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DESIGN GUIDES

Description: Hanford Atomic Production Operation specification guides for chemical, civil, electrical, mechanical, structural, steam, and metallurgical engineering are presented. Information is included on piping, valves, packing and gasket materials, stainless steel, tanks, compressed air, painting, and roads. Details of this manual are given in TID-4100(Suppl.). (N.W.R.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE EFFECT OF OXIDATION ON THE COMPRESSION STRENGTH OF CS-GBF GRAPHITE

Description: Data on the effects of oxidation on the compressive strength of graphite are presented. Results indicate that a rapid decrease in compressive strength in unirradiated graphite during initial oxidation, with a more gradual decrease during further oxidation. Irradiated samples exhibited greater compressive strength than non-irradiated. (J.R.D.)
Date: April 11, 1956
Creator: Griggs, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELECTRON BEAM WELDING OF NUCLEAR FUEL CLADDING COMPONENTS

Description: The rapid technological development of the nuclear and space industries has placed a great demand on metal joining processes. One of the most promising processes is electron beam welding. Welding with the electron beam ofiers high integrity in addition to the ability to fabricate unusual configurations. Advanced nuclear fuels require both reliability and unusual designs for satisfactory operation under extreme conditions of temperature and stress. To investigate the problems and techniques involved in fabricating large, advanced nuclear fuel components from Zircaloy-2 material, several cladding pieces were designed and built using the electron beam process. These designs included five basic joint types for assembling the cladding. Destructive and nondestructive examinations were employed including corrosion testing and extensive metallographic examination. Weldment size, fit-up'' of the parts to be joined, fixturing and work carriage mechanisms, as they pertain to electron beam welding, are also discussed. The electron beam process has been demonstrated as a very satisfactory method for fabricating unusual fuel cladding. Fuel cladding components with lengths up to 8 ft have been fabricated for in-reactor irradiation. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Klein, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FABRICATION OF ALUMINUM CLAD PLUTONIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOY PIN ELEMENTS

Description: Specifications are given for the fabrication of Al--Pu alloy pins clad in aluminum. The cladding components were loy pins clad in alummum. The cladding components were fabricated from 1100 aluminum, 1/16 in. in diameter. End caps were fabricated from the same material by a series of passes through draw plates to 0.035-in. diameter. The core material was cast as cylinders 0.375 in. in diameter and approximately 2 in. long in a heated graphite mold. The alloy composition was 15.75 wt.% plutonium. Billets 1/4 in. long were cut from the cylinders. These were extruded through an 87 to 1 reduction in area to a final size of 0.032 plus or minus 0.001 in. For loading, the cans were inserted in a lucite fixture and placed in an open-front hood, the cores dropped in, and the can opening scrubbed with ethyl alcohol. The 0.035-in. diameter end cap wire was then pressed into the can opening until it contacted the core and was cut off level with the top of the can. Sealing of the final end was done by fusion welding using alternating current with the tungsten inert gas process. (W.L.H.)
Date: September 1, 1960
Creator: Lemon, L.C. & Ross, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARCHITECTURAL AND CIVIL STANDARDS

Description: Hanford Atomic Production Operation specification guides and standards for architectural and civil engineering are presented. Information includes construction of roads, railroads, roofs, signs, buildings, building equipment, sewers, fences, safety systems, and drainage systems. Details of this manual are given in TID-4100 (Suppl.). (N.W.R.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CERIUM AND PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE--NOTES ON REDUCTION TO MASSIVE METAL

Description: In reduction reactions of CeO/sub 2/, with calcium and a CaCl/sub 2/ flux, the use of vibrational energy was shown to have a marked effect on the yield of coalesced metal. Buttons of 40 to 50% theoretical yield were obtained from the vibrated reductions. As the flux concentration is decreased, the slag becomes more viscous containing undissolved CaO. The undissolved CaO present prevents the metal from completely coalescing, but the metal can be recovered from the slag and coalesced under CaCl/sub 2/ containing a small amount of calcium to reduce any oxide skin present. Cerium pellet yields of 50 to 60% metal were obtained by the procedure and were not difficult to handle in air. Cerium was used as a stand-in material for plutonium. (B.O.G.)
Date: February 13, 1956
Creator: Tolley, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CONCENTRATION AND FINAL PURIFICATION OF NEPTUNIUM BY ANION EXCHANGE

Description: It was demonstrated that neptunium(IV) can be readily absorbed onto anion exchange resins from 6 M HNOsub 3/ containing ferrous sulfamate and hydrazine or semicarbazide, separated from plutonium, uranium, and common metallic impurities by washing the resin at 25 deg C with 6 M HNO/sub 3/ containing ferrous sulfamate and hydrazine or semicarbazide, separated from fission products and thorium by washing the resin at 60 deg C with S M HNO/sub 3/- 0.01 M HF containing hydrazine or semicarbazide, and eluted at concentrations greater than 40 g Np/l with 0.35 M HNO/sub 3/ at 25 deg C. Decontamination factors of greater than 10,000 from uranium, plutonium, and common metallic contammants, greater than 25,000 for fission products normally expected in the feed (mainly Zr-Nb with some Ru-Rh), and greater than 1000 for thoriuin are obtainable under proper operating conditions. Because of the low processing rates, the necessity for carrying out the absorption cycle at 25 deg C and the absence of radiation daraage problems, Dowex 1, X-4 (50-100 mesh) or Dowex 21K (50-100 mesh) resins are considered the best choices for this application. Gassing occurs with the use of ferrous sulfamate - semicarbazide reductant but is not a serious problem and does not occur with ferrous sulfamate -hydrazine reductant in 6 M HNO/sub 3/. (auth)
Date: February 10, 1959
Creator: Ryan, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRYSTALLITE SIZES OF PuO$sub 2$ POWDERS

Description: Samples of PuO/sub 2/ were examined by x-ray diffraction for crystallite size and perfection. The PuO/sub 2/ was formed by thermal decomposition of the oxalate. Measurement of the integral widths of diffraction lines gave values of broadening which were used to calculate the effective crystallite thickness. (J.R.D.)
Date: July 27, 1956
Creator: Pallmer, P. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DENITRATION OF PUREX WASTES WITH SUGAR

Description: A process was developed for the destruction of HNO/sub 3/ in Purex-type waste solutions using sugar. Polyhydroxy compounds such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and crude syrups such as black strap molasses rapidly and controllably decompose HNO/sub 3/ in aqueous solutions at temperatures above approximately 85 deg C. The number of moles of HNO/sub 3/ destroyed per mole of sugar fed is a function of the temperature of reaction and the moles of dissolved multivalent metal cations (such as iron and chromium). The efficiency of HNO/sub 3/ destruction does not vary with acid concentration over the range of 0.5 to 8 M. However, destruction of acid does vary with iron concentration. Approximately 12 to 20 moles of HNO/sub 3/ are destroyed per mole of sucrose fed as the iron concentration increases from 0 to 1 M. Products of the denitration reaction are all gaseous, consisting of oxides of carbon and nitrogen. The process was successfully tested in the high level hot cells, the cold pilot plant denitration unit, and in the Purex plant. (P.C.H.)
Date: April 1, 1963
Creator: Bray, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF PUREX PROCESS PULSE COLUMNS

Description: Information on the development of pulse columns for the Purex Process is presented in order to indicate qualitutively the performance attainable with improved cartridge designs, and to show some of the factors involved in scaling up pilot plant results to full plant scale. The pulse columns were designed to produce separated uranium and plutonium products decontaminated by at least a factor of 10>s7/sup /om fission products, with average uranium and plutonium losses of less than 0.2% per column and an overall yield of at least 99% of each product. The five types of behavior observed in pulse columns as a function of throughout rate and pulsing conditions are described. The effects of increasing frequency and throughput rate on pulse column efficiency are shown. The different types of perforated plates and packings investigated for Purex service are discussed. Short cuts, indicated by Purex development studies, that may be taken to provide a suituble column design with a minimum of pilot plant development are described. (M.C.G.)
Date: February 17, 1961
Creator: Richardson, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE LATTICE TEST REACTOR PROJECT CAH-100

Description: Design and construction specifications to be followed in the development of the reactor, its associated systems and experimental facilities, and the housing and required services for the facility are presented. The testing procedures to be used are outlined. (D.C.W.)
Date: May 24, 1963
Creator: Ballard, D. L.; Brown, W. W.; Harrison, C. W.; Heineman, R. E.; Henry, H. L.; Jeffs, T. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REVIEW OF POWER AND HEAT REACTOR DESIGNS. Domestic and Foreign

Description: Unclassified information from domestic and foreign literature from January 1952 through September 1963 is compiled. Design characteristics and current information on the status of the individual designs are given, along with references for the associated literature. SNAP systems, proposed reactors, and chemonuclear and test reactors with characteristics similar to power reactors are included. The designs are indexed by name, location, type, and some special characteristics. (D.C.W.)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Appleby, E.R., comp
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAFETY ASPECTS OF PUREX PLANT CONCENTRATOR OPERATION

Description: A study was made to evaluate the possibility of an explosive reaction occurring in the Hanford Purex Plant concentrators as presently instrumented. Results revealed that the occurrence of an explosive reaction in the Purex Plant concentrators with present instrumentation is very unlikely. (W.L.H.)
Date: December 23, 1955
Creator: Shefcik, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAFETY-MECHANICAL STANDARDS

Description: Hanford Atomic Production Operation specification guides and standards for plumbing, chemical ngineering, mechanical engineering, sanitary engineering, exhaust systems, steam engineering, stainless steel, dry boxes, thermal insulation, filtration, and materials testing are presented. Details of this manual are given in TID-4100 (Suppl.). (N.W.R.)
Date: October 31, 1964
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM(VI) TO PLUTONIUM(IV) IN A PLUTONIUM(IV-VI) NITRIC ACID SOLUTION

Description: The technique for adjusting the valence of Pu in the Pu(IV-VI) system to the Pa(IV) state for efficient solvent extraction or anion exchange is described. Investigations show that Pu(VI) may be reliably reduced to Pu(IV) with ferrous suifamate s. Nitric acid concentration must be between 2 and 6 M to avoid Pu disproportionation of suifamate precipitation. Ferrous sulfamate concentration is kept below 1 M to prevent crystal formation after the reaction, but Pu concentration may be as high as 250 g/l. (P.C.H.)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Campbell, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN CHEMICAL EXCHANGE SYSTEMS

Description: The theory and results of chemical exchange experiments for separation of Pu and U isotopes are presented. Solvent extraction systems were studied in both aqueous and organic media. Chemical exchange systems are proposed which could yield high separation factors. (W.L.H.)
Date: May 16, 1955
Creator: Hahn, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA

Description: Hanford Atomic Production Operation specification gaides for design criteria, structural engineering, civil engineering, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, fire alarm systems, noise control, lighting, railroad construction, corrosion protection, and electrical engineering are presented. Details of this manual are given in TID-4100 (Suppl.). (N.W.R.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERMAL CYCLING OF PLUTONIUM. PART I. OBSERVATIONS OF THE PHYSICAL DAMAGE RESULTING FROM THERMAL CYCLING PLUTONIUM THROUGH ITS LOW TEMPERATURE PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS

Description: Plutonium, thermally cycled through the low-temperature allotropic transformations, exhibited extensive physical damage. The physical damage was greater than that reported for any other metal or alloy. The extent of physical damage was determined by measurements of fluid displacement and the dimensional changes. The internal porosity was examined metallographically. Physical damage varied considerably, depending on the cycling conditions and the characteristics of the metal (particularly inclusions and casting imperfections). Observations showed that increasing the specimen size produced a greater decrease in density as a function of the number of cycles. The degree of void formation was directly proportional to volume change associated with the phase transformation. Other variables such as the length-diameter ratio (constant diameter) had little or no influence on the amount of physical damage. The dimensional growth was both radial and longitudinal. The tensile strength and the yield strength of tensile specimens cycled ten times between the gamnna and alpha phases were decreased to an average of 30,000 and 26,000 psi, respectively. (auth)
Date: September 16, 1959
Creator: Nelson, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A THERMOBALANCE FOR STUDYING THE CHLORINATION OF PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE WITH PHOSGENE

Description: An automatic recording thermobalance for studying the chlorination of plutonium dioxide with phosgene is described. The highly toxic and corrosive nature of these materials imposed restrictions on the construction and operation of the thermobalance. The instrument operates on the deflection balance principle in which the extension of a precision quartz helix spring is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. Experimental results from the gas- solid reaction between phosgene and plutonium dioxide are discussed. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Sorenson, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WELDING STANDARDS

Description: Hanford Atomic Production Operation specification guides and standards for welding and brazing are presented. Details of this manual are given in TID- 4100 (Suppl.). (N.W.R.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ZIRCONIUM CLADDING OF URANIUM

Description: Under proper conditions of vacuum and mold preheat, a sound ductile alloy bond can be achieved by casting molten uranium into zirconium and Zircaloy- 2 molds. Investigations indicate that a process for production of zirconium of Zircaloy-2 clad fuel elements can be developed by casting directly into preformed shells. Employment of cast bonding techniques appears to be a simple and practical method for assembling extrusion billets. It also appears that coextrusion of cast bonded normal uranium billets produces a clad rod exhibiting a rather uniform cladding thickness and map permit greater freedom in selection of extrusion conditions to produce a clad and bonded geometry. Forming of cast bond ingots in diamond-round or oval-round sequences falled to produce a clad rod with uniform jacket thickness. subsequent forming operations failed to rectify nonuniformities in jacket thicknesses once they had occurred. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1954
Creator: Pankaskie, P.J. & Schaffer, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department