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Determination of plutonium in human urine

Description: Report is made of chemical procedures for determination of plutonium in human urine. The procedures are provided in outline form and statistical methods are provided for interpretation of the results.
Date: August 14, 1947
Creator: Langham, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary calculations related to the accident at Three Mile Island

Description: This report discusses preliminary studies of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident based on available methods and data. The work reported includes: (1) a TRAC base case calculation out to 3 hours into the accident sequence; (2) TRAC parametric calculations, these are the same as the base case except for a single hypothetical change in the system conditions, such as assuming the high pressure injection (HPI) system operated as designed rather than as in the accident; (3) fuel rod cladding failure, cladding oxidation due to zirconium metal-steam reactions, hydrogen release due to cladding oxidation, cladding ballooning, cladding embrittlement, and subsequent cladding breakup estimates based on TRAC calculated cladding temperatures and system pressures. Some conclusions of this work are: the TRAC base case accident calculation agrees very well with known system conditions to nearly 3 hours into the accident; the parametric calculations indicate that, loss-of-core cooling was most influenced by the throttling of High-Pressure Injection (HPI) flows, given the accident initiating events and the pressurizer electromagnetic-operated valve (EMOV) failing to close as designed; failure of nearly all the rods and gaseous fission product gas release from the failed rods is predicted to have occurred at about 2 hours and 30 minutes; cladding oxidation (zirconium-steam reaction) up to 3 hours resulted in the production of approximately 40 kilograms of hydrogen.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Kirchner, W.L. & Stevenson, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applicability of microautoradiography to sorption studies

Description: The technique of microautoradiography was applied to the study of the sorption of uranium and americium on five rock types which exist at the Nevada Test Site. It was found that autoradiograms could be prepared in a few days which would allow the specific minerals responsible for sorption to be identified. Furthermore, the state of aggregation of the sorbed species was clearly indicated. It was concluded that microautoradiography was a useful adjunct to currently used methods for studying sorption of certain radionuclides.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Thompson, J. L. & Wolfsberg, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and development related to the Nevada nuclear waste storage investigations. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

Description: Sorption of americium and plutonium was measured in a controlled, oxygen-free atmosphere and in air on a series of tuff samples. Sorption of plutonium was greater in the controlled atmosphere than in air. Sorption of both elements is higher on zeolitized tuff than devitrified tuff. Sorption of strontium, cesium, barium, cerium, and europium is being measured on tuff samples of mineralogies not previously studied, and samples from the USW-G1 drill hole have been selected for study. Work on the dependence of the sorption ratio on element concentration (barium and europium) and on solution-to-solid ratios is reported. Progress on controlling Eh and making Eh measurements is presented. Some tuff-water systems exhibit reduced or negative Eh values under oxygen-free conditions. Development of a method for encasing cores for flow studies is discussed. Field geologic mapping is being conducted in the Lunar Crater volcanic field of central Nevada. Mineralogy-petrology studies are being conducted on core samples from the USW-G1 exploration hole in Yucca Mountain. Zeolite heating tests of core samples from UE25a-1 show density, volume, and weight changes that correlate with alteration of mineral assemblages. Hydrogen-deuterium ratios in water evolved from a clinoptilolite specimen from Yucca Mountain have been measured. Jacket seals leaked during the first attempt at high temperature exposure in the hydrothermal soak tests. Revised seals using temperature-cured epoxy are being developed. Data from strength tests for various types of tuff conducted at ambient pressure and 400{sup 0}C for 16 h are presented. A densely welded specimen showed a 40% reduction in strength.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Wolfsberg, K.; Erdal, B.R. & Crowe, B.M. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petrology of tuff units from the J-13 drill site, Jackass Flats, Nevada

Description: The J-13 drill hole, located in Jackass Flats, Nevada Test Site, has penetrated 125 m of alluvium and 932 m of tuff. Most of the tuff deposits consist of welded tuffs; glass phases in the tuffs have been replaced by authigenic minerals, mainly K-feldspar, silica, and zeolites. The zonation of authigenic minerals, with depth, indictes that alteration of glass phases and filling of vugs occurred during welding and compaction of tuff units soon after deposition and by interaction with groundwater. Zonation of authigenic minerals in tuff deposits at Jackass Flats is similar to mineral zonation in tuffs elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site and in tuff deposits of west Texas. All appear to have been developed by leaching of glass phases and deposition of authigenic minerals in open hydrologic systems. 10 figures, 38 tables.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Heiken, G.H. & Bevier, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption and migration of radionuclides in geologic media

Description: The interactions of a quartz monzonite, an argillite, an alluvium, and several tuffs with various radionuclides in selected phreatic waters have been studied. The sorption--desorption hehavior of Sr, Tc(VII), Cs, Ba, Ce, Eu, U(VI), Pu, and Am under ambient and 70{sup 0}C temperature conditions has been measured.
Date: December 31, 1978
Creator: Erdal, B.R.; Daniels, W.R.; Hoffman, D.C.; Lawrence, F.O. & Wolfsberg, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclide-migration field experiments

Description: When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

Description: Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

Description: The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M. & Reed, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and development related to the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

Description: Storage of radwaste in tuff was studied. Adsorption experiments were conducted with {sup 85}Sr, {sup 95}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 133}Ba, and {sup 152}Eu. The geochemistry and mineralogy-petrology of tuff were studied. Organic and inorganic Eh buffers were investigated. Rock physics studies were also conducted. (DLC)
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Erdal, B.R.; Daniels, W.R. & Wolfsberg, K. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption-desorption studies on tuff. II. Continuation of studies with samples from Jackass Flats, Nevada and initial studies with samples from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: Distruibution coefficients were determined by a static (batch) technique for sorption-desorption of radionuclides between tuffs from drill holes UE25a No. 1 and J-13 at the Nevada Test Site and water from well J-13. Measurements were performed under atmospheric and controlled atmosphere conditions. Under atmospheric conditions tuffs high in zeolite minerals had sorption ratios of {similar_to}10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} ml/g with Sr, Cs, Ba, Ce, Eu, Am, and Pu. For tuffs similar mineralogically to a microgranite the sorption ratios were {similar_to}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} ml/g. Values for U and Tc were obtained under controlled atmosphere (< 0.2 ppM 0{sub 2}) conditions. Studies were also begun to measure distribution ratios by a dynamic (column) technique. The ratios obtained for the elements studied, Sr, Cs, and Ba, were similar to, although lower than, those obtained by batch methods.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Vine, E.N.; Aguilar, R.D. & Bayhurst, B.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactivity in the underground environment of the Cambric nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

Description: The experimental results obtained from investigation of the radionuclide distribution in the environment around the detonation point of the 0.75-kt nuclear test, Cambric, fired 300 m underground in alluvium at the Nevada Test Site in 1965, are presented and discussed. Analyses of sidewall cores obtained ten years later from near ground surface to below the explosion cavity showed that most of the radioactivity is still contained within solid material in the lower cavity region. Water pumped from the region of highest activity at the bottom of the cavity showed only T and {sup 90}Sr at levels higher than the recommended concentration guides for drinking water in uncontrolled areas. Recommendations for future studies are given. The investigation is part of the Radionuclide Migration Project sponsored by the Nevada Operations Office of ERDA.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Hoffman, D.C.; Stone, R. & Dudley, W.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineralogy and petrology of tuff units from a UE25a-1 drill site, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: Drill hole UE25a-1 has penetrated tuffs of Tertiary age which contain two major zeolitized horizons at depths below 380 m. These horizons are restricted to low-density, high-porosity nonwelded tuffs below the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Springs Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (approximately 70 m above the current water table), and interfinger with more-densely-welded devitrified tuffs of granophyric mineralogy. Zeolites occur as glass pyroclast replacement, vug linings, and fracture fillings. Nonwelded units above the welded portion of the Topopah Springs Member are essentially unaltered, indicating that they have never been ground water-saturated for any significant length of time. Zeolite mineral assemblages appear to be characteristic of low temperature (<100{sup 0}C) ground water alteration of glass in an open hydrologic system. The principal zeolite phase is high-Si clinoptilolite with Si/Al ratios of 4.7 to 6.0. Ca tends to be the dominant large-radius cation, but grains with dominant K or Na are not uncommon, particularly with increasing depth. Compositional variations in clinoptilolite may be due to ground water composition or original pyroclast composition. Minor amounts of mordenite, characterized by lower silica content (<55 wt %) and high alkali content (>10 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O), occur as vug fillings at depths below 500 m. Presence of mordenite may indicate slightly elevated alteration temperatures, but more likely reflects enrichment of ground water in alkalis with depth. Mineralogical, compositional, and textural similarities of the zeolitized tuffs from UE25a-1 and J-13 are compatible with a single episode of crystallization. 16 figures.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Sykes, M.L.; Heiken, G.H. & Smyth, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption--desorption studies on argillite. I. Initial studies of strontium, technetium, cesium, barium, cerium, and europium

Description: Distribution ratios were determined for sorption--desorption of radioactive tracers between Eleana argillite available from the Nevada Test Site and a water prepared to be representative of the natural groundwater composition. The measurements were preformed at 22{sup 0}C and 70{sup 0}C under atmospheric oxygen conditions. The order of increasing distribution coefficient by element at both temperatures is Tc(VII), Sr, Cs, Ba, Eu, and Ce. The effects of surface area and mineralogy were also investigated. 34 figures, 26 tables.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Erdal, B.R.; Aguilar, R.D.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Oliver, P.Q. & Wolfsberg, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption--desorption studies on tuff. I. Initial studies with samples from the J-13 drill site, Jackass Flats, Nevada

Description: Distribution coefficients were determined for sorption--desorption of radionuclides between each of three different types of tuff from drill hole J-13 at the Nevada Test Site and water from that well. The measurements were performed under atmospheric conditions at 22{sup 0}C and 70{sup 0}C. Sorption ratios vary greatly with lithologic variety of tuff. A tuff high in zeolite minerals has high sorption ratios (in decreasing order) for Eu, Ba, Cs, and Am and intermediate ratios for Sr and Pu. A tuff high in glass shows very high ratios for Ba, Sr, and Cs, intermediate values for Am and Pu, and low values for Ce and Eu. A devitrified tuff similar mineralogically to a microgranite exhibits intermediate values for Ba, Cs, Am, and Pu and low values for Eu, Ce, and Sr. Values for Ru are low, and those for Mo, Sb, and I are very low or zero for the three types. 34 figures, 32 tables.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Wolfsberg, K.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Crowe, B.M.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The specific activity of tritium in the organic components of the skin and fat of man following eight months` chronic exposure to HTO in body fluids

Description: A healthy 39-year-old male weighing 65 kg was exposed for a period of 8 months to varying levels of HTO. The average tritium activity in body fluids over the entire period was 23 {mu}c/liter. A few weeks after exposure, when the HTO activity in body fluids had declined to about 0.2 {mu}c/liter, a biopsy was pe formed on skin and fat taken from the region of the lower abdomen, and the material was analyzed for tritium activity. The skin showed an average activity equivalent to 0.4 {mu}c/kg of dry tissue and the fat about 0.3 {mu}c/kg of dry tissue. The radiation dose per unit time from these activities was only 1 to 2 percent of the radiation dose per unit time during the 8-month exposure period. It was concluded that the radiation hazard due to retention of tritium in the organic components of these tissues of man after chronic exposure was negligible compared to the radiation hazard from HTO activity in the body fluids which was necessary to induce the activity into the organic components. Comparable experiments on mice previously reported indicate that this conclusion may hold for all tissues in the body. The water content of the skin and fat of man was found to be 71 percent and 20 percent, respectively, on the basis of the wet weight. The hydrogen content of skin was 7.6 per cent, and of fat 11.4 percent, of the dry weight of the tissue.
Date: October 1, 1952
Creator: Pinson, E.A.; Anderson, E.C. & Lotz, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report on human excretion of tritium

Description: Six subjects received a few millicuries Of tritium by inhalation of isotopically labeled hydrogen gas. The concentration of H{sup 3} in the urine of these individuals has been followed for a period of some 15 days. The rate of excretion of the tritium was found to be constant for a given subject but to vary considerably, among individuals. Data on five individuals arbitrarily normalized to coincide at zero time showed a range in biological half-life from about 9 days to nearly 13 days. These values are to be compared with the value calculated for the Chalk River ``Standard Man`` of 13.5 days, assuming the tritim to be confined to the body water.
Date: April 6, 1950
Creator: Anderson, E.C. & Pinson, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance of the Medfra and Mt. McKinley NTMS Quadrangles, Alaska, Including Concentrations of Forty-Three Additional Elements

Description: From abstract: "Report regarding the collection of sediment samples taken from 1,300 streams and small lakes around the Medfra and Mt. McKinley area. This report covers the results of analyses for uranium and descriptions of the area studied. Field data and analytical results of the samples are presented in the appendices, which start on page 25."
Date: February 1979
Creator: Van Eeckhout, Edward Mathias; Warren, Richard G. & Hill, Dwight E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department