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Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Atlanta

Description: The Atlanta Clean City was the first to join the program in 1993, and has been successfully spreading the word about the benefits of alternative fuels ever since. They have already surpassed their year 2000 goal of operating more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). More than 30 stakeholders continue to help spur the Atlanta AFV market development by implementing innovative alternative fuel projects. Stakeholders actively support legislation that encourages the use of AFVs and sponsor workshops on advancing the choice.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Chicago

Description: The Chicago area coalition marks its five-year anniversary in 1999 as a member of the Clean Cities Program. Their progress in the last five years has been remarkable as they advance the alternative fuel and vehicle markets, increase coalition membership, help support new alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) legislation, and educate fleet managers. The coalition boasts more than 90 stakeholders, including industry, government, environmental and academic organizations, and membership continues to grow. Thanks to dedicated coalition members' efforts, a variety of AFVs can be seen on Chicago's streets, including transit and school buses, taxicabs, sedans, vans, and trucks.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

Description: Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Denver

Description: The cities of Denver and Boulder comprise the Denver Clean Cities Coalition. They are committed to cleaner fuels, greener fleets, and bluer skies. More than 25 active stakeholders, including local government agencies, utilities, and private organizations, work together to advance alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles in the region. The city of Denver boasts several neighborhood electric vehicles for employees' use around town. The coalition has also sponsored alternative fuel workshops, special events, and has been successful in passing major alternative fuels legislation.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Long Island

Description: This coalition was the culmination a two-year joint effort by Long Island Lighting Company and the Long Island Regional Planning Board. The group's first alternative fuel project was a single fill compressed natural gas station and a converted Chevrolet Caprice. Since then, the coalition has made steady progress in the alternative fuel and alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market. They have over 400 AFVs and 21 fueling stations in their operating area. Thanks to strong partnerships with local public and private organizations, they've also passed some of the most progressive state tax incentive legislation for AFVs in the country.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Philadelphia

Description: Always going beyond expectations, the Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program provides its stakeholders with excellent resources to implement alternative fuel projects. They are known as one of the most successful coalitions in the Clean Cities Program, and are a member-funded organization comprised of large government organizations, utilities, and non-profit groups in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The coalition aggressively promotes alternative fuel vehicle acquisitions; their public outreach efforts target all stakeholders and provide numerous resources to advance the alternative fuel choice.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Los Angeles

Description: As the second largest city in the United States, Los Angeles has more than 9 million motor vehicles on the road, accounting for up to 60% of the region's air pollution. Clean Cities Los Angeles has pioneered efforts in implementing innovation pollution reduction strategies, using alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). More than 475 compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and electric vehicles (EVs) have been incorporated into city fleets. They've also launched Quick Charge L.A., a comprehensive EV infrastructure program that has established almost 200 EV charging stations at workplaces, event centers, rail stations, and other sites throughout the city. Clean Cities Los Angeles also leads the way in securing grants for AFV projects.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Salt Lake City

Description: Since its designation as a national Clean City in 1994, Salt Lake Clean Cities has put more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on community streets. The 82 business, nonprofit, and government agencies that comprise the coalition are all dedicated to cleaning the air by reducing vehicle exhaust. Salt Lake Clean Cities has the third largest compressed natural gas and propane-refueling infrastructure in the country, with 98 locations available. They sponsor an annual ''Spring Soiree'' to increase public awareness about the program and educate the public about the benefits of alternative fuel and AFVs.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: San Diego

Description: Stakeholders in the San Diego coalition have already helped remove about 125 tons of nitrogen oxides and 867 tons of carbon dioxide every year since their inception in 1996. They are proud of their numerous accomplishments, including the San Diego Gas and Electric's installation of a solar chargeport, which can charge up to six electric vehicles simultaneously and at no cost. San Diego Regional Clean Cities Coalition will also soon be home to the first alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) showroom in the world, as the Regional Transportation Center plans to open during the summer of 2000. The million-dollar facility will display the latest AFV models, rent and demonstrate vehicles, and offer a fueling and service center with public access. An educational center is also part of the plan.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on Biomass Drying Technology

Description: Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.
Date: January 12, 1999
Creator: Amos, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling and Energy Recovery Pilot Project: Project Report and Future Efforts

Description: A novel bioprocessing technology was developed that efficiently converts negative-value organic waste, including domestic refuse, animal manures, industrial wastes, food processing wastes, and municipal sewage sludge into saleable products, including fuel gas and compost. This technology is known as high solids anaerobic digestion and was developed at NREL from fundamental research to laboratory- and intermediate-scale system evaluations.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Rivard, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

Description: The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Mann, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Start-Up Experience

Description: The Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with several industry partners, are collaborating with SuperShuttle of Denver, Colorado, to evaluate natural gas vans added to the SuperShuttle fleet in 1999. Brand new (1999 model year) dedicated and bi-fuel compressed natural gas (CNG) vans manufactured by Ford Motor Company will be operated side-by-side with several similar gasoline vehicles in normal revenue service. Once the study is complete, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will analyze and compile the results for release.
Date: May 18, 1999
Creator: Eudy, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Save with Solar Newsletter, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Spring 1999

Description: ''Save with Solar'' is a quarterly bulletin produced under the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program for all those who are planning or working on installations of solar and other renewable energy technologies in the Federal government's facilities. Contents include technical information about today's solar technologies and information about the programs, policies, procurement practices, and incentives that support the deployment of renewable energy in the Federal sector. Among the topics covered in this issue is a two-page article about how solar energy is being used by the National Science Foundation in NSF outposts in Antarctica. The newsletter also describes projects that meet the goals of the President's Million Solar Roofs Initiative.
Date: May 26, 1999
Creator: Eiffert, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for Factors Determining the Photodegradation in High-Efficiency a-Si:H-Based Solar Cells; Annual Technical Progress Report, 16 January 1998-15 January 1999

Description: This report describes studies on glow discharge (GD) and hot-wire a-Si-based samples by the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill during Phase I. We have characterized H-bonding and its light-induced changes by using infrared (IR) and differential IR (DIR). For the less stable film, there is a simultaneous decrease {approx} 2040 cm{sup -1} and increase {approx} 1880 cm{sup -1}; for the more-stable samples, the DIR near 2000 cm{sup -1} increases upon light-soaking. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) dipolar relaxation time T{sub 1D} of the clustered H is slightly shorter, but the T{sub 1D} of the isolated H is 4 times longer in hot-wire (HW) film than that in GD films. The results indicate that the local motion of the isolated H is much slower in HW compared to that in GD film. High-Temperature NMR results show a second narrow line (less than 1 kHz wide) as the temperature is raised. In stress measurements, it is clearly shown that HW films with lower hydrogen content show lower compression. A photoinduced increase of the compression on the order of 10{sup -4} of the initial value upon light-soaking was found to be similar in all a-Si:H films which exhibit different amounts of Staebler-Wronski (SW) degradation. Hence, the volume expansion is not directly related to SW effect. Also, we have measured the electric field profile in a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H solar cells, and the results agreed with computer simulation.
Date: June 18, 1999
Creator: Han, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short-Term Power Fluctuation of Wind Turbines: Analyzing Data from the German 250-MW Measurement Program from the Ancillary Services Viewpoint

Description: Short-term power fluctuations from wind farms may affect interconnected-grid operating costs and stability. With the increasing availability of wind power worldwide, this has become a concern for some utilities. Under electric industry restructuring in the United States, the impact of these fluctuations will be evaluated by examining provisions and costs of ancillary services for wind power. However, the magnitude of the impact and the effect of aggregation of multiple turbines are not well quantified due to a lack of actual wind farm power data. This paper analyzes individual turbine and aggregate power output data from the German ''250-MW Wind'' data project. Electric system load following and regulation impacts are examined as a function of the number of turbines and turbine spacing in order to quantify the impacts of aggregation. The results show a significant decrease in the relative system regulation burden with increasing number of turbines, even if the turbines are in close proximity.
Date: July 26, 1999
Creator: Ernst, B. (Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik); Wan, Y.-H. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) & Kirby, B. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998

Description: This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.
Date: December 17, 1998
Creator: Kroposki, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User`s manual for TMY2s: Derived from the 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base

Description: This report is a user`s manual that describes typical meteorological year (TMY) data sets derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base. The TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. The intended use if for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Section 1 of the manual provides general information about the TMYs; Section 2 lists the stations and provides station identifying information and classification; Section 3 details the contents of the TMY2 files and provides the hourly records of data values; Section 4 compares TMY2 with 30-year data sets; Appendices provide procedures used to develop TMYs and a table to convert SI data to other units.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Marion, W. & Urban, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using landfill gas for energy: Projects that pay

Description: Pending Environmental Protection Agency regulations will require 500 to 700 landfills to control gas emissions resulting from decomposing garbage. Conversion of landfill gas to energy not only meets regulations, but also creates energy and revenue for local governments.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Texas Bi-Fuel Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pickup Study: Final Report

Description: Alternative fuels may be an effective means for decreasing America's dependence on imported oil; creating new jobs; and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, exhaust toxics, and ozone-forming hydrocarbons. However, data regarding in-use fuel economy and maintenance characteristics of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been limited in availability. This study was undertaken to compare the operating and maintenance characteristics of bi-fuel vehicles (which use liquefied petroleum gas, or propane, as the primary fuel) to those of nominally identical gasoline vehicles. In Texas, liquefied petroleum gas is one of the most widely used alternative fuels. The largest fleet in Texas, operated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), has hundred of bi-fuel (LPG and gasoline) vehicles operating in normal daily service. The project was conducted over a 2-year period, including 18 months (April 1997-September 1998) of data collection on operations, maintenance, and fuel consumption of the vehicles under study. This report summarizes the project and its results.
Date: May 24, 1999
Creator: Huang, Y.; Matthews, R. D. & Popova, E. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BTS Case Study: The Galloway Family Home

Description: Case study of an energy-efficient Habitat for Humanity house that uses 30% less energy than conventional residential construction. The project was part of the Jimmy Carter Work Project in rural Appalachia in 1997.
Date: March 8, 1999
Creator: Group, Brandegee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BTS Case Study: Prairie Crossing Homes

Description: More than three hundred homes are being built in a northwest Chicago suburb that demonstrate the ''whole house'' design concept. The homes cost approximately the same as competitive houses of the same size but use approximately 50% less energy for heating and cooling.
Date: March 8, 1999
Creator: Brandegee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department