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IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

Description: The project continued in this reporting period with focus on three issues: (1) failure analysis of the FM inserts tested in the field, (2) continued study of confinement burn-out, and (3) disc cutter manufacturing. The failure analysis concludes that the main reason causing early failure of FM inserts is its low hardness, or in the other words, the FM inserts contained too much cobalt. The recipe to make the FM material needs to be changed. The continued binder burn-out experiments showed that FM confinement burn-out in a metal container filled with sand is an effective way to remove the organic binder in the inserts without causing bloating and delamination. Three 6.5 inch disc cutter sections were successfully produced. They were made of H13 powder with a green FM insert, a hot pressed FM insert, and a pre-sintered traditional WC insert respectively. One 17 inch disc cutter section was also produced from H13 powder with a pre-sintered traditional WC insert. It is planned to test the heat treatment effect on the H13 and WC bonding and manufacture full 6.5 inch disc cutters in the next quarter.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Huang, Xiaodi & Gertsch, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

Description: In this reporting period, the project focused on the investigations of FM material container-less HIPping, disc section examination and heat treatment, and full disc manufacture. The FM container-less HIPping resulted in either full density not being reached or reaching full density but losing the FM structure. Container HIPping seems to be necessary to consolidate the FM material. The heat treatment conducted on the 6.5 inch disc section with a WC insert caused cracking in the WC body and along the WC and H13 boundary. Two full 6.5 inch disc cutters were produced but contained defects. It is planned to produce more full disc cutters in the next quarter.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Huang, Xiaodi & Gertsch, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

Description: The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. During this quarter, work was focused on three areas: (1) The mathematical relationship developed for predicting plant throughput was improved, based on ore work index and equipment parameters measured in the plant over an extended period. It was determined that the model would need to fit two distinct regimes of grinding circuit operation, depending on the work index of the feed ore. (2) Plans for a proposed change in the circuit configuration at an iron ore plant are being made, to test predictions based on the work done to date in the project. After determining the desired circuit change, which would require screening a portion of the grinding slurry, samples were sent to an industrial screen manufacturer for pilot plant scale testing. These tests indicated that the screening could be carried out economically, and plans are proceeding to conduct trials of the proposed circuit alteration. (2) The mathematical model used for hydrocyclone simulations was found to be unable to fully predict the ''fish-hook'' behavior that is seen in the plant samples. The model was therefore improved by including ...
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Walqui, H.J.; Eisele, T.C. & Kawatra, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement and Model for Hazardous Chemical and Mixed Waste

Description: Mixed solvent aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the United States. Not only does the chemical process industry create large quantities of aqueous waste, but the majority of the waste inventory at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is mixed solvent aqueous waste. In addition, large quantities of waste are expected to be generated in the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical properties is essential. The goal of this work is to develop a phase equilibrium model for mixed solvent aqueous solutions containing salts. An equation of state was sought for these mixtures that (a) would require a minimum of adjustable parameters and (b) could be obtained from a available data or data that were easily measured. A model was developed to predict vapor composition and pressure given the liquid composition and temperature. It is based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, adapted to include non-volatile and salt components. The model itself is capable of predicting the vapor-liquid equilibria of a wide variety of systems composed of water, organic solvents, salts, nonvolatile solutes, and acids or bases. The representative system of water + acetone + 2-propanol + NaNO3 was selected to test and verify the model. Vapor-liquid equilibrium and phase density measurements were performed for this system and its constituent binaries.
Date: July 30, 2002
Creator: Mullins, Michael E.; Rogers, Tony N.; Outcalt, Stephanie L.; Louie, Beverly; Watts, Laurel A. & Holcomb, Cynthia D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

Description: The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, a field demonstration was undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The surface geochemistry data showed a strong anomaly in the Myrtle Beach area that would justify drilling by itself and even more so in conjunction with the structural interpretation from the 3D seismic data. The Myrtle Beach geochemical survey indicated a good to excellent prospect which was confirmed by drilling. Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Myrtle Beach area in Burke County, North Dakota. This case history presents the important technical details regarding the geochemistry and the two vertical wells that are part of this field demonstration, and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and is being used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Wood, James R. & Quinlan, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

Description: A principal goal of the Budget Period I was to demonstrate that surface geochemistry could be used to locate bypassed hydrocarbons in old fields. This part of the program was successful. A surface geochemical survey, employing 5 different techniques, was carried out in the Spring and Summer of 2000 and a demonstration well, the State Vernon & Smock 13-23 HD1 (permit number: PN 53945) was drilled in Vernon Township, Isabella County, Michigan in the late fall of 2000. A demonstration well was selected and drilled based on geologic considerations and surface geochemistry. Over 460 soil samples were collected and analyzed over the drill site. A good anomaly was detected near the proposed well site and the demonstration well, the Smock 13-23, was drilled to a depth of 3157 feet by November 17, 2000. Two laterals were drilled, and hydrocarbons were located in a zone approximately 175 feet in length. However, it was determined that the pay zone was too small and difficult reservoir conditions (water production) prevented putting the well in production. The Smock 13-23 was shut in and abandoned January 15, 2001. A post-mortem determined that the main reason the well was not economic was because the zone was nearly completely flushed by earlier recovery operations. The post mortem also revealed the presence of an unmapped shale plug crossing the first lateral. It appears that this shale was detected by the geochemical survey, but its significance was not appreciated at the time. It is possible that sections of the well were faulty, ''porposing'' up and down so as to create water blockages. We are continuing to use the Vernon Field and the demonstration well to calibrate the geochemical data. Eventually, this study may provide a standard site that can be used to test and calibrate geochemical anomalies, something that ...
Date: July 31, 2001
Creator: Wood, James R.; Bornhorst, T.J.; Chittick, S.D.; Harrison, William B.; Quinlan, W. & Taylor, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

Description: During this reporting period, the debinding and off-gassing furnace was switched from a vacuum furnace to a conventional kiln to solve the HIP can expansion problem during high temperature off-gassing, which caused disc distortion. Two 6.5 inch discs were produced. Both looked acceptable and one was machined. It was found that the disc hub section was little bit thin and micro cracks were seen along the disc radial directions.
Date: March 22, 2004
Creator: Huang, Xiaodi & Gertsch, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

Description: Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Kawatra, S. K.; Eisele, T. C.; Gurtler, J. A.; Hardison, C. A. & Lewandowski, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPLEMENTING A NOVEL CYCLIC CO2 FLOOD IN PALEOZOIC REEFS

Description: Recycled CO2 will be used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 pinnacle reef (Otsego County) in the Michigan Basin. We began injecting CO2 in the Dover 35 field into the Salling-Hansen 4-35A well on May 6, 2004. Subsurface characterization is being completed using well log tomography animations and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in three reefs, the Belle River Mills, Chester 18, and Dover 35 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester 18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the log porosity, normalized gamma ray, core permeability, and core porosity curves is showing trends that indicate significant heterogeneity and compartmentalization in these reservoirs associated with the original depositional fabric of the rocks. Digital and hard copy data continues to be compiled for the Niagaran reefs in the Michigan Basin. Technology transfer took place through technical presentations regarding visualization of the heterogeneity of the Niagaran reefs. Oral presentations were given at the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council workshop, Michigan Oil and Gas Association Conference, and Michigan Basin Geological Society meeting. A technical paper was submitted to the Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists on the characterization of the Belle River Mills Field.
Date: July 1, 2004
Creator: Wood, James R.; Quinlan, W. & Wylie, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

Description: The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration. Plotting and examination of these data show that contrary to most depictions, the Michigan Basin is in fact extensively faulted and fractured, particularly in the central portion of the basin. This is in contrast to most of the existing work on the Michigan Basin, which tends to show relatively simple structure with few or minor faults. It also appears that these fractures and faults control the Paleozoic sediment deposition, the subsequent hydrocarbon traps and very likely the regional dolomitization patterns. Recent work has revealed that a detailed fracture pattern exists in the interior of the Central Michigan Basin, which is related to the mid-continent gravity high. The inference is that early Precambrian, ({approx}1 Ga) rifting events presumed by many to account for the gravity anomaly subsequently controlled Paleozoic sedimentation and later hydrocarbon accumulation. There is a systematic relationship between the faults and a number of gas and oil reservoirs: major hydrocarbon accumulations consistently occur in small anticlines on the upthrown side of the faults. The main tools used in this study to map the fault/fracture patterns are detailed, close-interval (CI = 10 feet) contouring of the formation top picks accompanied by a new way of visualizing the data using a special color spectrum to bring out the third dimension. In addition, recent improvements in visualization and contouring software were instrumental in the study. Dolomitization is ...
Date: December 1, 2002
Creator: Wood, James R. & Harrison, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

Description: Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Vernon Field demonstration project in Isabella County, Michigan. This new case history and well summary format organizes and presents the technical and historical details of the Vernon Field demonstration, as well as the field demonstration results and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and will be used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion. Planning for the annual project meeting in Tampa, Florida has begun. This meeting will be held March 7-9, 2003 at the same site as the last three meetings. The goals of this project were to: (1) test the use of multi-lateral wells to recover bypassed hydrocarbons and (2) to access the potential of using surface geochemistry to reduce drilling risk. Two new demonstration wells, the State-Smock and the Bowers 4-25, were drilled to test the Dundee Formation at Vernon Field for bypassed oil. Neither well was commercial, although both produced hydrocarbon shows. An extensive geochemical survey in the vicinity of Vernon Field, covering much of Isabella County, has produced a base map for interpretation of anomalies in Michigan. Several potential new anomalies were discovered that could be further investigated.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Wood, James R. & Quinlan, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

Description: Among the accomplishments of this past reporting period are obtaining a complete landgrid for the State of Michigan and the digital processing of the high and medium resolution DEM files. We can now extract lineations from the DEMs automatically using machine algorithms. One tentative result that may be very significant is that we may be seeing manifestations of buried structures in the DEM data. We are looking at a set of extracted lineations in the northern lower peninsula that appear to follow the trend of the pinnacle reefs (Silurian) which had relief approaching 300 feet but are now buried to greater than 3000 feet. We have also extracted the dolomite alteration data from all fields and can show that this is mainly confined to the basin center. It may be related to the paleo-rift suggested by the paleomagnetic and gravity data. As reported last time, the acquisition of a 3D seismic dataset over Stoney Point Field from Marathon Oil Company, is complete and attention is being devoted to incorporating the data into the project database and utilizing it. The surface lineation study is focusing on Stoney Point Field using the high-resolution DEM data and plotting of subsurface formation top data for the main reservoir, the Trenton (Ordovician) Formation. The fault pattern at Stoney Point is well documented by Marathon and we are looking for any manifestations on the surface. The main project database is now about as complete as it will be for this project. The main goals have been met, although the scanning of the paper records will have to continue beyond the scheduled end of the project due to the sheer number of records and the increased donations of data from companies as word spread of the project. One of the unanticipated benefits of the project has been ...
Date: April 1, 2001
Creator: Wood, James R. & Harrison, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

Description: In this reporting period, we continued full disc prototype manufacturing. The vacuum offgas system no longer leaks and was modified to include a vapor condenser and a by-pass for argon purge. Two sand molds were made with an oxidation prevention agent and steel mandrels inserted in the center holes to reduce shrinkage restriction. A copper coating was applied between H13 and WC inserts. The two sand molds are ready to be HIPped and examined next quarter.
Date: May 5, 2004
Creator: Huang, Xiaodi & Gertsch, Richad
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

Description: The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing he product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In previous quarters, it was determined that the primary grinding mills were operating at less than full capacity, suggesting that a shift of grinding load to the primary mills could liberate more material before it reached the secondary mills, allowing more complete liberation with a coarser grind. In the eighth quarter, further analysis was carried out to determine the full extent of the benefit that could be obtained by this shift in grinding load. A key part of this analysis was the development of a correlation of the circuit capacity with (a) ore work index, (b) the quantity of primary mill ''pebbles'' that were crushed by a cone crusher in the circuit, and (c) the fraction of the crushed pebbles that were also processed by a high-pressure roll mill.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Kawatra, S.K. & T.C. Eisele, H.J. Walqui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

Description: One of the main objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, several field demonstrations were undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The important observations from each of these field demonstrations are briefly reviewed in this annual report. These demonstrations have been successful in identifying the presence or lack of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and can be summarized as follows: (1) The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path of the State Springdale & O'Driscoll No.16-16 horizontal demonstration well in Manistee County, Michigan. The well was put on production in December 2003. To date, the well is flowing nearly 100 barrels of liquid hydrocarbons per day plus gas, which is a good well in Michigan. Reserves have not been established yet. Two successful follow-up horizontal wells have also been drilled in the Springdale area. Additional geochemistry data will be collected in the Springdale area in 2004. (2) The surface geochemistry sampling in the Bear Lake demonstration site in Manistee County, Michigan was updated after the prospect was confirmed and production begun; the original subsurface and seismic interpretation used to guide the location of the geochemical survey for the Charlich Fauble re-entry was different than the interpretation used by the operator who ultimately drilled the well. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) microbial anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir. (3) The geochemical sampling program over the Vernon Field, Isabella County, Michigan ...
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Wood, James R.; Wylie, A. & Quinlan, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

Description: The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to ...
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Haataja, Joshua; Len, Shawn; Minaeva, Anastasia et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHOUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

Description: The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Walqui, H.J.; Eisele, T.C. & Kawatra, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHOUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

Description: The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding and maximizing energy efficiency, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Walqui, H.J.; Eisele, T.C. & Kawatra, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

Description: Progress in year 2 of this project is highlighted by the completing of the writing and testing of the project database, ''Atlas'', and populating it with all the project data gathered to date. This includes digitization of 17,000+ original Scout Tickets for the Michigan Basin. Work continues on the Driller's Reports, where they have scanned about 50,000 pages out of an estimated 300,000 pages. All of the scanned images have been attached to ''Atlas'', the visual database viewer developed for this project. A complete set of the 1/24,000 USGS DEM (Digital Elevation Models) for the State of Michigan has been downloaded from the USGS Web sites, decompressed and converted to ArcView Grid files. A large-scale map (48 inches x 84 inches) has been constructed by mosaicking of the high-resolution files. This map shows excellent ground surface detail and has drawn much comment and requests for copies at the venues where it has been displayed. Although it was generated for mapping of surface lineations the map has other uses, particularly analysis of the glacial drift in Michigan. It presents unusual problems due to its size and they are working with vendors on compression and display algorithms (e.g. MrSID{copyright}) in an attempt to make it available over the Internet, both for viewing and download. A set of aeromagnetic data for the Michigan Basin has been acquired and is being incorporated into the study. As reported previously, the general fracture picture in the Michigan Basin is a dominant NW-SE trend with a conjugate NE-SW trend. Subsurface, DEM and gravity data support the interpretation of a graben-type deep basement structural trend coincident with the Michigan Basin Gravity High. They plan to incorporate the aeromagnetic data into this interpretation as well.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Wood, James R. & Harrison, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

Description: The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Walqui, H.J.; Eisele, T.C. & Kawatra, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

Description: This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Keith, Jason M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

Description: The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing he product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the seventh quarter of this project, analysis of the plant operation identified sources of overgrinding in the circuit. Overgrinding was primarily caused by two effects: (1) The hydrocyclones used to close the circuit and remove fully-ground particles from the circuit were preferentially returning high-density ore particles to the secondary mills for regrinding even after they were already ground to pass the desired product size, and (2) The primary grinding mills were operating at less than full capacity, suggesting that a shift of grinding load to the primary mills could liberate more material before it reached the secondary mills, allowing more complete liberation with a coarser grind. Circuit modeling is underway to determine how best to modify the circuit to reduce these effects.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C. & Walqui, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

Description: Michigan Technological University, together with The Robbins Group, Advanced Ceramic Research, Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing, and Superior Rock Bits, evaluated a new process and a new material for producing drill bit inserts and disc cutters for the mining industry. Difficulties in the material preparation stage slowed the research initially. Prototype testing of the drill bit inserts showed that the new inserts did not perform up to the current state of the art. Due to difficulties in the prototype production of the disc cutters, the disc cutter was manufactured but not tested. Although much promising information was obtained as a result of this project, the objective of developing an effective means for producing rock drill bits and rock disc cutters that last longer, increase energy efficiency and penetration rate, and lower overall production cost was not met.
Date: February 4, 2005
Creator: Huang, Xiaodi & Gertsch, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

Description: During this reporting period, we mainly focused on solving the disc distortion problem that was encountered in the last quarter. A slower heating rate during off-gassing was tested to reduce the HIPping can expansion. However, slight expansion still occurred. Two 6.5 inch discs were produced with many defects. One was made of H13 powder only and the other was made of H13 powder with WC inserts. It was believed that the defects were caused by the slight expansion of the HIP can during the elevated temperature off-gassing and a vacuum leak in the HIPping can.
Date: March 18, 2004
Creator: Huang, Xiaodi & Gertsch, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department