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Measurement control administration for nuclear materials accountability

Description: In 1986 a measurement control program was instituted at Mound to ensure that measurement performance used for nuclear material accountability was properly monitored and documented. The organization and management of various aspects of the program are discussed. Accurate measurements are the basis of nuclear material accountability. The validity of the accountability values depends on the measurement results that are used to determine inventories, receipts, and shipments. With this measurement information, material balances are calculated to determine losses and gains of materials during a specific time period. Calculation of Inventory Differences (ID) are based on chemical or physical measurements of many items. The validity of each term is dependent on the component measurements. Thus, in Figure 1, the measured element weight of 17 g is dependent on the performance of the particular measurement system that was used. In this case, the measurement is performed using a passive gamma ray method with a calibration curve determined by measuring representative standards containing a range of special nuclear materials (Figure 2). One objective of a measurement control program is to monitor and verify the validity of the calibration curve (Figure 3). In 1986 Mound's Nuclear Materials Accountability (NMA) group instituted a formal measurement control program to ensure the validity of the numbers that comprise this equation and provide a measure of how well bulk materials can be controlled. Most measurements used for accountability are production measurements with their own quality assurance programs. In many cases a measurement control system is planned and maintained by the developers and operators of the particular measurement system with oversight by the management responsible for the results. 4 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 31, 1991
Creator: Rudy, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility]

Description: The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.
Date: December 14, 1990
Creator: Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)) & Wells, J.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of hydrogen diffusion in Ti sub 2 PdH sub x to the behavior for Ti sub 2 CuH sub x and Zr sub 2 PdH sub x

Description: Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of the proton spin-lattice and rotating-frame relaxation times were made on Ti{sub 2}PdH{sub x} over the temperature range 100K to 580K. Analyses of the NMR data for Ti{sub 2}PdH{sub x} gave hydrogen diffusion parameters that corresponded with the results previously obtained from Ti{sub 2}CuH{sub x} and Zr{sub 2}PdH{sub x} when the hydrogen atoms occupied a single type of tetrahedral interstital site. However, the diffusion activation energy decreases in the sequence Ti{sub 2}PdH{sub 1.9}, Ti{sub 2}CuH{sub 1.9}, and Zr{sub 2}PdH{sub 1.9}. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Bowman, R.C. Jr. (Aerojet-General Corp., Azusa, CA (USA). Electronic Systems Div.); Attalla, A.; Abell, G.C. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Cantrell, J.S. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Chemistry) & Maeland, A.J. (Concrete Solutions, Meriden, CT (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal analyses for quality control of plastics, ceramics, and explosives

Description: Thermal analyses are performed for production quality control (q.c.) and for surveillance at Mound on plastic, ceramic, explosive and pyrotechnic materials. For the weapons surveillance program, weapon components are disassembled after varying times in the field; thermal and other analyses are then performed on the component materials. The types of thermal analyses done include: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), and high temperature TG/DTA. 5 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Brown, C.R.; Garrod, M.J. & Whitaker, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

Description: In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J. & Amos, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The utilization of fillers and reinforcements to develop an optimal DAP (diallyl phthalate) molding compound

Description: Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin-based compounds were formulated and tested. In these formulations, various types of fillers and fiberglass reinforcements were used in different concentrations while taking into consideration packing concepts, optimum aspect (L/D) ratios, resin content, rheology of the molding compound, and ultimately, the compound's performance. These formulations were required for transfer molding without restricting the melt flow through a gate size of less than 1 mm. The end products are very small parts that must conform to stringent dimensional tolerances (typically {plus minus}0.05 mm) and exhibit physical properties that exceed the requirements specified by MIL-M-14G without compromising excellent electrical characteristics. These objectives were achieved by changing from chopped glass roving to screened, milled fiberglass, by the use of microspherical fillers, and by improving micro packing which allowed an increase in the total
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Kaye, C.J.; Schneider, R.E.; Katz, H.S.; Milewski, J.V. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA) & Utility Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bearing staking process investigation using a designed experiment

Description: A designed experiment was performed on the staking operation of a miniature precision bearing. Three variables were controlled during the experiment: staking force, tool diameter, and bearing-to-wheel fit. The study showed that the current staking tool diameter is highly sensitive to staking force and to bearing-to-wheel fit, whereas a smaller diameter tool is not. The study also shows that, with the current process, bearing movement under a 100-Newton (N) force can be estimated at 0.009 in. to 0.0029 in. The current specification is 0.002 in. and should be revised to 0.0035 in. 4 figs.
Date: December 21, 1990
Creator: Armstrong, K.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of low density carbon foams by x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ion microtomography (IMT)

Description: Two NDT techniques were used to characterize low-density, microcellular, carbon foams fabricated from a salt replica process. The two techniques are x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ion microtomography (IMT); data are presented on carbon foams that contain high-density regions. The data show that densities which differ by <10% are easily observable for these low density (<100 mg/cm{sup 3}) materials. The data reveal that the carbon foams produced by this replica process have small density variations; the density being {approximately}30% greater at the outer edges than when compared to the interior of the foam. In addition, the density gradient is found to be rather sharp, that is the density drops-off rapidly from the outer edges to a uniform one in the interior of the foam. This edge build-up in carbon density was explained in terms of polymer concentrating on the foam exterior during drying which immediately followed a polymer infusion processing step. Supporting analytical data from other techniques show the foam material to be >99.9% carbon. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Moddeman, W.E.; Kramer, D.P.; Firisch, D.W.; Trainer, P.D. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Yancy, R.N. (ARACOR, Dayton, OH (USA)); Weirup, D.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of the operational method

Description: New equations for continuous, operational interpolation on four plates in rectangular array are derived. The equations can be applied to the interpretation of experimental data. Other topics include convergence of operational formulas and extrapolation by operational methods. 11 refs.
Date: November 14, 1990
Creator: Silver, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calcium isotope separation by chemical exchange with polymer-bound crown compounds

Description: Chromatographic separation of calcium isotopes by chemical exchange with polymer-bound 18-crown-6 was investigated. The breakthrough technique of column chromatography was employed to determine the influence of solvent composition and ligand-tether structure on separation coefficients and heterogeneous calcium complex stability. The separation coefficient, {epsilon}, was found to be strongly dependent upon solvent composition. An {epsilon} of 0. 0025{plus minus}0.0002 (95% C.L.) for the {sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca isotope pair was obtained with a 70/30 (by volume) methanol/chloroform solvent mixture at 20.0{degree}C. Differences in the structure of the tether binding the crown ring to the polymer had no influence on {epsilon} at that solvent composition. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Jepson, B.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and operation of an inert gas facility for thermoelectric generator storage

Description: While the flight hardware is protected by design from the harsh environments of space, its in-air storage often requires special protection from contaminants such as dust, moisture and other gases. One of these components, the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) which powers the missions, was deemed particularly vulnerable to pre-launch aging because the generators remain operational at core temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees centigrade throughout the storage period. Any oxygen permitted to enter the devices will react with thermally hot components, preferentially with molybdenum in the insulating foils, and with graphites to form CO/CO{sub 2} gases which are corrosive to the thermopile. It was important therefore to minimize the amount of oxygen which could enter, by either limiting the effective in-leakage areas on the generators themselves, or by reducing the relative amount of oxygen within the environment around the generators, or both. With the generators already assembled and procedures in place to assure minimal in-leakage in handling, the approach of choice was to provide a storage environment which contains significantly less oxygen than normal air. 2 refs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Goebel, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 2: Accident Model Document (AMD)

Description: The purpose of this volume of the LWRHU SAR, the Accident Model Document (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; Provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; Evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and Associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Johnson, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 1: A. Introduction and executive summary: B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

Description: The orbiter and probe portions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Applications (OSA) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report, prepared by Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulated mission failures or malfunctions occur, resulting in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 11 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Johnson, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

Description: An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.
Date: November 30, 1988
Creator: McAdams, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved molding of DAP (diallyl phthalate) electrical components in aluminum housings

Description: Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin-based compounds with fiberglass reinforcements were used for the transfer molding of electrical components in aluminum housings. The gate size for this molding is less than 1 mm, and the end products, which are very small parts, must conform to stringent dimensional tolerances (typically {plus minus}0.05 mm). Parts must also exhibit physical properties that exceed the requirements specified by Mil-M-14G without compromising excellent electrical characteristics. In the past, processing had proceeded with only minor difficulties, but an alloy change instituted for the electrode material caused molding yields to plummet from 80 to 25%. Subsequent evaluations and process modifications not only remedied the impact of the alloy change but also increased yields to 96%. 9 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Kaye, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kapton HN investigations

Description: Kapton HN properties and the properties of the slip additive calcium phosphate dibasic (CaHPO{sub 4}) were investigated. Impurity analyses were performed on the compound by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and ion chromatography (IC). Other analyses on the slip additive included: processing solution -- dissolution analysis, high-explosive compatibility studies, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and particle size distribution. Testing and analyses were also performed on Kapton HN film and other polyimide films that could serve as possible replacements for Kapton HN. The polyimide films that were tested are: Upilex-R, Upilex-S, Upilex-SGA, and Apical. The analyses performed were: infrared (IR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SEM/EDS, high-potential breakdown testing, (PVD) physical vapor deposition adhesion tests, and peel tests. Upilex-S flyer cables were also fabricated and successfully test fired. In addition to these raw material tests, production cables were chemically treated and destructively (high potential) tested. A long-term aging environment for production cables was also selected, and aging tests were begun. 9 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: September 28, 1990
Creator: Williams, M.K.; Huelskamp, M.A.; Armstrong, K.P.; Brandon, J.L.; Lavoie, J.M. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)) & Smith, A.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Milliwatt Generator Heat Source Progress Report, January--December 1989

Description: All hardware shipments to LANL were made on or ahead of schedule, thus satisfying all War Reserve and other hardware/yttrium requirements for the reporting period January--December 1989. A special investigation was conducted to determine the source of a surface staining'' problem observed on some T-111 components. Although the cause was not positively identified, the actions taken as a result of the investigation dramatically reduced both the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of the problem. Hardware fabrication activates continued in an efficient and timely manner, with production losses at a minimal level. During the reporting period, a 99.4% utilization yield was realized, with a 0.8 dollar percent defectiveness. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: September 10, 1990
Creator: Saylor, Ranny W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revision of FED-STD-209D and MIL-STD-1246B and development of IES (Institute of Environmental Sciences) contamination control recommended practices in the United States of America

Description: In the United States of America, numerous organizations are writing standards and recommend practices for contamination control and cleanroom applications. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES), and various US Government agencies are among the organizations with a vested interest in publishing standards and recommended practices on these subjects. In the early years of contamination control and cleanroom technology, significant work was done in the US on standards and recommended practices. Proprietary standards were established by companies and other documents were produced by Federal agencies and technical organizations. In 1982, the IES began to focus on recommended practices, and the US General Services Administration (GSA) commissioned the IES to review and rewrite US Federal Standard 209 (FED-STD-209). The ASTM continues to review and update their standards on cleanroom applications on a periodic basis. Now, in 1990, US military organizations are beginning to review their cleanroom documents as well. This paper will discuss the preparation of IES Recommended Practices and Standards for contamination control and cleanroom applications. It will describe the current status of four IES Recommended Practices and two US Government documents.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Mielke, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid state radioluminescent sources: Mixed organic/inorganic hybrids

Description: This concept brings a condensed source of tritium into close proximity with an inorganic phosphor. That source may thus become the equivalent of many atmospheres of tritium gas pressure. If both phosphor and tritium source material are optically clear, then a lamp's brightness may be made to scale with optical path length. Proof of principle of this concept has been demonstrated and will be described. A theoretical treatment is presented for the results here and for results from aerogel experiments. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Gill, J.T. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Renschler, C.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Shepodd, T.J. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)) & Smith, H.M. (Allied-Signal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritiation of aerogel matrices: T sub 2 O, tritiated organics and tritium exchange on aerogel surfaces

Description: Three methods for incorporation of tritium into the phoshor/aerogel matrix have been demonstrated: (1) adsorption of T{sub 2}O by the aerogel, (2) incorporation of tritiated organic into the pores of the aerogel and (3) isotopic exchange of tritium from T{sub 2} gas for the H residing on the surface of the aerogel. Adsorption of T{sub 2}O produces the brightest light (4.4 fL) to date but the tritium is loosely bound. Incorporation of tritiated organics into the pores of the aerogel produces less that theoretical luminance and intensity diminishes rapidly due to precipitation and darkening of the organic from radiation damage. Isotopic exchange produces a stable lamp by tritiating H sites on the surface of the aerogel. A lamp with stable luminance of 1.1 fL has been produced; a theoretical limit for a mono-layer coverage fo the aerogel surface is 2 to 3 fL. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Ellefson, R.E.; Gill, J.T. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Shepodd, T.J. (Sandia Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)) & Leonard, L.E. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid-state decomposition kinetics of pentaerythritol tetranitrate

Description: Decomposition of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was monitored at constant volume under variable pressures of NO{sub 2} using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). Decomposition involved a slow initial reaction followed by an autocatalytic transition at longer times. The apparent induction time(time-to-maximum rate) for autocatalysis was found to be dependent upon sample mass and the initial pressure of NO{sub 2}. A global kinetic model consistent with observed product distributions and the free radical chain decomposition mechanisms proposed for simpler alkyl nitrates was found to yield calculated induction times in accord with experiment. 13 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Pickard, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-pressure bulk-phosphor tritium lamps

Description: An alternate approach to maintain excitation efficiency is to fill the volume of the glass lamp with phosphor particles and use the tritium in the volume between particles to excite the phosphor. As the gas pressure (and tritium density) is increased, the light scales linearly with tritium density with little self-absorption. At about 25 Atm-T{sub 2}, the luminance of bulk phosphor equals the luminance of surface excitation at 1.8 foot-Lamberts (fL). Further increase of tritium pressure should produce linear scaling to give about 7 fL at 100 Atm-T{sub 2}. Data that shows linear scaling of bulk-phosphor luminance with tritium pressure up to 7 Atm-T{sub 2} is shown. The optical depth of bulk phosphor was increased using glass beads for light piping and aerogel for dispersal of the phosphor. The results show a variation of luminance with density that has a broad maximum centered at 0.5 g(ZnS)/cc. The concept of microlamps as a pixel for mosaic lamp designs is presented and demonstrated. 3 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Ellefson, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid state radioluminescent sources using zeolites

Description: Inorganic zeolites show promise as an alternative to traditional tritium gas tube light sources. Greater proximity of tritium atoms and luminescing centers, as well as greater tritium loading density, have been obtained within the zeolite aluminosilicate matrix. Zeolites are in addition optically clear and radiation stable. The zeolite radioluminescence program is described. Procedures for obtaining light sources are presented and results are discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Gill, J.T. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Hawkins, D.B. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA)) & Renschler, C.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department