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Commercialization of CIS-based thin-film PV: Phase 1 annual technical status report, August 1998--August 1999

Description: Outstanding progress toward reaching NREL/DOE goals was achieved during this subcontract: (1) Siemens Solar Industries (SSI) introduced two new CIS products to the SSI ST family of products, including an approximately 1-ft {times} 4-ft, 40-Wp module. (2) Process data for the production of circuit plates for the CIS family of products demonstrates improved efficiency and exhibits generally good control for extended periods. (3) The first subcontract milestone and the deliverables for this subcontract phase were met by delivering product samples that are larger and of higher efficiency than originally promised for this subcontract phase. (4) Capacity has been increased while also increasing the average efficiency of 1-ft {times} 4-ft circuit plates from 10.8% to 11.2%. (5) Yield improvements have been made by implementing improvements in processes and manufacturing protocols. (6) FM and UL approval was obtained for the ST series of products. (7) Long-term outdoor stability has been demonstrated at NREL, where 30-cm {times} 30-cm and 30-cm {times} 120-cm modules have undergone testing for more than 11 years. (8) SSI is addressing near-term and longer-term R&D topics through SSI's participation in NREL CIS National Team activities. (9) NREL confirmed a world-record 12.1% conversion efficiency large-area (3651 cm{sup 2}) CIS module. (10) R&D Magazine awarded the prestigious R&D 100 Award to SSI, NREL, and the California Energy Commission for the SSI family of CIS modules. CIS has demonstrated the prerequisites for a commitment to large-scale commercialization - high efficiency, long-term outdoor stability, and attractive cost projections. Remaining challenges are to: scale the processes to even larger areas, reach higher production capacity, demonstrate in-service durability over even longer times, and advance the fundamental understanding of CIS-based materials and devices, with the goal of further efficiency improvements for future products.
Date: June 29, 2000
Creator: Tarrant, D. E. & Gay, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative analysis of alternative means for removing noncondensable gases from flashed-steam geothermal power plants

Description: This is a final report on a screening study to compare six methods of removing noncondensable gases from direct-use geothermal steam power plants. This report defines the study methodologies and compares the performance and economics of selected gas-removal systems. Recommendations are presented for follow-up investigations and implementation of some of the technologies discussed. The specific gas-removal methods include five vacuum system configurations using the conventional approach of evacuating gas/vapor mixtures from the power plant condenser system and a system for physical separation of steam and gases upstream of the power turbine. The study focused on flashed-steam applications, but the results apply equally well to flashed-steam and dry-steam geothermal power plant configurations. Two gas-removal options appear to offer profitable economic potential. The hybrid vacuum system configurations and the reboiler process yield positive net present value results over wide-ranging gas concentrations. The hybrid options look favorable for both low-temperature and high-temperature resource applications. The reboiler looks profitable for low-temperature resource applications for gas levels above about 20,000 parts per million by volume. A vacuum system configuration using a three-stage turbocompressor battery may be profitable for low-temperature resources, but results show that the hybrid system is more profitable. The biphase eductor alternative cannot be recommended for commercialization at this time.
Date: June 20, 2000
Creator: Vorum, M. & Fitzler, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison and case study of capacity credit algorithms for intermittent generators

Description: As the electric utility industry moves toward a new structure the responsibility of providing a reliable portfolio of generating resources may be shifted among the various entities m the industry To evaluate whether to undertake a construction project for new generating resources, utilities have traditionally used sophisticated models to assist in the comparison of alternative resources. It is not clear how this type of evaluation will be carried out after the restructuring dust has settled. What is clear, however, is that the market will require some way to measure capacity credit of new power plants, and future contracts will contain provisions under which buyer and seller must agree on capacity measures. This paper co the traditional capacity credit calculations with algorithms that are not nearly so labor intensive.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Milligan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of baseline aerodynamic performance of optimally-twisted versus non-twisted HAWT blades

Description: NREL has completed the initial twisted blade field tests of the ``Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment.`` This test series continues systematic measurements of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The blade twist distribution optimizes power production at a single angle of attack along the span. Abrupt transitions into and out of stall are created due to rapid changes in inflow. Data from earlier experiments have been analyzed extensively to characterize the steady and unsteady response of untwisted blades. In this report, a characterization and comparison of the baseline aerodynamic performance of the twisted versus non-twisted blade sets will be presented for steady flow conditions.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Simms, D.A.; Robinson, M.C.; Hand, M.M. & Fingersh, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

Description: This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India`s rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

Description: The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Kelley, N.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques; Phase II Subcontract Report 1 July 1999--31 June 2000

Description: The R and D program at ISET is centered on development of a novel, dispersion-based route to the deposition of precursor thin films that are converted to CIS-type absorbers through high temperature reactions at or close to atmospheric pressure. The goal of the current research program at ISET is to bring a non-vacuum processing route for CIS closer to commercialization by improving the device efficiency through an increase in absorber bandgap. The basic processing approach involves first synthesizing a powder containing the oxides of copper, indium and gallium. A dispersion (ink) is prepared from the starting powder by mechanical milling or sonication. This ink is then deposited onto the glass/moly substrate as a thin precursor (3-4 {micro}m) and converted to a metallic alloy film by reaction in a hydrogen atmosphere. Controlled synthesis of starting powders and proper reduction results in reasonably smooth, metallic precursor films similar to those produced by sputtering or evaporation. From this point the processing is similar to that in the other two-stage techniques, with the metallic film being reacted in H2Se to form the final photovoltaic absorber, followed by CdS and TCO deposition.
Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: Fisher, M.L. & Kapur, V.K. (International Solar Electric Technology, Inc.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cities & counties - back to the basics: Creating a local energy program

Description: Outlined in this brochure are steps that local governments, or communities at large, can follow to devise an energy efficiency program. In general, an energy efficiency policy is first legislated by the local governing body. Then, an energy program is created to support the policy by developing and executing an action plan. The steps are: Determine how much you spend on energy; Designate or create a lead office; Link energy programs with community goals; Build grassroots community support; Don`t reinvent the wheel; Prioritize actions and develop a draft plan; Implement the plan; Evaluate success and update the plan; and, Publicize the benefits.
Date: December 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Opportunities for Promoting Renewable Energy; Final Report: December 11, 2000

Description: This report explores key aspects of the intersection between the nation's clean air and energy goals and proposes alternatives for encouraging renewable energy in the context of the federal Clean Air Act (CAA). As with most environmental statutes enacted in the early 1970s, the 1970 CAA embraced a somewhat rigid ''command-and-control'' approach to achieving its clean air goals. Although effective, this approach has been criticized for discouraging creative and cost-effective solutions to reducing air emissions. In response to this concern, Congress included the first significant market-based program to address an environmental problem-in this case, acid rain caused by sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants-in the 1990 CAA Amendments. This program prompted the federal government and various state governments to pursue other market-based programs to address air pollution problems. Ten years have elapsed since the passage of the 1990 CAA Amendments, so the time is ripe to consider expanding opportunities for renewable energy development in the reform of clean air policies. A significant potential for renewables exists in conjunction with international efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), including CO2. Unfortunately, Congressional opposition to international GHG reduction agreements makes it difficult to develop GHG emission-reduction programs, including a cap-and-trade alternative, that would enable the renewables industry to harness this potential. The renewable industry can, however, track developments both nationally and internationally to ensure that the programs developed adequately address renewables.
Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Wooley, D.R. & Morss, E.M. (Young, Sommer, Ward, Ritzenberg, Wooley, Baker and Moore, LLC, Albany, New York)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Clean Air Act and Renewable Energy: Opportunities, Barriers, and Options

Description: This paper examines the opportunities, obstacles, and potential options to promote renewable energy under the CAA and related programs. It deals, in sequence, with the regulation of SO2, NOx, regional haze/particulate matter, and CO2. For each pollutant, the paper discusses the opportunities, barriers, and options for boosting renewables under the CAA. It concludes by comparing the options discussed. The paper is based on a project on environmental regulation and renewable energy in electricity generation conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Office of Power Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Wooley, D.R. (Young, Sommer, Ward, Ritzenberg, Wooley, Baker and Moore, LLC); Morss, E.M. (Young, Sommer, Ward, Ritzenberg, Wooley, Baker and Moore, LLC) & Fang, J.M. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips Fact Sheet

Description: Even on small boilers, the prevention of scale formation can produce substantial energy savings. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value of bare steel.
Date: June 15, 2001
Creator: Renfrow, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Atlanta

Description: The Atlanta Clean City was the first to join the program in 1993, and has been successfully spreading the word about the benefits of alternative fuels ever since. They have already surpassed their year 2000 goal of operating more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). More than 30 stakeholders continue to help spur the Atlanta AFV market development by implementing innovative alternative fuel projects. Stakeholders actively support legislation that encourages the use of AFVs and sponsor workshops on advancing the choice.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Chicago

Description: The Chicago area coalition marks its five-year anniversary in 1999 as a member of the Clean Cities Program. Their progress in the last five years has been remarkable as they advance the alternative fuel and vehicle markets, increase coalition membership, help support new alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) legislation, and educate fleet managers. The coalition boasts more than 90 stakeholders, including industry, government, environmental and academic organizations, and membership continues to grow. Thanks to dedicated coalition members' efforts, a variety of AFVs can be seen on Chicago's streets, including transit and school buses, taxicabs, sedans, vans, and trucks.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

Description: Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Denver

Description: The cities of Denver and Boulder comprise the Denver Clean Cities Coalition. They are committed to cleaner fuels, greener fleets, and bluer skies. More than 25 active stakeholders, including local government agencies, utilities, and private organizations, work together to advance alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles in the region. The city of Denver boasts several neighborhood electric vehicles for employees' use around town. The coalition has also sponsored alternative fuel workshops, special events, and has been successful in passing major alternative fuels legislation.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Long Island

Description: This coalition was the culmination a two-year joint effort by Long Island Lighting Company and the Long Island Regional Planning Board. The group's first alternative fuel project was a single fill compressed natural gas station and a converted Chevrolet Caprice. Since then, the coalition has made steady progress in the alternative fuel and alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market. They have over 400 AFVs and 21 fueling stations in their operating area. Thanks to strong partnerships with local public and private organizations, they've also passed some of the most progressive state tax incentive legislation for AFVs in the country.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Philadelphia

Description: Always going beyond expectations, the Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program provides its stakeholders with excellent resources to implement alternative fuel projects. They are known as one of the most successful coalitions in the Clean Cities Program, and are a member-funded organization comprised of large government organizations, utilities, and non-profit groups in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The coalition aggressively promotes alternative fuel vehicle acquisitions; their public outreach efforts target all stakeholders and provide numerous resources to advance the alternative fuel choice.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Los Angeles

Description: As the second largest city in the United States, Los Angeles has more than 9 million motor vehicles on the road, accounting for up to 60% of the region's air pollution. Clean Cities Los Angeles has pioneered efforts in implementing innovation pollution reduction strategies, using alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). More than 475 compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and electric vehicles (EVs) have been incorporated into city fleets. They've also launched Quick Charge L.A., a comprehensive EV infrastructure program that has established almost 200 EV charging stations at workplaces, event centers, rail stations, and other sites throughout the city. Clean Cities Los Angeles also leads the way in securing grants for AFV projects.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean cities: Award winning coalition -- Maricopa

Description: The Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) Regional Council initiated the Maricopa Clean Cities Program on June 20, 1995. Its purpose was to encourage the use of alternative fuels in the Maricopa region and to obtain recognition for the steps the region had already taken to support the use of alternative fuels. One key element to Maricopa Clean Cities' success is the strong support it receives from the Arizona legislation. The Maricopa Clean Cities stakeholders are committed to increasing the number of alternative fuel vehicles and developing the infrastructure to support those vehicles.
Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: O'Connor, K. & Raye, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean cities: Award winning coalition -- Paso del Norte

Description: Designated the 41st Clean Cities coalition in November 1995, the Paso del Norte Clean Cities Coalition (PDNCCC) is the first in the country to gain international participation. Spanning the US-Mexico border; the coalition includes stakeholders from El Paso, Texas; Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; and Las Cruces, New Mexico. PDNCCC developed a comprehensive plan to jump-start its program place, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on the road, and eliminate barriers inhibiting alternative fuel market growth. PDNCC raised more than $2.3 million for alternative fuel activities and clean air initiatives in less than 26 months. In 1998, the US Department of Energy (DOE) recognized that PDNCCC accomplishment with its Rainmaker Award for leveraging the most funds from outside sources. PDNCCC is proud of its efforts to drive the alternative fuels and AFV market in the El Paso/Juarez region.
Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: O'Connor, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Salt Lake City

Description: Since its designation as a national Clean City in 1994, Salt Lake Clean Cities has put more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on community streets. The 82 business, nonprofit, and government agencies that comprise the coalition are all dedicated to cleaning the air by reducing vehicle exhaust. Salt Lake Clean Cities has the third largest compressed natural gas and propane-refueling infrastructure in the country, with 98 locations available. They sponsor an annual ''Spring Soiree'' to increase public awareness about the program and educate the public about the benefits of alternative fuel and AFVs.
Date: May 20, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: San Diego

Description: Stakeholders in the San Diego coalition have already helped remove about 125 tons of nitrogen oxides and 867 tons of carbon dioxide every year since their inception in 1996. They are proud of their numerous accomplishments, including the San Diego Gas and Electric's installation of a solar chargeport, which can charge up to six electric vehicles simultaneously and at no cost. San Diego Regional Clean Cities Coalition will also soon be home to the first alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) showroom in the world, as the Regional Transportation Center plans to open during the summer of 2000. The million-dollar facility will display the latest AFV models, rent and demonstrate vehicles, and offer a fueling and service center with public access. An educational center is also part of the plan.
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Kaiser, ICF
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

Description: The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Myers, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department