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LOFT: a nuclear plant providing realistic answers to PWR licensing issues

Description: This paper discusses the role the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Experimental Program has played and will play in addressing licensing issues of interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), nuclear steam supply system vendors, and utility power companies. The LOFT facility is an operating, prototypically scaled pressurized water reactor (PWR) system in which experiments are performed that characterize conditions for postulated accidents in a commercial PWR. The accident conditions imposed have not caused damage to the LOFT system, and the system has been succesfully stabilized and recovered in each instance. Data from these experiments have provided and will continue to provide realistic answers to PWR licensing issues both before and after the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI).
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Solbrig, C.W.; Linebarger, J.H. & Kaufman, N.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LOFT Vital MG Set transient parameter review

Description: This report evaluates the performance of the vital MG sets during a worst case load transfer. Evaluation of test data showed: (1) The Vital MG Set withstood the extreme loading; (2) The load can be sustained well in excess of the required time limit; and (3) The transfer perturbation caused the frequency to exceed the limits set by the SDD. The follow up evaluations of the equipment powered by the MG sets demonstrated that the equipment function will not be degraded.
Date: September 12, 1978
Creator: Kranning, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercritical binary geothermal cycle experiments with mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids and a vertical, in-tube, counterflow condenser

Description: The objective is improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Current testing involves supercritical vaporization and counterflow in-tube condensing in an organic Rankine cycle. This report presents a description of the test facility and results from a part of the program in which the condenser was oriented in a vertical attitude. Results of the experiments for the supercritical heaters and the countercurrent, vertical, in-tube condenser are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids. The heater and condenser behavior predicted by the Heat Transfer Research, Inc. computer codes used for correlation of the data was in excellent agreement with experimental results. A special series of tests, conducted with propane and up to approximately 40% isopentane concentration, indicated that a close approach to ''integral'' condensation was occurring in the vertically-oriented condenser.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Demuth, O.J.; Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L. & Swank, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical assistance efforts at EG and G Idaho, Inc

Description: As part of DOE's geothermal outreach program, EG and G Idaho has been funded since 1977 to provide technical information and assistance to parties interested in the direct applications of geothermal energy. In this time information has been provided to over 1000 requestors and technical assistance and analyses have been supplied to over 250 parties interested in developing geothermal resources. Many of the latter efforts are leading to direct-use projects that use geothermal resources to replace fossil fuels. A few of the more promising projects are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Engen, I.A. & Toth, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

Description: This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Ware, A.G. & Longhurst, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal and hydraulic performance tests of a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger vaporizing pure and mixed-hydrocarbon Rankine-cycle working fluids

Description: Experiments investigating a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger were conducted at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in southeastern Idaho using the 60-kW Mobile Heat Cycle Research Facility operating in the thermal loop mode (without a turbine). Isobutane, propane, and several hydrocarbon mixtures were heated and boiled in the direct-contact column, which is approx. 12 in. in diameter and 19-1/2 ft. high, using the energy from a 280/sup 0/F geothermal resource. Using pure fluids, isobutane or propane, the column operated much as intended, with 17 trays used for preheating and one or two accomplishing the boiling. For the pure fluids, individual tray efficiencies were found to be 70% or higher for preheating, and close to 100% for boiling; column pinch points were projected to be well under 1/sup 0/F with some runs reaching values as low as approx. 0.02/sup 0/F. Maximum geofluid throughputs for the isobutane tests corresponded roughly to the terminal rise velocity of a 1/32 in. working fluid droplet in geofluid. Boiling was found to occur in as many as 12 trays for the mixtures having the highest concentrations of the minor component, with overall efficiencies in the boiling section estimated on the order of 25 or 30%. Preheating tray efficiencies appeared to be fairly independent of working fluid, with pinch points ranging from as low as approx. 0.03/sup 0/F for a 0.95 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture to approx. 2.3/sup 0/F for a 0.85 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture. Column operation was noticeably less stable for the mixtures than for the pure fluids, with maximum throughputs dropping to as low as 40 to 50% of those for the pure fluids.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Mines, G.L.; Demuth, O.J. & Wiggins, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three Mile Island technical information and examination program instrumentation and electrical summary report

Description: This report summarizes the investigations on instrumentation and electrical systems that were subjected to a loss-of-coolant accident environment during and following the accident at Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) on March 28, 1979. The report is a summary of information previously published in GEND-INF reports, plus current knowledge of the investigators.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Meininger, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of short-term corrosion evaluation tests at Raft River

Description: Four categories of short-term materials evaluation tests were conducted in geothermal fluid from Raft River Geothermal Experiment, Well No. 1, to obtain corrosion data relevant to the design of the Raft River Thermal Loop Facility. Test programs are described and the testing philosophies are discussed. All materials and configurations which were tested are identified and details of posttest visual examinations are presented. The materials are then assigned to appropriate performance categories on the basis of test behavior, and the possible service limitations are appraised.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Miller, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

Description: This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Green, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semiannual progress report for the Idaho Geothermal Program, October 1, 1980 to March 31, 1981

Description: Modifications incorporated in the 5-MW Pilot Power Plant at Raft River Geothermal Test Site, system operational testing and maintenance and activities at that plant, and the water treatment program's corrosion studies are summarized. Progress is reported on performance tests of the ORNL condenser in the Prototype Power Plant, checkout of the direct contact heat exchanger, and modification of that plant. The progress of testing and continuing studies of direct-contact heat exchangers is reported - including the liquid-liquid direct contact heat exchanger, primary heat exchanger, sieve tray preheater, multiple-purpose apparatus, and packed bed studies and tests. Effects of production-injection tests at Raft River on monitor wells are summarized. Monitoring activities and studies of the environmental program at Raft River are described and plans of two successful proposers under the User-Coupled Confirmation Drilling Program are summarized. Investigation of costs for three aspects of direct use of hydrothermal energy is reported. Progress is reported on the Marketing Assistance Program, through which technical information and assistance are provided to potential users and developers of geothermal resources.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Parker, J.T. & Smith, C.J. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short collision time approximation for neutron scattering using discrete frequency distributions

Description: A completely general form for computing any scattering cross section based on the incoherent approximation without extending f(..omega..) to negative frequencies and without integrating over the complex plane is presented. A simple derivation of the short collision time approximation for discrete frequency distributions is also given. The approximation works well for large incident neutron energies when the duration of a collision is short compared with the natural periods of atomic motion. Single-differential scattering cross sections for light water as computed with the free proton and Nelkin scattering models at 561/sup 0/K, and the short collision time approximation with T/sub eff/ = 1468/sup 0/K, are shown for an incident neutron energy of 1.0 eV. 1 figure. (RWR)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ryskamp, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nondestructive characterization of low-level transuranic waste

Description: The use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is proposed for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. These NDE methods include real-time x-ray radiography, real-time neutron radiography, x-ray and neutron computed tomography, thermal imaging, container weighing, visual examination, and acoustic measurements. An integrated NDE system is proposed for characterization and certification of TRU waste destined for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Methods for automating both the classification waste and control of a complete nondestructive evaluation/nondestructive assay system are presented. Feasibility testing of the different NDE methods, including real-time x-ray radiography, and development of automated waste classification techniques are covered as part of a five year effort designed to yield a production waste characterization system.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Barna, B.A. & Reinhardt, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post CHF heat transfer and quenching. [PWR]

Description: This paper describes quantitatively new mechanisms in the post-CHF regime which provide understanding and predictive capability for several current two-phase forced convective heat transfer problems. These mechanisms are important in predicting rod temperature turnaround and quenching during the reflood phase of either a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or the FLECHT and Semiscale experiments. The mechanisms are also important to the blowdown phase of a LOCA or the recent Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) experiments L2-2 and L2-3, which were 200% cold leg break transients. These LOFT experiments experienced total core quenching in the early part of the blowdown phase at high (1000 psia) pressures. The mechanisms are also important to certain pressurized water reactor (PWR) operational transients where the reactor may operate in the post-CHF regime for short periods of time. Accurate prediction of the post-CHF heat transfer including core quench during these transients is of prime importance to limit maximum cladding temperatures and prevent cladding deformation.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Nelson, R.A. & Condie, K.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a 5-MW(e) binary geothermal-electric power plant

Description: A 5-MW(e) Pilot Geothermal Power Plant was built by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), at Raft River, Idaho, as an integral part of the Department of Energy's plan for commercial development of geothermal energy. The purpose of the plant was to investigate the technical feasibility of utilizing a moderate temperature hydrothermal resource (275 to 300/sup 0/F) to generate electrical power in an environmentally acceptable manner. The plant used a dual-boiling binary cycle with isobutane as the working fluid, and drew thermal energy from a 280/sup 0/F liquid-dominated resource. This paper presents the results of that testing, and compares both component and system performance to the performance predicted prior to operation.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Bliem, C.J.; Fullmer, K.S. & Kochan, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical model studies of dispersion in fracture systems

Description: The purposes of the laboratory-scale fracture network experiments are to study mechanisms controlling solute transport under conditions of known fracture parameters, to evaluate injection-backflow test procedures under conditions of known reservoir parameters, and to acquire data for validation of numerical models. Validation of computer codes against laboratory data collected under controlled conditions provides reassurance that the codes deal with important processes in a realistic manner. Preliminary simulations of the dual-permeability physical model have been made using the FRACSL reservoir code. These simulations permit locating electrodes and piezometers in the most advantageous positions to record tracer migration and pressure response. Much of the physical modeling effort this year was oriented towards validating the particle tracking algorithm used in FRACSL, and developing a better theoretical understanding of transport processes in fractures. Experiments were conducted in single fractures and single fracture junctions, and data on tracer migration collected. The Prickett, Naymik, and Lonnquist Random Walk aquifer simulation program has been modfied to simulate flow in single fractures. The particle tracking algorithm was also used to simulate infinite parallel plates under conditions where analytical solutions to the transport equation could be derived. The first case is for zero diffusion in the fracture, and transport based on a parabolic velocity profile. The second case is for diffusion homogenizing the tracer solution across the fracture. The particle tracking algorithm matched both analytical solutions quite well, with the same grid for both simulations. 48 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Hull, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume I

Description: Environmental baseline data for the Snake River Plain known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) are evaluated for geothermal development. The objective is to achieve a sound data base prior to geothermal development. These KGRAs are: Vulcan Hot Springs, Crane Creek, Castle Creek, Bruneau, Mountain Home, Raft River, Island Park, and Yellowstone. Air quality, meteorology, hydrology, water quality, soils, land use, geology, subsidence, seismicity, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, demography, socioeconomics, and heritage resources are analyzed. This program includes a summary of environmental concerns related to geothermal development in each of the KGRAs, an annotated bibliography of reference materials (Volume II), detailed reports on the various program elements for each of the KGRAs, a program plan identifying future research needs, and a comprehensive data file.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. & Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

Description: The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L. & Meyer, O.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LOFT pressurizer pressure relief piping system stress analysis and fatigue life report

Description: A stress analysis was performed on the LOFT Pressurizer Pressure Relief System to determine if it met the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1974 Edition, for Class 1 and Class 2 components. Deadweight, thermal expansion, seismic, design LOCE, and LOCA loads were considered. The results of this analysis indicate that the LOFT pressurizer pressure relief system will comply with Code specifications provided modifications are made to the hanger support configuration and one small section of pipe. The recommended changes are listed below. Note that some of these hangers were previously required based upon an analysis which subjected this same piping system to a reduced LOCE (20 millisecond valve opening). (1) Addition of Snubbers as per letter HIK-12-75, LOFT Pipe Hanger Requirements on Main Feed Main Steam Pressurizer and ECC Systems. (2) The 1/2'' Line 1/2''-PCS-10 between the tee and CVP-136-19 must be increased in diameter to 1.050 inches (OD of nominal 3/4'' pipe). (3) Modification of Unibals and flat bars as per letter Muff-2-76, required change of flat bar hangers and unibals on pressure relief and pressurizing piping. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 19, 1978
Creator: Muffett, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term subsurface migration of radionuclides from buried INEL transuranic waste

Description: Studies have been conducted to project long-term subsurface migration of radionuclides from transuranic (TRU-contaminated solid waste buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Projections are given for several conceptual methods of waste confinement.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Humphrey, T.G. & Smith, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials for coal gasification. Effect of environment on stress rupture

Description: The biaxial stress rupture behavior for two of the alloys, Type 310 stainless steel and Haynes 188, is shown in figures. The other two alloys show similar behavior. The rupture parameter, P, is an empirical quantity which reflects the simultaneous effects of both temperature and duration of applied stress on stress rupture. Based on these results, several trends are apparent: (1) the biaxial stress rupture tests show the same trends and approximately the same stress rupture values as uniaxial data obtained from the literature for each alloy tested; (2) only for the Haynes 188 may the stress rupture strength/life in CGA have been significantly less than in air. But further testing has indicated there is probably no reduction of biaxial stress rupture strength/life in CGA even for this alloy; (3) the biaxial strain at rupture was small, typically only a few percent. It is appropriate to mention that in the uniaxial stress rupture testing at SwRI, exposure to CGA generally resulted in a shorter rupture life than with testing in air. No explanation is yet available for the observed difference in behavior between SwRI and INEL test specimens.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Horton, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties test data for structural materials. Semiannual progress report for period ending July 31, 1980

Description: Mechanical property investigations of Alloy 718 given either the 954/sup 0/C conventional or the INEL heat treatment are continuing. Current conventional heat-treat data include tests showing the effects of surface finish, product variability, and thermal exposure on the high-cycle fatigue properties; creep-fatigue tests at 538, 593, 649, and 704/sup 0/C with 0.1 hour hold times at peak strain; and stress-rupture tests of notched and smooth specimens showing the effect of pretest thermal exposure. A few stress-rupture tests of weld and base metals given the INEL heat treatment are also reported. High-cycle fatigue tests of Type 316 stainless steel at 593/sup 0/C are reported and compared with previous data from other sources.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Keiser, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microprocessor-controlled scanning densitometer system

Description: An Automated Scanning Densitometer System has been developed by uniting a microprocessor with a low energy x-ray densitometer system. The microprocessor controls the detector movement, provides self-calibration, compensates raw readings to provide time-linear output, controls both data storage and the host computer interface, and provides measurement output in engineering units for immediate reading. The densitometer, when used in a scanning mode, is a precision reference instrument that provides chordal average density measurements over the cross section of a pipe under steady-state flow conditions. Results have shown an improvement over the original densitometer in reliability and repeatability of the system, an a factor-of-five improvement in accuracy.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Shurtliff, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

Description: The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.
Date: April 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2

Description: Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W. & Hobbins, R.R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department