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Enhanced work planning for reduction in landlord costs

Description: The cost of Landlord services constitutes a major portion of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) budget. In order to place more resources in the area of actual remediation and cleanup, the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) has established a new enhanced work planning initiative through the Integrated Safe Shutdown, Waste Management, and Landlord (ISWL) Project Team. The ISWL Project Team is a planning and coordination group which meets weekly at no additional cost to the DOE; actual field work is funded and implemented through the remedial or operational projects. The purpose of this team is to address issues that will facilitate safe shutdown and/or reduction of utilities in facilities thereby decreasing the infrastructure costs and increasing integration/advanced planning between Waste Management, Safe Shutdown, and Landlord Programs. The ISWL Project Team is the key planning and integration link for near term (one month to one year) integration activities. The ISWL Team is planning for the coordination of integration activities which must be completed to support and facilitate the FEMP`s (1) Safe Shutdown Program, (2) Utility Reduction Program, (3) Waste Programs Management, (4) remediation of all FEMP structures, and (5) ongoing remediation projects.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Miller, L.K.; Houser, S.M.; Paine, D. & West, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical treatment of mixed waste can be done.....Today!

Description: The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the FEMP to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D. & Sattler, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contract reform: It`s working at Fernald

Description: DOE`s contract reform initiatives at Fernald and the performance-based system DOE is now using to evaluate FERMCO are key elements to the current and future success of DOE and FERMCO at Fernald. Final cleanup of the Fernald site is planned for completion by 2005 per an accelerated 10-year remediation plan which has been approved by DOE and endorsed by the US EPA, Ohio EPA, and the Fernald Citizens Task Force. Required funding of approximately $276 million plus inflation annually for 10 years to accomplish final cleanup is now being considered by US Congress. Contract reform initiatives and modified performance measurement systems, along with best business practices, are clearing the path for the expedited cleanup of Fernald.
Date: January 25, 1996
Creator: Craig, J. & Hunt, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fernald Envoy Program: How face-to-face public involvement is working

Description: In March 1994, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), initiated the Fernald Envoy Program as a tool for strengthening public involvement in the restoration of the Fernald site, a former US Department of Energy uranium processing facility which ceased operation in 1989 and became an environmental restoration site. Based on the concept that opinion leaders play a key role in the flow of information, the Envoy Program was developed to link Fernald with opinion leaders in community groups. In February and March 1995, the University of Cincinnati Center for Environmental Communication Studies, under contract with the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation, conducted an evaluation to determine how the Envoy Program was functioning in relation to the original Envoy Plan. A quasi-experimental design was applied using telephone surveys of opinion leaders in groups with envoy representation and in groups without representation. Findings validated the effectiveness of the program and also identified areas for program improvement.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hoopes, J.; Hundertmark, C.A. & Jordan, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fernald Citizens Task Force: Shifting the focus

Description: In August 1995, the Fernald Citizens Task Force provided the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Ohio EPA (OEPA), and FERMCO with cost-effective, iplementable recommendations for addressing Fernald`s most pressing issues. Fernald is now proceeding with an accelerated cleanup plan to make these recommendations reality. With its initial work plan complete, the Task Force confronted a new challenge: How to shift its focus from developing recommendations designed to influence Fernald`s Records of Decision to advising project managers during remedial design and remedial action. This paper reports on the experiences of the Task Force, the DOE, Fernald regulators, and FERMCO as the Task Force made this shift. In the process, the parties encountered issues involving work plan development, membership, organization, and support resource allocation. Lessons learned as these issues were resolved are summarized. The Fernald experience supports the conclusion that ``hands-on`` citizen involvement in government decision- making at a major environmental remediation site can effectively transition from one area of focus to another.
Date: November 30, 1995
Creator: Stegner, G.D.; Applegate, J.S.; Hoopes, J. & Sarno, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating removal actions and remedial actions: Soil and debris management at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

Description: Since 1991, excess soil and debris generated at the Fernald Environmental management Project (FEMP) have been managed in accordance with the principles contained in a programmatic Removal Action (RvA) Work Plan (WP). This plan provides a sitewide management concept and implementation strategy for improved storage and management of excess soil and debris over the period required to design and construct improved storage facilities. These management principles, however, are no longer consistent with the directions in approved and draft Records of Decision (RODs) and anticipated in draft RODs other decision documents. A new approach has been taken to foster improved management techniques for soil and debris that can be readily incorporated into remedial design/remedial action plans. Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. This paper describes the methods that were applied to address the issues associated with keeping the components of the new work plan field implementable and flexible; this is especially important as remedial design is either in its initial stages or has not been started and final remediation options could not be precluded.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Goidell, L.C.; Hagen, T.D.; Strimbu, M.J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Taylor, A.C.; Weese, T.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental data management at Fernald

Description: FERMCO supports DOE`s ongoing initiatives for the continuous improvement of site restoration through the development and application of innovative technologies. A major thrust of FERMCO`s efforts has been the enhancement of environmental data management technology for the site. The understanding of environmental data is the fundamental basis for determining the need for environmental restoration, developing and comparing remedial alternatives, and reaching a decision on how to clean up a site. Environmental data management at Fernald is being focused on two major objectives: to improve the efficiency of the data management process, and to provide a better understanding of the meaning of the data at the earliest possible time. Environmental data at Fernald is typically a soil or groundwater sample collected by one of the field geologists. These samples are then shipped to one or more laboratories for analysis. After the analyses are returned from the laboratories the data are reviewed and qualified for usability. The data are then used by environmental professionals for determining nature and extent of contamination. Additionally, hazardous waste materials whether generated during production or during cleanup, may be sampled to characterize the waste before shipment or treatment. The data management process, which uses four major software systems, is presented graphically.
Date: April 22, 1994
Creator: Jones, B.W. & Williams, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

Description: The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Carr, D.; Hertel, B.; Jewett, M.; Janke, R. & Conner, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of shipping doses and compositions for vitrified waste

Description: Shipments of radioactive materials must adhere to dose limits specified in the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper discusses methods for evaluating shipping doses of vitrified waste. A methodology was developed for evaluating the change in vitrification composition required to maintain shipping dose rates within limits. The point kernel codes QAD and Microshield were used to evaluate dose equivalent rates from specified waste forms and radioactivity measurements. The Origen code was utilized to provide the gamma-ray activity as a function of time from isotopic activity measurements. This gamma-ray activity served as source input for QAD. Microshield developed its own source from the given isotopic activities.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Shapiro, A. & Vogel, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CERCLA and RCRA requirements affecting cleanup of a hazardous waste management unit at a Superfund site: A case study

Description: The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) attempted to address both RCRA and CERCLA requirements at the fire training facility (FTF) by integrating a CERCLA removal action work plan with a RCRA closure plan. While the regulatory agencies involved with the FTF cleanup agreed the integrated document was a good idea, implementation proved complicated, owing to disposition of clean debris from a Superfund site, treatment of contaminated media, duration of cleanup activities, and cleanup certification. While all the complications have not been resolved, solutions to all have been proposed to Ohio EPA and U.S. EPA. Both agencies have worked closely with FEMP to find the most effective fulfillment of RCRA and CERCLA requirements.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Walsh, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beneficial reuse of US DOE Radioactive scrap metal

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 2.5 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) that is either in inventory or expected to be generated over the next 25 years as major facilities within the weapons complex are decommissioned. Since much of this metal cannot be decontaminated easily, past practice has been to either retain this material in inventory or ship it to DOE disposal sites for burial. In an attempt to conserve natural resources and to avoid burial of this material at DOE disposal sites, options are now being explored to ``beneficially reuse`` this material. Under the beneficial reuse concept, RSM that cannot be decontaminated and free released is used in applications where the inherent contamination is not a detriment to its end use. This paper describes initiatives currently in progress in the United States that support the DOE beneficial reuse concept.
Date: January 19, 1995
Creator: Motl, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive waste acceptance team and generator interface yields successful implementation of waste acceptance criteria

Description: The Fernald Environmental Management Project has developed a successful Low Level Waste Shipping Program in compliance with the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325, Revision 1. This shipping program is responsible for the successful disposal of more than 4 million cubic feet of Low Level Waste over the past decade. The success of the Fernald Low Level Waste Shipping Program is due to the generator program staff working closely with the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program Team to achieve win/win situations. The teamwork is the direct result of dedicated, proactive professionals working together toward a common objective: the safe disposition of low level radioactive waste. The growth and development of this program has many lessons learned to share with the low level waste generating community. The recognition of reciprocal interests enables consistently high annual volumes of Fernald waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site without incident. The large volumes successfully disposed serve testimony to the success of the program which is equally important to all Nevada Test Site and Fernald stakeholders. The Fernald approach to success is currently being shared with other low-level waste generators through DOE-NV sponsored outreach programs. This paper introduces examples of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation contributions to the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program outreach initiatives. These practices are applicable to other low level waste disposal programs whether federal, commercial, domestic or international.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Rowe, J.G.; Griffin, W.A. & Rast, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An industry response to recycle 2000

Description: The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE`s position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this `Recycle 2000` initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Motl, G.P. & Loiselle, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drum inspection robots: Application development

Description: Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Hazen, F.B. & Warner, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approved CAMU equals faster, better, cheaper remediation at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

Description: A 1,050 acre Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) was approved for the Fernald Protection Agency Environmental Management Project (FEMP) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to manage environmental media remediation waste in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision, 1995. Debris is also proposed for management as remediation waste under the CAMU Rule in the Operable Unit 3 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report, as of December 1995. Application of the CAMU Rule at the FEMP will allow consolidation of low-level mixed waste and hazardous waste that presents minimal threat from these two operable units in an on-property engineered disposal facility without triggering land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The waste acceptance criteria for the on property disposal facility are based on a combination of site-specific risk-based concentration standards, as opposed to non-site-specific requirements imposed by regulatory classifications.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Goidell, L.C.; Strimbu, M.J. & Nickel, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Successful completion of a RCRA closure for the Fernald Environmental Management Project

Description: This paper discusses the successful completion of a RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) closure of a HF (hydrofluoric acid) tank car at FEMP, which is on the national priorities list of hazardous waste sites and is undergoing CERCLA remediation. The HF tank car closure was conducted by FERMCO. Through a combination of sound planning and team work, the HF tank car was closed safely and ahead of schedule. During > 22,000 hr field work required for construction modifications and neutralization of 9,600 gallons of HF and decontamination rinseates, there were no OSHA recordable incidents. The system design avoided additional costs by maximizing use of existing equipment and facilities. This successful closure of the HF tank car demonstrates FEMP`s commitment to reducing risks and cleaning up the facility in a manner consistent with objectives of RCRA regulations and the Ohio EPA hazardous waste rules. This in turn facilitated ongoing negotiations with Ohio EPA to integrate RCRA closure and the ongoing CERCLA remediation activities. This paper addresses why the unit was clean closed under an approved RCRA Closure Plan. Integration of EPA regulations for RCRA and CERCLA programs and the DOE-Orders impacting design, construction and operation of an acid neutralization system is also reviewed. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned in the process in preparing the closure plant and through final project close out.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Lippitt, J.M. & Kolthoff, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

Description: Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A.; Allen, R.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) at DOE`s Fernald Site: Success and pitfalls

Description: After 36 years of operation, uranium production at the Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was halted in 1989. Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate (UNH) had been produced during the uranium refining. In June 1991, DOE determined the UNH to be a mixed hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. A UNH Neutralization Project began processing UNH stored in stainless steel tanks located in various areas within the Fernald Plant 2/3 Complex. It was discovered that the valves, flanges, and other fittings of the UNH storage tanks were leaking. This made processing the UNH a high priority and Comprehensive, Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Removal Action No. 20, Stabilization of UNH Inventories, was initiated. This report presents the successes and pitfalls of the cleanup of UNH.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Luken, D.W.; Brettschneider, D.J.; Heck, R.P. III & White, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixed wastes management at Fernald: Making it happen quickly, economically and compliantly

Description: At the end of calender year 1992, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) had approximately 12,500 drums of mixed low-level waste in storage and the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) had just begun to develop an aggressive project based program to treat and dispose of this mixed waste. By 1996 the FERMCO mixed waste management program had reduced the aforementioned 12,500 drums of waste once in inventory to approximately 5800 drums. Projects are currently in progress to completely eliminate the FEMP inventory of mixed waste. As a result of these initiatives and aggressive project management, the FEMP has become a model for mixed waste handling, treatment and disposal for DOE facilities. Mixed waste management has traditionally been viewed as a singular and complex environmental problem. FERMCO has adopted the viewpoint that treatment and disposal of mixed waste is an engineering project, to be executed in a disciplined fashion with timely and economic results. This approach allows the larger mixed waste management problem to be divided into manageable fractions and managed by project. Each project is managed by problem solving experts, project managers, in lieu of environmental experts. In the project approach, environmental regulations become project requirements for individual resolution, as opposed to what had formerly been viewed as technically unachievable environmental standards.
Date: February 9, 1996
Creator: Witzeman, J. T. & Rast, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Price anderson nuclear safety rules: Impacts of implementation

Description: New nuclear safety rules are being implemented at Department of Energy sites. This paper examines the impacts of these rules as each site decides where rules will be implemented, whether implementation activities will be centralized, and how the site management and staff will be introduced to the new rules.
Date: September 19, 1995
Creator: Varchol, B.D. & Alhadeff, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald

Description: The Department of Energy`s Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation`s strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site`s soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site`s southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald`s mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald.
Date: September 13, 1994
Creator: Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C. & Ruwe, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radium bearing waste disposal

Description: Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A. & Schofield, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fernald wet records recovery project: A case history

Description: This paper discusses a project performed to recover wet records discovered in January 1995 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This paper discusses the emergency and record recovery phases of the project, the technical options considered for records recovery, and special measures which were required due to radiological contamination of the records. Also, the root causes and lessons learned from the incident, and path forward for future records management operations at Fernald, are discussed.
Date: June 22, 1995
Creator: Sterling, H.J.; Devir, B.R.; Hawley, R.A. & Freesmeyer, M.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department