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Experimental determination of contaminant metal mobility as a function of temperature time and solution. 1998 annual progress report

Description: 'The objective of this work is to determine the fundamental data needed to predict the behavior of {sup 90}Sr at temperature and time scales appropriate to thermal remediation. The authors approach combines macroscopic sorption/precipitation and desorption/dissolution kinetic experiments which track changes in solution composition with direct molecular characterization of Sr in the solid phase using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. These experiments will be used to identify mechanistic geochemical reactions and their thermochemical properties that will be incorporated into geochemical computer codes. As of May 1998, the authors have completed most of the static sorption experiments as a function of temperature (25, 60, and 80 C), solution pH (4 to 10), initial Sr concentrations (10{sup -7} to 10{sup -3} M), and partial pressure of CO 2 (100% N 2 or atmospheric CO 2 ). They chose to study goethite, kaolinite, gibbsite, and amorphous silica because iron and aluminum (oxy)hydroxides, aluminosilicate clays, and quartz are key components in soils, sediments, and aquifers. The authors have completed x-ray absorption analysis of Sr sorption to kaolinite and goethite at 25{sup -}C, initial Sr of 10{sup -}3 M, and pH 9.'
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Carroll, S.; Bruton, C.; O'Day, P. & Sahai, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental determination of contaminant metal mobility as a function of temperature, time and solution chemistry. 1997 annual progress report

Description: 'Strontium is significantly more mobile than other hazardous radioactive metals. Its partitioning between aqueous and solid phases is controlled by reactions that occur at the interface between natural waters and minerals. At a groundwater site in Hanford (200-BP-5), the aerial extent of the {sup 90}Sr plume is 100 times larger than the aerial extent of the {sup 137}Cs and the {sup 239}Pu plumes. Similarly, contaminated, perched watertables at INEL have much higher aqueous concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than {sup 137}Cs, presumably because Cs is preferentially sorbed to solids (Duncan 1995). Under high physical flow conditions, such as those in the highly fractured rock at Hanford and INEL, {sup 90}Sr present in plumes may spread off-site and cause contamination of aquifers or other water sources. Geochemical factors that may contribute to the overall mobility of Sr in natural waters are the solubilities of phases such as strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) and formation of strong complexes with sulfate and nitrate. Although {sup 90}Sr is mobilized in natural waters in these examples, significant concentrations may also be present in solid phases. Sorption experiments using a wide variety of substrates at room temperature have shown that Sr is removed from solution under certain conditions. Additionally, strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) may precipitate at low Sr concentrations in the pH range of waters in contact with basaltic rocks, which varies between pH 8 and 10. Waters contain variable amounts of carbonate owing to atmospheric interactions; the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} is about 10 x 3.5 atm in air and commonly as high as 10 x 2.5 atm in soils. The objective of this work is to determine the fundamental data needed to predict the behavior of strontium at temperature and time scales appropriate to thermal remediation. The authors approach combines macroscopic sorption/precipitation and desorption/dissolution kinetic experiments, which ...
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Carroll, S.; Bruton, C.; O'Day, P. & Sahai, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test problems in radiative transfer calculations

Description: Several test problems are presented for evaluating the radiation diffusion equations. For spatial transport schemes, 1-D problems with known analytic solutions are tested on 2-D domains with non-orthogonal meshes. It is shown that a scheme based on the Finite Element Method is insensitive to grid distortions when the diffusion term is dominant. Other test problems deal with Compton scattering, specifically the 1-D Fokker-Planck equation coupled to an equation describing the change in electron temperature. The test problems model the evolution of a Planckian radiation field as it equilibrates with the electrons. In all cases, the numerical results are compared with the analytic ones. 15 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: January 12, 1989
Creator: Shestakov, A. I.; Kershaw, D. S. & Zimmerman, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from exploratory drill hole UE2ce, Northwest Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, near the NASH Event

Description: Exploratory drill hole UE2ce was drilled in January 1977 to determine geologic and geophysical characteristics of this site. This report presents geophysical logs, lithology, geologic structure, water table measurements, and physical properties for this drill hole. The data are then extrapolated to the NASH site, an event in U2ce, 55.6 m due north of UE2ce.
Date: March 3, 1982
Creator: Pawloski, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data]

Description: The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.
Date: August 21, 1981
Creator: Cena, R. J. & Thorsness, C. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solution of the field equations for 2-D electromagnetic direct implicit plasma simulation

Description: A direct implicit particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with full electromagnetic (EM) effects has been implemented in 2-D Cartesian geometry. The model, implemented with the D/sub 1/ time differencing scheme, was first implemented in a 1-D electrostatic (ES) version to gain some experience with spatial differencing in forms suitable for extension to the full EM field in two dimensions. The implicit EM field solve is considerably different from the implicit ES code. The EM field calculation requires an inductive part as well as the electrostatic and the B field must be self-consistently advanced.
Date: January 2, 1985
Creator: Hewett, D.W. & Langdon, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial recovery capability. Final report. [Claus alumina catalyst for sulfur production]

Description: This report provides an evaluation of the vulnerability - to a nuclear strike, terrorist attack, or natural disaster - of our national capacity to produce chlorine, beryllium, and a particular specialty alumina catalyst required for the production of sulfur. All of these industries are of critical importance to the United States economy. Other industries that were examined and found not to be particularly vulnerable are medicinal drugs and silicon wafers for electronics. Thus, only the three more vulnerable industries are addressed in this report.
Date: December 1, 1984
Creator: Gregg, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the cryogenic mechanical properties of low thermal-expansion superalloys

Description: Four Fe-based superalloys, JBK-75, Incoloy 903, Incoloy 905, and Incoloy 909 were evaluated as tube materials for ICCS Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductors. Evaluation consisted of 4-K tensile and elastic-plastic fracture-toughness testing, and a microstructural characterization of unwelded and autogenously gas-tungsten-arc welded sheet given a simulated postweld processing treatment of 15% cold reduction by rolling followed by a Nb/sub 3/Sn-reaction heat treatment of 96 hours at 700/sup 0/C plus 48 hours at 730/sup 0/C. Results indicate that JBK-75 and Incoloy 903 showed satisfactory combinations of strength and toughness for ICCS tube use requiring long Nb/sub 3/Sn-reaction heat treatments. Incoloy 905 welds and 909 showed unacceptable fracture toughness. Results are discussed in terms of microstructural changes caused by the extended Nb/sub 3/Sn-reaction heat treatment.
Date: July 30, 1985
Creator: Summers, L.T. & Dalder, E.N.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced fusion MHD power conversion using the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept

Description: The CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept for a tokamak reactor involves the use of a high-temperature Rankine cycle in combination with microwave superheaters and nonequilibrium MHD disk generators to obtain a compact, low-capital-cost power conversion system which fits almost entirely within the reactor vault. The significant savings in the balance-of-plant costs are expected to result in much lower costs of electricity than previous concepts. This paper describes the unique features of the CFAR cycle and a high- temperature blanket designed to take advantage of it as well as the predicted performance of the MHD disk generators using mercury seeded with cesium. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Hoffman, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Logan, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA) & Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromagnetic ''particle-in-cell'' plasma simulation

Description: ''PIC'' simulation tracks particles through electromagnetic fields calculated self-consistently from the charge and current densities of the particles themselves, external sources, and boundaries. Already used extensively in plasma physics, such simulations have become useful in the design of accelerators and their r.f. sources. 5 refs.
Date: April 22, 1985
Creator: Langdon, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromagnetic effects in relativistic electron beam plasma interactions

Description: Electromagnetic effects excited by intense relativistic electron beams in plasmas are investigated using a two-dimensional particle code. The simulations with dense beams show large magnetic fields excited by the Weibel instability as well as sizeable electromagnetic radiation over a significant range of frequencies. The possible relevance of beam plasma instabilities to the laser acceleration of particles is briefly discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Date: February 13, 1985
Creator: Kruer, W.L. & Langdon, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thyratron characteristics under high di/dt and high-repetition-rate operation

Description: Power conditioning systems for high peak and average power, high repetition rate discharge excited lasers involve operation of modulator components in unconventional regimes. Reliable operation of switches and energy storage elements under high voltage and high di/dt conditions is a pacing item for laser development at the present time. To test and evaluate these components a Modulator Component Test Facility (MCTF) was constructed. The MCTF consists of a command charge system, energy storage capacitors, thyratron switch with inverse thyratron protection, and a resistive load. The modulator has initially been operated at voltages up to 60 kV at 600 Hz. Voltage, current, and calorimetric diagnostics are provided for major modulator components. Measurements of thyratron characteristics under high di/dt operation are presented. Commutation energy loss and di/dt have been measured as functions of the tube hydrogen pressure.
Date: May 11, 1981
Creator: Ball, D.; Hill, J. & Kan, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Omega documentation

Description: OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T. & Plechaty, E.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics of mirror systems

Description: In recent years the emphasis in research on the magnetic mirror approach to fusion has been shifted to address what are essentially economically-motivated issues. The introduction of the Tandem Mirror idea solved in principal the problem of low Q (low fusion power gain) of mirror-based fusion systems. In order to optimize the tandem mirror idea from an economic standpoint, some important improvements have been suggested. These improvements include the thermal barrier idea of Baldwin and Logan and the axicell concept of Kesner. These new modifications introduce some special physics considerations. Among these are (1) The MHD stability properties of high energy electron components in the end cells; (2) The optimization of end-cell magnetic field configurations with the objective of minimizing equilibrium parallel currents; (3) The suppression of microstabilities by use of sloshing ion distributions. Following a brief outline of tandem mirror concepts, the above three topics are discussed, with illustrative examples taken from earlier work or from recent design studies.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Post, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formulation of SYNROC-D additives for Savannah River Plant high-level radioactive waste. [ADSYN code]

Description: SYNROC-D is a multiphase ceramic waste form consisting of nepheline, zirconolite, perovskite, and spinel. It has been formulated for the immobilization of high-level radioactive wastes now stored at Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. This report utilizes existing experimental data to develop a method for calculating additives to these waste products. This method calculates additions based on variations of mineral compositions as a function of sludge composition and radionuclide partitioning among the SYNROC phases. Based on these calculations, a FORTRAN program called ADSYN has been developed to determine the proper reagent proportions to be added to the SRP sludges.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Ryerson, F.J.; Burr, K. & Rozsa, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

/sup 1/H, /sup 19/F and /sup 11/B nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of BF/sub 3/:amine catalysts used in the cure of C fiber-epoxy prepregs

Description: The chemical composition of commercial BF/sub 3/:amine complexes are variable and contain BF/sub 4//sup -/ and BF/sub 3/(OH)/sup -/ salts together with other unidentified highly reactive species. The BF/sub 3/:amine complexes, which are susceptible to hydrolysis, also partially convert to the BF/sub 4//sup -/ salt (i.e. BF/sub 4//sup -/NH/sub 3//sup +/C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) upon heating. This salt formation is accelerated in dimethyl sulfoxide solution and in the presence of the epoxides that are present in commercial prepregs. Commercial C fiber-epoxy prepregs are shown to contain either BF/sub 3/:NH/sub 2/C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ or BF/sub 3/:NHC/sub 5/H/sub 10/ species together with their BF/sub 4//sup -/ salts and a variety of boron-fluorine or carbon-fluorine prepreg species. Considerable variation in the relative quantities of BF/sub 3/:amine to its BF/sub 4//sup -/ salt was observed from prepreg lot to lot, which will cause variable viscosity-time-temperature prepreg cure profiles. It is concluded that the chemically stable and mobile BF/sub 4//sup -/ salt is the pre-dominant catalytic species, acting as a cationic catalyst for the prepreg cure reactions. During the early stages of cure the BF/sub 3/:amine catalyst converts to the BF/sub 4//sup -/ salt in the presence of epoxides, whereas the BF/sub 3/-prepreg species are susceptible to catalytic deactivation and immobilization.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Happe, J.A.; Morgan, R.J. & Walkup, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Portable, remotely operated, computer-controlled, quadrupole mass spectrometer for field use

Description: A portable, remote-controlled mass spectrometer was required at the Nevada Test Site to analyze prompt post-event gas from the nuclear cavity in support of the underground testing program. A Balzers QMG-511 quadrupole was chosen for its ability to be interfaced to a DEC LSI-11 computer and to withstand the ground movement caused by this field environment. The inlet system valves, the pumps, the pressure and temperature transducers, and the quadrupole mass spectrometer are controlled by a read-only-memory-based DEC LSI-11/2 with a high-speed microwave link to the control point which is typically 30 miles away. The computer at the control point is a DEC LSI-11/23 running the RSX-11 operating system. The instrument was automated as much as possible because the system is run by inexperienced operators at times. The mass spectrometer has been used on an initial field event with excellent performance. The gas analysis system is described, including automation by a novel computer control method which reduces operator errors and allows dynamic access to the system parameters.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Friesen, R.D.; Newton, J.C. & Smith, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide Migation Project 1984 progress report

Description: The report discusses the hydrogeologic settings and histories of studies associated with the Cheshire (U20n), Cambric (U5e), Nash (UE2ce), Bilby (U3cn), Bourbon (U7n), and Faultless (UC1) Events. Radionuclide and some chemical data are presented for water samples from cavity or chimney wells associated with the Cheshire, Cambric, and Bilby Events, and from satellite wells at the Cambric, Nash, Bibly, Bourbon, and Faultless Event sites. The report also gives the results of studies of specific sampling or analytical methodologies. These studies demonstrated that the apparent migration of /sup 155/Eu is an artfact of spectrometric misidentification of gamma- and x-ray peaks from other constituents. A potential problem with atmospheric contamination of samples collected with evacuated thief samples was also identified. Ultrafiltration techniques were applied to some of the Cheshire cavity samples collected, and preliminary results suggest that substantial amounts of activity may be associated with colloidal particles in the size range of 0.006 to 0.45 ..mu..m. A study has begun of the recharge of effluent water from RNM-2S (Cambric satellite well) into the desert floor as a result of nine years of continuous pumping. This report gives the initial results of unsaturated zone studies showing the propagation of moisture and tritium fronts through the shallow soil. Geochemical modeling of the behavior of ruthenium and technetium was carried out, with particular emphasis on the identification of ionic species that would be potentially mobile under NTS ground-water conditions. The report compares the results with observations of ruthenium migration to the Cambric satellite well.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Buddemeier, R.W. & Isherwood, D. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical design of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade vacuum system

Description: The Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) vacuum system uses most of the vacuum system from the original TMX and substantially increases its capabilities. The vacuum system provides the main structure for the experimental apparatus, as well as providing and maintaining the vacuum environment. The vacuum vessel provides the structure supporting all magnets, as they are contained inside the vacuum vessel, all of the neutral-beam injectors, and the various diagnostics. The vessel provides the main vacuum enclosure and the various access ports required by the magnet system, injector system, internal vacuum system, and plasma diagnostics. The vacuum environment is created and maintained by two systems, the external vacuum system and the internal vacuum system. The external system consists of mechanical pumps, turbopumps, and cryopumps, and creates a vacuum inside the vessel down to a minimum pressure of 10/sup -6/ Torr. The internal vacuum system further reduces the pressure into the 10/sup -8/ Torr range and provides the fast pumping required to handle the excess gas from the neutral-beam injector system during a plasma shot. The internal vacuum system consists of titanium sublimators and liquid nitrogen (LN) liners that separate the vacuum vessel into various pumping regions.
Date: September 24, 1981
Creator: Lang, D.D.; Calderon, M.O.; Thomas, S.R. & Garner, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on axicell MFTF-B superconducting magnet systems

Description: Since the entire Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) Magnet System was reconfigured from the original A-cell to an axicell design, much progress has been made on the design, fabrication, and installation planning. The axicell MFTF-B magnet array consists of a total of 26 large superconducting main coils. This paper provides an engineering overview of the progress of these coils. Recent studies on the effects of field errors on the plasma at the recircularizing region (transition coils) show that small field errors will generate large displacements of the field lines. These field errors might enhance radial electron heat transport and deteriorate the plasma confinement. Therefore, 16 superconducting trim coils have been designed to correct the coil misalignments. Progress of the trim coils are reported also.
Date: November 14, 1983
Creator: Wang, S.T.; Kozman, T.A.; Hanson, C.L.; Shimer, D.W.; VanSant, J.H. & Zbasnik, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power-conditioning system for the Advanced Test Accelerator

Description: The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed, linear induction, electron accelerator currently under construction and nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 near Livermore, California. The ATA is a 50 MeV, 10 kA machine capable of generating electron beam pulses at a 1 kHz rate in a 10 pulse burst, 5 pps average, with a pulse width of 70 ns FWHM. Ten 18 kV power supplies are used to charge 25 capacitor banks with a total energy storage of 8 megajoules. Energy is transferred from the capacitor banks in 500 microsecond pulses through 25 Command Resonant Charge units (CRC) to 233 Thyratron Switch Chassis. Each Thyratron Switch Chassis contains a 2.5 microfarad capacitor and is charged to 25 kV (780 joules) with voltage regulation of +- .05%. These capacitors are switched into 10:1 step-up resonant transformers to charge 233 Blumleins to 250 kV in 20 microseconds. A magnetic modulator is used instead of a Blumlein to drive the grid of the injector.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Newton, M.A.; Smith, M.E.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, D.R.; Cook, E.G.; Copp, R.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) diagnostic system on TMX

Description: The ECRH diagnostics system monitors the net power delivered to the plasma by four 200-kW gyrotron oscillators, the frequency of each gyrotron, and some operating parameters of the gyrotron power supply system. The combination CAMAC- and GPIB-based data acquisition system is under desktop computer control that provides the capability for data conversion and display. The data acquisition system is also interfaced to the main computer system that acquires and archives the data.
Date: October 20, 1981
Creator: Coffield, F.E. & Griffin, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Irradiations at RTNS-II

Description: The RTNS-II 14-MeV neutron source facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is described. Average neutron source parameters are outlined. A brief general description of the irradiation program to the present time is given. A short discussion of guidelines for prospective users is also given.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Heikkinen, D.W. & Logan, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department