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Residential building code compliance: Implications for evaluating the performance of utility residential new construction programs

Description: Knowing how well builders comply with (or exceed) energy-related building codes is critical for completing a sound evaluation of utility residential new construction programs and for determining the actual cost-effectiveness of these programs. Obtaining credit from utility regulators for additional energy savings from code compliance in participant houses as a result of the utility program is one of the key options available for utilities for improving the cost-effectiveness of these programs. In this paper, the authors examine residential building energy code compliance and specific code violations in three states (California, Oregon and Washington). They then compare residential building energy code compliance for program participants and nonparticipants as well as estimates of the energy savings impacts from noncompliance. The authors also point out some of the methodological limitations of these studies which limit the ability to generalize from these studies.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paving materials for heat island mitigation

Description: This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. & Rosenfeld, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced optical daylighting systems: light shelves and light pipes

Description: We present two perimeter daylighting systems that passively redirect beam sunlight further from the window wall using special optical films, an optimized geometry, and a small glazing aperture. The objectives of these systems are (1) to increase daylight illuminance levels at 4.6-9.1 m (15-30 ft) from the window aperture with minimum solar heat gains and (2) to improve the uniformity of the daylighting luminance gradient across the room under variable solar conditions throughout the year. The designs were developed through a series of computer-assisted ray-tracing studies, laser visualization techniques, and photometric measurements and observations using physical scale models. Bi-directional illuminance measurements in combination with analytical routines were then used to simulate daylight performance for any solar position, and were incorporated into the DOE-2.1E building energy analysis computer program to evaluate energy savings. Results show increased daylight levels and an improved luminance gradient throughout the year compared to conventional daylighting systems.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Beltran, L. O.; Lee, E. S. & Selkowitz, S. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User guide to power management for PCs and monitors

Description: Power management of personal computers (PCs) and monitors has the potential to save significant amounts of electricity as well as deliver other economic and environmental benefits. The Environmental Protection Agency`s ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has transformed the PC market so that equipment capable of power management is now widely available. However, previous studies have found that many Energy Star compliant computer systems are not accomplishing energy savings. The principal reasons for this are systems not being enabled for power management or a circumstance that prevents power management from operating. This guide is intended to provide information to computer support workers to increase the portion of systems that successfully power manage. The guide introduces power management concepts and the variety of benefits that power management can bring. It then explains how the parts of a computer system work together to enter and leave power management states. Several common computer system types are addressed, as well as the complications that networks bring to power management. Detailed instructions for checking and configuring several system types are provided, along with trouble shooting advice. The guide concludes with a discussion of how to purchase Energy Star compliant systems and future directions for power management of PCs and related equipment.
Date: January 1997
Creator: Nordman, B.; Piette, M. A.; Kinney, K. & Webber, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fourier transform photoelectron diffraction and its application to molecular orbitals and surface structure

Description: Photoemission intensities from the molecular orbitals of c(2x2)CO/Pt(111) over a wide photon energy range were measured and analyzed by the same methods developed for structural studies using core levels. The 4{sigma} orbital center of gravity is found to be concentrated between the C and O atoms, while that of the 5{sigma} orbital lies between the C atom and the Pt surface. The C 1s photoelectron diffraction was used to determine the adsorption geometry. The earlier ambiguity that multiple scattering is needed to correctly model a {chi} curve while single scattering is sufficient for understanding major peaks in the ARPEFS-FTS is clarified by studying the clean Ni(111) surface. In the normal emission case, several different combinations of scattering events have similar path length differences (PLDs), and can either cancel each other or enhance the corresponding FT peak. In the off-normal case the degeneracy is greatly reduced due to the lower degree of symmetry. In normal emission AR PEFS, up to third order multiple scattering is needed to describe fully both the {chi} curve and its FT spectrum. To improve the spectral resolution in the ARPEFS-FT analysis, several new spectral analysis methods are introduced. With both autocorrelation autoregression (ACAR) and autocorrelation eigenvector (ACE), we can produce a reliable power spectrum by following the order-closing procedure. The best spectra are usually obtained when the autocorrelation sequence is computed with lags up to half the data range. A simple way of determining surface adsorption sites is proposed as follows: First use a single scattering cluster for possible adsorption sites to construct the geometrical PLDs from the strong backscattering events; then compare these PLDs with those obtained from the ARPEFS-FT analysis of the experimental data. After the preferred adsorption site is determined, fine tune the interlayer distances according to the positional R-factor.
Date: November 30, 1998
Creator: Zhou, Xin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model-based chiller energy tracking for performance assurance at a university building

Description: Buildings and their various subsystems often do not perform as well as intended at the design stage. Building energy performance suffers from insufficient documentation of design intent, inadequate building commissioning, and a lack of robust methods for short term and continuous performance tracking. This paper discusses how calibrated models can be used to track building systems and component performance from design, through commissioning, and into operations. Models of the chillers energy use and efficiency were developed and used to evaluate energy performance and control changes to minimize energy use. The example discussed is based on an actual university building. A detailed discussion of the extrapolation and associated uncertainty of using six months of data to develop annual energy use scenarios from various chiller models is included. An important lesson concerning the design is that there was significant oversizing of the chillers resulting in poor part load performance and over $3,000 year of annual energy cost increases. The oversizing is related to extremely high estimates of office equipment loads. The oversizing also causes frequent cycling of chillers, which shortens chiller life. Due to the lack of careful start-up procedures, it appears construction debris fouled one of the new chillers, resulting in about $5,200 year in energy increases. Additional comments on design and commissioning issues are included. The monitoring, modeling, and software development efforts were developed to demonstrate the value of collecting and organizing information regarding design, commissioning, and ongoing performance. This case study is part of a larger effort to examine methods and technologies to improve buildings performance and develop interoperable Building Life-Cycle Information Systems (BLISS).
Date: September 1997
Creator: Piette, M. A.; Carter, G.; Meyers, S.; Sezgen, O. & Selkowoitz, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nidogen-1 regulates laminin-1-dependent mammary-specific gene expression

Description: Nidogen-1 (entactin) acts as a bridge between the extracellular matrix molecules laminin-1 and type IV collagen, and thus participates in the assembly of basement membranes. To investigate the role of nidogen-1 in regulating cell-type-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium, we designed a culture microecosystem in which each component, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix, could be controlled. We found that primary and established mesenchymal and myoepithelial cells synthesized and secreted nidogen-1, whereas expression was absent in primary and established epithelial cells. In an epithelial cell line containing mesenchymal cells, nidogen-1 was produced by the mesenchymal cells but deposited between the epithelial cells. In this mixed culture, mammary epithelial cells express b-casein in the presence of lactogenic hormones. Addition of either laminin-1 plus nidogen-1, or laminin-1 alone to mammary epithelial cells induced b- casein production. We asked whether recombinant nidogen-1 alone could signal directly for b-casein. Nidogen-1 did not induce b-casein synthesis in epithelial cells, but it augmented the inductive capacity of laminin-1. These data suggest that nidogen-1 can cooperate with laminin-1 to regulate b-casein expression. Addition of full length nidogen-1 to the mixed cultures had no effect on b-casein gene expression; however, a nidogen-1 fragment containing the laminin-1 binding domain, but lacking the type IV collagen-binding domain, had a dominant negative effect on b-casein expression. These data point to a physiological role for nidogen-1 in the basement membrane-induced gene expression by epithelial cells.
Date: February 2000
Creator: Pujuguet, Philippe; Simian, Marina; Liaw, Jane; Timpl, Rupert; Werb, Zena & Bissell, Mina J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sample chambers with mother-daughter mode

Description: A set of eight stand-alone sample chambers with a common interface were constructed at LBNL for improved detection of alpha and fission decay chains over currently used designs. The stainless steel chambers (see Figure 1 for a schematic and Figure 2 for a photograph of a completed chamber) were constructed to allow for low background detection of a daughter event by removal of the sample following the detection of a parent event. This mother-daughter mode of operation has been utilized successfully with our Merry-go-Round (MG) detection system [Gregorich 1994].
Date: July 12, 2001
Creator: Wilk, P. A.; Gregorich, K. E. & Hoffman, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments at The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion

Description: An overview of experiments is presented, in which the physical dimensions, emittance and perveance are scaled to explore driver-relevant beam dynamics. Among these are beam merging, focusing to a small spot, and bending and recirculating beams. The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion (VNL) is also developing two driver-scale beam experiments involving heavy-ion beams with I(sub beam) about 1 Ampere to provide guidance for the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) for driver system studies within the next 5 years. Multiple-beam sources and injectors are being designed and a one-beam module will be built and tested. Another experimental effort will be the transport of such a beam through about 100 magnetic quadrupoles. The experiment will determine transport limits at high aperture fill factors, beam halo formation, and the influence on beam properties of secondary electron Research into driver technology will be briefly presented, including the development of ferromagnetic core materials, induction core pulsers, multiple-beam quadrupole arrays and plasma channel formation experiments for pinched transport in reactor chambers.
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Seidl, P. A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Celata, C. M.; Faltens, A.; Kwan, J. W.; MacLaren, S. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

Description: The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.
Date: July 1997
Creator: Howarth, D.; Busch, J. & Starrs, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers

Description: Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.
Date: January 1998
Creator: Stetiu, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsurface electromagnetic measurement through steel casing

Description: Numerical calculations show that useful information can be obtained in an electromagnetic crosswell survey where one of the wells is cased in steel. Our simple model is based on the assumption of an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous full space. Nevertheless the results indicate that if the pipe characteristics are independently known then the formation signal can be accurately recovered. This is best done at a single frequency where the pipe attenuation is modest. In fact we show that the optimal frequency for formation signal recovery is defined mainly by the pipe parameters and is largely independent of the formation conductivity.
Date: November 1998
Creator: Becker, A. B.; Wang, B. & Lee, K. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000

Description: The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development for FY2000.
Date: February 27, 2001
Creator: Hansen, Todd & Levy, Karin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

J/{psi} and {psi}{prime} suppression by comovers in Pb+Pb collisions

Description: Measurements of {psi} and {psi}{prime} production at the CERN SPS are compared to predictions based on a hadronic model of charmonium suppression. Detailed information is presented to facilitate comparison to other analyses. Sensitivity of these conclusions to model parameters is discussed.
Date: November 1996
Creator: Gavin, S. & Vogt, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparative study of RF and induction linac approaches to phase rotation of a muon bunch in the production region of a {mu}{sup +}- {mu}{sup {minus}} collider

Description: RF and induction linac approaches to phase rotation of the muon bunch have been studied. Shorter accelerator length, lower power consumption and shorter bunch length favor the RF linac approach. An important outstanding research issue is the operation of RF cavities within 2 - 3 meters of the production target and the accompanying very high radiation background.
Date: October 1996
Creator: Turner, W. C. & Kirk, H. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from E-Mevva and Z-Mevva: Development of new sources of intense high charge state heavy-ion beams

Description: The authors are exploring a new approach for heavy ion beam injection (e.g., into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL), as well as new sources of intense high charge state ions to be mounted on a relatively low voltage platform for high energy ion implantation. While conventional Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (Mevva) ion sources can produce up to hundreds of milliamps or more of several-times-ionized metal ions (e.g., U3+), the recent results from Batalin et al. indicate that the addition of an energetic electron beam (E-Mevva) may lead to considerably higher charge states. An alternative way to produce the electron beam is Z-Mevva, in which a z-discharge plasma is used to enhance multiple ionization. As the vacuum arc plasma plume expands into a magnetized drift region, a z-discharge is triggered in the drifting metal plasma. The ions are then extracted and analyzed using a time-of-flight system. The authors report initial results using these schemes with applied discharge and electron beam voltages from 1 to 2 kV.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Liu, F.; Anders, A. & Brown, I. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets for a muon collider

Description: High field dipole and quadrupole magnet designs with racetrack coils are investigated. The design option is particularly attractive for a muon collider dipole magnet using the Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor. A conceptual design of {approximately}15 T single aperture dipole magnet is presented where the coils maintain a simple 2-d structure through the ends. The use of racetrack coils in quadrupole magnets is also discussed. It appears that the racetrack coils are less attractive for high gradient quadrupole magnets.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Gupta, R. C.; Green, M. A.; Scanlan, R. M. & Palmer, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BEARS: Radioactive ion beams at LBNL

Description: BEARS (Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species) is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88 inch Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88 inch Cyclotron`s Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p,n) and (p,{alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88 inch Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of up to 2.5 {times} 10{sup 7} ions/sec and {sup 14}O beams of 3 {times} 10{sup 5} ions/sec.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Powell, J.; Guo, F. Q. & Haustein, P. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colliding crystalline beams

Description: The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. The authors study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. They initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then overlapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, they find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong cooling, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Wei, J. & Sessler, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muon collider overview: Progress and future plans

Description: Besides continued work on the parameters of a 3--4 and 0.5 TeV center of mass (CoM) collider, many studies are now concentrating on a machine near 100 GeV (CoM) that could be a factor for the s-channel production of Higgs particles. The authors mention the research on the various components in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate pions from a heavy-Z target and proceeding through the phase rotation and decay ({pi} {r_arrow} {mu}{nu}{sub {mu}}) channel, muon cooling, acceleration, storage in a collider ring and the collider detector. The authors also mention theoretical and experimental R and D plans for the next several years that should lead to a better understanding of the design and feasibility issues for all of the components. This note is a summary of a report updating the progress on the R and D since the Feasibility Study of Muon Colliders presented at the Workshop Snowmass `96.
Date: June 1998
Creator: Palmer, R.; Sessler, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Gallardo, J. & Collaboration, Muon Collider
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department