this work is to identify and characterize candidate conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for experiments to be conducted at the Yucca Mountain C-well complex. During this quarter the main effort was directed towards rewriting the quality assurance program in preparation for a review and audit by the USGS. However, due to budget constraints the review and audit were not carried out. The tracer QA plan and standard operating procedures (SOPs) were revised and copies are included in the report. Instrumental problems were encountered and corrected with the addition of new integration and sample control software. In the sampling, there was an unexplained peak in the chromatograms of the tracers being tested in the light tuff. This was not correctable and these experiments will be repeated in the next quarter.
Date: December 13, 1993
Creator: Stetzenbach, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Study; Progress report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

Description: Studies continued on organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization project. Tracers studied include benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. The main focus of the work performed during the time period from 07/01/91 to 12/31/91 has been the continuation of (1) LC-MS optimization for tracer identification, (2) batch sorption and degradation studies, (3) neoprene tubing evaluation studies, and (4) soil column evaluation of tracer compounds. All of these areas of research (except perhaps the neoprene tubing evaluation) are ongoing and will continue throughout the coming year.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Dombrowski, T. & Stetzenbach, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain; Fourth quarterly report

Description: Bacteria isolated from water samples collected in a series of ground water springs have been isolated, enumerated, and identified from twenty six sites. Ten sites were sampled in Death Valley, California and sixteen sites were sampled in Ash Meadows, Nevada. Replicate samples were collected and tested from four locations. All water samples were collected in conjunction with the HRC chemistry group conducting ground water fingerprinting studies. The protocol for collection of samples, as described in the 3rd quarterly report, specified aseptic collection in sterile screw-capped containers and transportation on ice to the HRC microbiology laboratory. All samples were inoculated by spread plating onto R2A (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) bacterial culture medium. the R2A plates were then incubated at 28{degrees} for 5--7 days and colonies wee counted with the aid of a grid template and magnifying lens.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Stetzenbach, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: More than 1100 bacterial isolates were obtained over a two year period from 31 springs in a region along the southern boarder of California and Nevada. Water samples were collected from 17 springs in Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and 14 springs in Death Valley National Park. Bacteria isolated from these samples were subjected to extraction and gas chromatography to determine the cellular fatty acid profile of each isolate. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extracted from cell membranes were separated and classified using the Hewlett Packard by gas chromatography. The FAME profiles of each isolate were then subjected to cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages. During this quarter the relatedness of FAME patterns of bacterial isolates were examined at the genus level by counting the number of clusters produced in a MIDI dendrogram at a Euclidian distance of 25. This information was then used to determine microbiological relationships among springs.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Stetzenbach, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study. Progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: Laboratory work on tracers to be used for C-Well tracer tests is complete. Solubilities for fluorinated benzoic acids in J13 water were determined and the stability of these compounds to both degradation and sorption on ground tuff measured in batch and column tests.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Stetzenbach, K. & Farnham, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain; Third quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

Description: Bacteria isolated from ground water samples taken from 31 springs during 1993 were collected and processed according to procedures described in earlier reports. These procedures required aseptic collection of surface water samples in sterile screw-capped containers, transportation to the HRC microbiology laboratory, and culture by spread plating onto R2A medium. The isolates were further processed for identification using a gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extracted from cell membranes. This work generated a presumptive identification of 113 bacterial species distributed among 45 genera using a database obtained from Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, Delaware (MIDI). A preliminary examination of the FAME data was accomplished using cluster analysis and principal component analysis software obtained from MIDI. Typically, bacterial strains that cluster at less than 10 Euclidian distance units have fatty acid patterns consistent among members of the same species. Thus an organism obtained from one source can be recognized if it is isolated again from the same or any other source. This makes it possible to track the distribution of organisms and monitor environmental conditions or fluid transport mechanisms. Microorganisms are seldom found as monocultures in natural environments. They are more likely to be closely associated with other genera with complementary metabolic requirements. An understanding of the indigenous microorganism population is useful in understanding subtle changes in the environment. However, classification of environmental organisms using traditional methods is not ideal because differentiation of species with small variations or genera with very similar taxonomic characteristics is beyond the capabilities of traditional microbiological methods.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Stetzenbach, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fingerprinting of ground water by ICP-MS. Progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

Description: Data for the Ash Meadows six week study, eight wells south and west of the NTS, J-12, J-13 and Tippipah, Topopah and Cane springs have been verified and are included in this report. The three NTS springs, Tippipah, Topopah and Cane, are being studied under a grant from the NTS, but the data are also included here because of the proximity to the Yucca Mountain Site. Latitude and longitude for each well and the three NTS springs are provided.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Stetzenbach, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface markers. [Quarterly report, January 1--June 30, 1995]

Description: This research examined information on natural phenomena and human activities to ultimately recommend specific sites for surface markers to warn future generations of the potential hazards of disposed waste. Literature pertaining to previous marker designs was reviewed and summarized. This literature primarily addressed the recommendations of a consultant team for developing a marker system to warn future generations about radioactive waste (WIPP, New Mexico). Literature on archeological markers (e.g., Nazca lines in Peru, pyramids) and their durability was also covered. Application to Yucca Mountain is discussed; sites for possible placement of surface markers are considered.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Andrews, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization study. [Quarterly] progress report, April 1, 1995--June 3, 1995

Description: The focus for this quarter has been on completing the laboratory studies in preparation for the C-Well tracer tests. These studies include measuring the solubilities for each of the fluorinated benzoic acids as well as determining the stabilities of these compounds through both batch and column testing. A batch test for four pyridone compounds was also initiated. The Tracer QA procedures were approved by the YM USGS on May 24, 1995. The batch testing was repeated using these procedures.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Stetzenbach, K. & Farnham, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical laboratory and mobile sampling platform progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: The purpose of this surveillance was to determine traceability of various pieces of the study to one another and to any standards that may be used; as well as record keeping quality, and the use of good laboratory practices. The specific goals of the surveillance were to assure that the scientific work be documented sufficiently that it could be continued by another scientist in the absence of the originator; and be repeated at another time with the same results. The results of the surveillance indicate that these goals are basically being met. Some concerns were raised by myself and were met with a positive attitude and eagerness to improve the study documentation. Actions required to improve the study record keeping and documentation are detailed in the Summary and listed in Corrective actions. A brief follow-up assessment will be scheduled to review the adequacy and effectiveness of the actions taken for this project.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Stetzenbach, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department