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Postirradiation Evaluation of Zircaloy-2 PRTR Pressure Tubes. Part 1.

Description: Three tubes were removed from the PRTR for detailed postirradiation tests and inspections. The room temperature burst properties, depth of fretting corrosion, changes in grain structure, and the extent of crevice corrosion were determined. The observations may be summarized as follows: (1.) Irradiatlon to 10/sup 20/ nvt (E > 1 Mev) produced a small increase in room temperature burst strength and a decrease in ductility. The uniform deformation of the specimen prior to the local bulging that precedes failure decreased to a negligible amount at the highest exposure. One tube failed when a short crack propagated through the wall nt a stress equivalent to about 85% of ultimate burst stress. The crack did not then propagate the length of the specimen under these severe circumstemces which indicates that the material is still behaving in a ductlle manner at room temperature. (2.) Close-up visual examination revealed thrt the fretting corrosion marks appeared much the same as in photos taken through the borescope. Depths of penetration from standard fuel element end brackets were found up to 6 mils deep. Outer wire wraps and, occasionally, individual rod wire wraps caused similar penetrations of the tube wall. Bands on Pu--Al elements did not cause any measurable penetration of the tube wall. Increasing the width of contact area of the fuel end bracket apparently decreased the penetration. (3.) The grain structure under the fretting corrosion marks was unchanged in many instances; however, local hydriding was found in a thin layer under three of the twelve corrosion defects that were examined. Visual appearance of the corrosion mark gave no indication of the presence of hydride. (4.) Crevice corrosion of the upper flange penetrated up to 4 mils. Heavy white corrosion product is present but little if any local hydriding has occurred since the first operating period. …
Date: November 1, 1962
Creator: Defferding, L. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery and Purification of Technetium-99 From Neutralized Purex Wastes

Description: Technetium recovery from neutralized Purex waste supernate by ion exchange was studied on laboratory and pilot plant scales. The pertechnetate ion was shown to be absorbed from slightly acid, neutral, or basic solutions at concentrations as high as 7.5 M in nitrate by a variety of strong-base anion exchange resins. Several grams of Tc were recovered from plant waste supernate in three runs using a single five liter anion exchange bed. The recovered Tc was further purified by oxidation of Ru to RuO/sub 4/ and precipitation of the Ru on a cation exchange bed to give a Tc product of high purity. The Tc was subsequently precipitated as technetium sulfide. The results obtained show that Tc can be economically recovered from neutralized Purex wastes by a single stage ion exchange process with over-all yields greater than 80%. the Tc can be obtained with a chemical and radiochemical purity greater than 99%. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1962
Creator: Roberts, F. P.; Smith, F. M. & Wheelwright, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Neptunium Oxalate-Oxide Process Experience

Description: The over-all recovery process consisted of isolation from Purex plant solutions by solvent extraction, to yield an impure neptunium nitrate solution contaminated principally with U, Pu, and fission prcducts; purification by anion exchange; precipitation of nepturium(IV) oxalate; and calcination of the oxalate to yield NpO/sub 2/. The oxalate precipitation process investigations and results are described. (W.L.H.)
Date: July 1, 1959
Creator: Pollock, C. W. & Schneider, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transformation Kinetics of Plutonium. Part 2. A Study of the Gamma to Beta to Alpha and Alpha to Beta to Gamma Transformations

Description: The kinetics of the gamma deg C was con- beta deg C was con- alpha , beta deg C was con- gamma , and alpha deg C was con- beta deg C was con- gamma transformations were determined with a fiuid displacement technique. The rates of formation of the alpha and beta phases from the gamma phase were determined after gamma heat treating and allowing a sample to traasform isothermally in the alpha and beta ramges. Isothermal reaction curves were obtained from 160 C to -78C. The time-temperature-transformation curve of the gamma deg C was con- beta deg C was con- alpha transformation was plotted. The effect of the gamma heat treating time and temperature on the rate of transformation was examined. Isothermal reaction curves and time-temperature- transformation curves of the beta deg C was con- gamma , and alpha deg C was con- beta deg C was con- gamma transformations were plotted. Photomicrographs of specimens having transformed from the gamma range at different rates of transformation are presented. (auth)
Date: July 18, 1958
Creator: Nelson, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Zirflex Process

Description: tive dissolution of zirconium or Zircaloy fuel cladding. The process involves the dissolution of the cladding material in solutions of ammonium fluoride alone or in mixture with amonium nitrate. Mixtures of amonium fluoride and amonium nitrate are preferred since they result in very little evolution of hydrogen during the is that these solutions attack austenitic stainless steels only slowly, in sharp contrast to the media (e.g., hydrofluoric acid or hydrofluoric-nitric acid mixtures) generng 6 M NH/sub 4/F, the rate of pentration of Zircaloy-2 is nearly 100 mils/hr, while that of typical austentic stainless steels is only about 0.5 mil/month. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1958
Creator: Swanson, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Hydraulic Power Unit for Solvent Extraction Column Pulse Generators

Description: A power unit comprised of a reciprocating hydraulic cylinder controlled by hydraulic, mechanical, and electrical elements was developed to drive pulse generators for solvent extraction columns in the Purex Hot Semiworks. Design bases included remote control of continuouslyvariable pulse amplitudes between 1/ 2 and 1/2 inches, and pulse frequency up to 120 cycles/min. Each of nine power units operated 30 to 60 million cycles without serious difficulty, although minor modifications and corrections were made during scheduled shutdowns of the Semiworks. Operational irregularities, such as erratic or drifting amplitudes, occurred with sufficient frequency to indicate deficiencies in the original design. The triangular pulse wave which is characteristic of the power unit was suspected on several occasions as having an adverse effect on extraction column performance. However, no correlation was found to show that column performance is adversely affected by the triangular pulse. (auth)
Date: August 23, 1957
Creator: Kelly, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot Plant Denitration of Purex Waste With Sugar

Description: Batch denitration of synthetic Purex waste was investigated in 12 batch runs in the pilot plant denitration unit. Sugar was continuously added to 25 liters of hot waste. After sugar addition was complete, the hot solution was digested for several hours. The reaction proceeded smoothly and was easily controlled. About 19 to 22 moles of nitric acid were destroyed per mole of sugar with a reaction pot temperature of 100 deg C and a digestion period of 12 hours. About 17 moles of nitric acid were destroyed per mole of sugar when the reaction pot temperature was reduced to 95 deg C. A possible plant flowsheet for batch denitration with sugar was developed. This ilowsheet presumes batch denitration of large 2,500-gallon batches of waste in a standard 5,000-gallon Purex Plant tank and incorporates 12 hours of sugar addition and 12 hours of digestion. The flowsheet was successfully demonstrated in the pilot plant equipment. A 1.4M sugar solution was added to 25 liters of hot (100 deg C) waste for 12 hours and the mixture was digested for 18 hours. The initial nitric acid concentration was 6.14M. The residual nitric acid concentration was 0.94 and 0.90M after 12 and 18 hours of digestion, respectively. A residual carbon content equivalent to 1.9 and 0.4% of the total carbon fed as sugar was present after 12 and 18 hours of digestion, respectively. About 19 moles of nitric acid were destroyed per mole of sugar fed. Foaming was produced during batch denitration with sugar by addition of 0.4 gram of dibutyl phosphate per liter of synthetic waste. The addition of 0.2 gram of Dow-Corning Antifoam B per liter of waste reduced foam levels by about a factor of two. An induction period of about six to nine minutes was observed before the reaction started. …
Date: March 29, 1963
Creator: Coppinger, E. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sonic Determination of Elastics Constants in Graphite

Description: The operation of a Magnatest Type FM-500 Elastomat instrument, the detection and recognition of the resonant frequencies of a sample, the methods and formulas for the calculation of the elastic moduli from the resonant frequencies, and results obtained from testing several different materials and sample shapes are discussed. The accuracy and reproducibility of the sonic modulus method for graphite was found to be very good. The fundamental flexural resonance was reproducible to within 0.2%, with the reproducibility of the high resonances decreasing to about 0.5%. The data are tabulated. (P.C.H.)
Date: July 13, 1962
Creator: Cooley, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of the Zirflex Process With an Analog Computer

Description: The Zirflex process was studied extensively at Hanford in the development of technology for the interim reprocessing of power reactor fuels. The process involves the dissolution of Zircaloy in aqueous ammonium fluoride - ammonium nitrate solution. It is of particular interest at Hanford because of the impending fuel recovery from Zircaloy-clad PRTR and NPR elements. The chemical kinetics of the Zirflex reaction were not fuily defined at the end of the original studies. However, a pseudo first order reaction with free'' fluoride (fluoride not complexed with Zr) was deemed to describe the kinetics adequately for engineering calculations. The refined kinetic equation and the analog computer solution on model of the system are discussed. The results of thirty computer simulated dis solutions are also presented, and the data are used to illustrate the effects of the process variables on the Zirflex dissolution time cycle. The data from a selected few of the runs are directly applicable to the reprocessing of PRTR fuel elements in Redox. It was found that the Zirflex reaction kinetics are dependent on free'' fluoride ion to the 2.0l7 power and on H ion to the 0.457 power according to laboratory data secured after completion of the original research and development studies. The direct integration of the kinetic equation was prevented by the complex interdependence of the chemical variables. However, an analog computer circuit was evolved which was used to solve the defining equations simultaneously. The circuitry is discussed in the report because of its applicability to future studies and its novel aspects. The data from the computer runs verified the results of the earlier laboratory and pilot plant work. However, a much clearer view of the process is presented with the continuous graphs of the variables prepared from the computer data. In addition, data not available from …
Date: October 25, 1961
Creator: Smith, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anion Exchange Recovery of Plutonium From the Hanford 234-5 Building Button Line. Task I Oxalate Filtrate

Description: Resulte of a laboratory investigation undertaken to adapt the Pu anion exchange process to the direct recovery of the Pu lost to the Task I oxalate filtrate are reported. It was found that the Button Line Task I Filtrate can be recovered by HNO/sub 3/ anion exchange process, thus isolating the Button Line from any solvent extraction process. (J.R.D.)
Date: November 13, 1962
Creator: Wheelwright, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parameters in the Conversion of Plutonium Nitrate to Plutonium Trichloride by a Direct Calcination--Fluid Bed Chlorination Process

Description: Results of studies of the known parameters for direct calcination of plutonium nitrate in an agitated bed and conversion of PuO/sub 2/ to PuCl/sub 3/ by fluid bed processes are presented. A description of the processes and the demonstration equipment is included. The study of variables is discussed along with the parameters and plans for demonstration runs. (J.R.D.)
Date: May 31, 1961
Creator: Rasmussen, M. J.; Stiffler, G. L. & Hopkins, H. H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Neutral Organophorus Compounds as Extractants

Description: The properties of neutral organophosphorus compounds as solvents, in particular, solvents which form solvation complexes with inorganic molecules, were considered. Physical properties of the compounds are described. Phospnines, phosphine oxides, phosphinates, phosphonates, and phosphates were studied with respect to complex formation with inorganic compounds. The extraction of mineral acids by these compounds is discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 15, 1962
Creator: Burger, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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