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Scheduled oil sampling: A proactive approach towards pollution prevention and waste minimization

Description: The Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) maintains an emergency fire protection system which provides fire water during emergency conditions. The diesel engine driving this system receives regular preventative maintenance (PM) and servicing. The Waste Minimization Plan for WROC requires that all systems and processes be given a regular assessment to verify any Pollution Prevention (P2) or Waste Minimization (Waste Min.) activities. The WROC Maintenance group has implemented a proactive or best management practice (BMP) that reflects this P2/Waste Min. awareness. The diesel engine is operated for 30 minutes each week to maintain its readiness. A typical owner`s manual for industrial engines require that the oil be changed every 100-hours of operation or 6-months; only 13-hours of operation occur during the 6-months before the required oil change. Thirteen hours of operation would not warrant changing the oil. The WROC proactive approach to this problem is to perform an annual Scheduled Oil Sampling (SOS). An 8-ounce sample of oil is obtained and sent to a SOS lab. The SOS lab analyzes the condition (breakdown) of the oil and, provides a detailed analysis of metal particulates (from engine wear), and checks for impurities, such as, sulphur, water, coolant, and fuel in the system. The oil is changed only when the sampling results warrant that an oil change is necessary. The actual costs of the oil, filters, and labor far exceed the costs of performing the SOS. The projected cost savings after 8 years is about $12,000 in labor, oil changing costs, and hazardous waste analysis.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Reece, C. & Zirker, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-1: Historical development of GTCC LLW characterization

Description: By the late 1980s, it was apparent that there was little support for any of the volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) thus far predicted. It had also become clear that the amount of GTCC LLW to be generated in the future was highly dependent on a number of specific technical and policy issues unrelated to past generation rates. In 1990, DOE`s EM-35 organization requested that the GTCC LLW Management Program at the INEL conduct a systematic exercise designed to achieve a degree of consensus around a narrower range of volume projections. Following the series of workshops, the INEL and subcontractors conducted technical studies to associate specific waste volume projections with the various scenarios developed by the panels. The results of these studies were reported in Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW-114, August 1991). This appendix briefly describes the historical development of the GTCC LLW project.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

Description: Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L. & Turner, P.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Portland cement: A solidification agent for low-level radioactive waste

Description: This bulletin discusses the solidification of waste streams using portland-type cement to provide the structural stability required by 10 CFR 61. Portland cement has been used in this role since early in the commercial nuclear program as a simple and inexpensive solidification medium for immobilization of radioactive wastes. Through the use of additives, most waste streams can be satisfactorily immobilized with portland cement. However, some problem waste streams can not be solidified with portland cement at this time, and those are discussed in this document.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US Fish and Wildlife Service Biomonitoring Operations Manual: Appendices A-K

Description: Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.
Date: April 1993
Creator: Gianotto, D. F.; Rope, R. C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Wiersma, G. B.; Staley, C. S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A suction lysimeter and a geophysical access port

Description: A sampling apparatus is described for monitoring vadose zones, geologic media or buried waste in sediment and more particularly to such an apparatus which is operable as an access port for geophysical logging and collecting fluid samples to permit analysis of such fluid samples for the presence of toxic substances, having a pipe-like, stainless steel, longitudinally extending, access tube with two ends, where the first end extends above the surface of the sediment and has a removable air tight seal. The subject invention further has a backing in fluid communication with the access tube and a fluid permeable plate contiguous with the backing, wherein the fluid permeable plate is made up of porous stainless steel. A reservoir is integrated into the second closed end of the access tube for containing the collected fluid. A vacuum pump, having a vacuum gauge/transducer attached thereto, is connected to the removable air tight seal for applying a vacuum to the access tube, such that gas and fluid samples may be drawn through the fluid permeable plate. A fluid sample connector coupled to the removable air tight seal, in addition to the vacuum pump with vacuum gauge/transducer, for withdrawing a fluid sample from the access tube.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hubbell, J.M. & Sisson, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

Description: DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Funk, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance assessments for near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

Description: The goal of a performance assessment for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility is to determine the proposed facility`s projected compliance with regulatory limits in terms of doses to the general public and to protect inadvertent intruders. A set of exposure scenarios must be evaluated for each of the various institutional phases of the facility; a quantitative evaluation must be performed for the most probable scenarios. Evaluation of the final conceptual model of the facility and site should involve the use of appropriate computer code and site-specific data. Code selection for a performance assessment should be based on code capabilities as well as on site-specific needs and characteristics. Generally, a single code will not be capable of simulating all relevant scenarios. A review of performance assessments for confirmation of regulatory compliance will be conducted by the NRC or the appropriate Agreement State regulatory agency. Performance assessment codes are tools for evaluating a proposed LLW disposal facility`s regulatory compliance. This evaluation should objectively assess the physical properties of the facility and its environment. Calculations in support of this evaluation must be conservative yet realistic and they must also be technically defensible and supported by adequate data.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Kostelnik, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature metallic diffraction gratings and process of manufacturing same

Description: This invention is comprised of a method of applying diffraction gratings or images directly to the surface of a substrate wherein the gratings or images are capable of withstanding high temperatures, pressures, humidity and other such conditions related to materials testing. The method includes coating the surface of the substrate with an uniform layer of metal which is then overlaid with a layer of photo-resist material. Next, after contacting the photo-resist material with a master image containing regions of opacity and transparency, electromagnetic radiation is directed through the master image to expose the photo-resist material such that a contact print of the master image is produced on the photo-resist material. Then, after removing the master image, the photo-resist material is developed so as to remove unhardened portions thereof and leave corresponding portions of the metal layer uncovered. Finally, after removing or etching the uncovered portions of the metal layer, the remaining photo-resist material is removed to produce a metallic diffraction grating or image of predetermined size and pattern on the surface of the substrate.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Deason, V.A.; Hsu, Karen M. & Miller, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TMI-2 core bore acquisition summary report

Description: Core bore samples were obtained from the severely damaged TMI-2 core during July and August, 1986. A description of the TMI-2 core bore drilling unit used to obtain samples; a summary and discussion of the data from the ten core bore segments which were obtained; and the initial results of analysis and evaluation of these data are presented in this report. The impact of the major findings relative to our understanding of the accident scenario is also discussed.
Date: February 1, 1987
Creator: Tolman, E.L.; Smith, R.P.; Martin, M.R.; McCardell, R.K. & Broughton, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling

Description: The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V. & Brimacombe, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 1, Sealed sources held by specific licensees

Description: Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. To better understand the scope of the GTCC LLW situation regarding sealed sources and to provide data to a model that projects future quantities of GTCC material, data from a comprehensive 1991 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) survey and a related 1992 survey of Agreement States were analyzed to estimate the number, volume, and activity of Potential GTCC sealed sources currently available from specific licensees. Potential GTCC sealed sources are sources that exceed the limits stated in 10 CFR 61 when isotope concentrations are averaged over the volume of the capsule. Based on the surveys, the estimated number of existing Potential GTCC sealed sources held by specific licensees is 89,000, with an unpackaged volume of 0.93 m{sup 3} and an activity of 2,300,000 Ci. However, current disposal practices allow concentration averaging over the disposal container, substantially reducing the number of sealed sources which will actually be classified as GTCC LLW.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Harris, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a method utilizing drum headspace VOC concentration as a waste characterization tool

Description: Pretest waste characterization for the bin-scale tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) required sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from within transuranic (TRU) waste drums. Although the bin-scale tests have been postponed, the development and demonstration of accurate waste characterization methods continues. The objectives of extensive sampling of waste drums are to obtain a representative sample from each layer of confinement to identify volatile and gaseous constituents, verify process knowledge of the drum contents, and demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. A method to estimate the VOC concentration between layers of confinement from a single headspace sample collected beneath the drum filter of a vented waste drum is investigated. This method of characterizing the void space within a drum could eventually lead to a significant reduction in sampling time and cost. A model based on fundamental principles of transport phenomena is developed to estimate the VOC concentration throughout a waste drum based on the knowledge of the transport properties and the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model and experimental results are compared.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C. & Connolly, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational concepts for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Configuration Study

Description: DOE has initiated a planning process in anticipation of upgrading all DOE waste management operations and facilities. The EM Configuration Study examines four areas: (1) planning considerations, (2) system configuration, (3) operational concepts, and (4) resource assessments. Each area is addressed by a different team. Objective of the Operational Concepts Team 3 study is to investigate, identify, define, and evaluate alternative ways to manage DOE waste management facilities, while taking into consideration the information gathered by the other EM Configuration teams. This report provides information and criteria for evaluating the relative effectiveness and efficiency of various organizational alternatives that can be used to operate and manage DOE waste facilities. Intent of this report is not to select one best management alternative but rather to provide recommendations, conclusions, and background information from which decisions will be made at a future date.
Date: December 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

Description: This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II & Garcia, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

Description: The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O. & Ball, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constrained noninformative priors

Description: The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Atwood, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory analytical services performance evaluation plan

Description: The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Sample Management Office (SMO) conducts a Performance Evaluation Program that ensures that data of known quality are supplied by the analytical. chemistry service organizations with which the INEL contracts. The Analytical Services Performance Evaluation Plan documents the routine monitoring and assessment of suppliers conducted by the SMO, and it describes the procedures that are followed to ensure that suppliers meet all appropriate requirements. Because high-quality analytical support is vital to the success of DOE Environmental Management programs at the INEL, the performance of organizations providing these services must be routinely monitored and assessed. Analytical disciplines for which performance is monitored include metals, organics, radiochemical, and miscellaneous classical analysis methods.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Connolly, J.M.; Sailer, S.J. & Anderson, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 3, Sealed sources held by general licensees

Description: This is the third volume in a series of three volumes characterizing the population of sealed sources that may become greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). In this volume, those sources possessed by general licensees are discussed. General-licensed devices may contain sealed sources with significant amounts of radioactive material. However, the devices are designed to be safe to use without special knowledge of radiological safety practices. Devices containing Am-241 or Cm-244 sources are most likely to become GTCC LLW after concentration averaging. This study estimates that there are about 16,000 GTCC devices held by general licensees; 15,000 of these contain Am-241 sources and 1,000 contain Cm-244 sources. Additionally, this study estimates that there are 1,600 GTCC devices sold to general licensees each year. However, due to a lack of available information on general licensees in Agreement States, these estimates are uncertain. This uncertainty is quantified in the low and high case estimates given in this report, which span approximately an order of magnitude.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Harris, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual: Volume 1

Description: This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Rope, R. C. & Breckenridge, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A solar powered distillation plant and pump station for use in ocean side desert areas

Description: There are thousands of miles of ocean shoreline which could sustain a productive human existence if sufficient fresh water were available for human consumption and for irrigation of crops. While solar stills can be built to produce fresh water at or close to sea level, raising water to a height sufficient to irrigate crops, even with minimum water usage crops, requires a significant amount of energy. This paper describes a ``no-external power`` process by which seawater can be purified and raised to a height above sea level sufficient to carry on a productive living in certain areas of the world. This device, the Solar Evaporation and Pumping System (SEAPS) is described as to function and areas of use.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Dearien, J.A. & Priebe, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High performance APCS conceptual design and evaluation scoping study

Description: This Air Pollution Control System (APCS) Conceptual Design and Evaluation study was conducted to evaluate a high-performance (APC) system for minimizing air emissions from mixed waste thermal treatment systems. Seven variations of high-performance APCS designs were conceptualized using several design objectives. One of the system designs was selected for detailed process simulation using ASPEN PLUS to determine material and energy balances and evaluate performance. Installed system capital costs were also estimated. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the incremental cost and benefit of added carbon adsorber beds for mercury control, specific catalytic reduction for NO{sub x} control, and offgas retention tanks for holding the offgas until sample analysis is conducted to verify that the offgas meets emission limits. Results show that the high-performance dry-wet APCS can easily meet all expected emission limits except for possibly mercury. The capability to achieve high levels of mercury control (potentially necessary for thermally treating some DOE mixed streams) could not be validated using current performance data for mercury control technologies. The engineering approach and ASPEN PLUS modeling tool developed and used in this study identified APC equipment and system performance, size, cost, and other issues that are not yet resolved. These issues need to be addressed in feasibility studies and conceptual designs for new facilities or for determining how to modify existing facilities to meet expected emission limits. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation with current and refined input assumptions and calculations can be used to provide system performance information for decision-making, identifying best options, estimating costs, reducing the potential for emission violations, providing information needed for waste flow analysis, incorporating new APCS technologies in existing designs, or performing facility design and permitting activities.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Soelberg, N.; Liekhus, K.; Chambers, A. & Anderson, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 1: Regulatory updates, performance assessment, understanding remedial action efforts

Description: Eighteen papers are presented in this volume. The section on regulatory updates present papers on EPA, NRC, and DOE regulations. The performance assessment section presents studies on disposal facilities at ORNL, Hanford, and the Feed Materials Production Center. The remedial action section papers discuss programs and remedial action activities. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.
Date: November 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department