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Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

Description: This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J. G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D. W. & Sutherland, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Dynamic enhanced recovery technologies]. Quarterly technical report, August 1992--October 1993

Description: This paper has presented the investigation of the mechanism of geopressure occurrence, the transition of elastic properties from the hydrostatic pressured formation to the geopressured formation, and finally, a novel seismic amplitude analysis technique to map the top-of-geopresure surface. The successful application of our new technique to the Pleistocene, offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico has again demonstrated that seismic attributes analyses are of importantance in the hydrocarbon exploration. There are three parts in this paper corresponding to the above discussed topics: Part I discusses mechanisms of geopressuring, and the effects of changing porosity, pressure, and fluid saturation on the elastic properties; Part II investigates the controlling factors in the geopressure transition zone, their seismic responses, and theoretical derivations of our new prediction method; and Part III demonstrates the application of the proposed method to the Pleistocene, Offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, the prediction discrpepancy between the seismic predicted top-of-geopressure and that dericed from 145 well logs, and finally, the importance of this hydrodynamic surface.
Date: October 15, 1993
Creator: Anderson, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the total CO{sub 2} concentration and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in seawater during WOCE expeditions in the South Pacific Ocean. Progress report, [January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993]

Description: During the first year of the grant, we participated in three WOCE expeditions (a total of 152 days at sea) in the South Pacific Ocean, and the field phase of the proposed investigation has been successfully completed. The total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} were determined at sea in 4419 water samples collected at 422 stations. On the basis of the shipboard analyses of SIO Reference Solutions for CO, and a comparison with the results of previous expeditions, the overall precision of our total CO{sub 2} determinations is estimated to be about {plus_minus}2 uM/kg. The deep water data indicate that there is a CO{sub 2} maximum centered about 2600 meters deep. This appears to represent a southward return flow from the North Pacific. The magnitude and distribution of the CO, maximum observed along the 135.0{degrees}W meridian differ from those observed along the 150.5{degrees}W meridian due to Tuamotu Archipelago, a topographic high which interferes with the southward return flow. The surface water pCO{sub 2} data indicate that the South Pacific sub-tropical gyre water located between about 15{degrees}S and 50{degrees}S is a sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2}.
Date: June 29, 1993
Creator: Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J. G.; Chipman, D. W. & Rubin, S. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean. Progress report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1994

Description: We have completed the studies using the inorganic carbon cycle in the zonally averaged ocean circulation model to calculate anthropogenic uptake of CO, and bomb radiocarbon. While our results are in broad agreement with previous studies, we have learned that horizontal mixing processes due to gyre circulation are important for transient tracer experiments over a few decades. These findings are in press. Using the inorganic carbon cycle model we have started to look at the distributions of {delta}{sup 13}C in the ocean. The model is able to reproduce faithfully the air-sea fractionation of {delta}{sup 13}C. The effect of changing sea surface temperature in the middle and low latitudes of the world ocean on pCO{sub 2{sup atm}} is studied in this model and compared to the organic carbon cycle model of the Hamburg group. We find significant differences in sensitivity and are in the process of investigating possible reasons. Incorporation of the organic component is still ongoing. In the present version the surface concentrations of phosphate are still too high indicating strong upwelling.
Date: April 30, 1994
Creator: Stocker, T. F. & Broecker, W. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seasonal study of carbon dioxide in the southern extreme of the pacific sector, Antarctic Ocean. Progress report

Description: This report describes the progress made during the six-month period between December 1, 1993, when this grant was awarded, and May 1, 1994. The major aim of this investigation is to measure the distribution of the total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} in seawater in the Pacific sector of the extreme Southern Ocean as far south as 78{degrees}S. The areas investigated include the continental shelf areas in the Ross, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas ad the off-shore deep water areas as far north as 67{degrees}S. The measurements were made aboard the R/VIB Nathaniel B. Palmer between February 14, 1994 and April 5, 1994, and the preliminary results are briefly described in this report. This expedition constitutes the first of a pair expeditions. The first is designed investigate oceanic CO{sub 2} sink/source conditions during the austral summer The second expedition, which is designed for the following winter, has been scheduled for September, 1994.
Date: May 5, 1994
Creator: Takahashi, Taro; Goddard, J. G.; Rubin, S. I. & Breger, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Dynamic enhanced recovery techniques]. Quarterly technical report, April 1994--June 1994

Description: Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth of faults in Eugene Island Block 330 (EI-330 field) are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water and the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production testing of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. In this quarterly report, progress reports are presented for the following tasks: Task one--management start-up; Task two--database management; Task three--field demonstration experiment; Task four--reservoir characterization; Task five--modeling; Task six--geochemistry; and Task seven--data integration.
Date: July 15, 1994
Creator: Anderson, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southern ocean controls on current ice shelf evolution. Annual progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

Description: A seasonal cycle of shelf water temperatures and salinities observed at the eastern Ross Ice Shelf edge was used to force a two-dimensional thermohaline circulation model adapted to two different sub-ice cavity paths around Roosevelt Island. Model results verified by current meter measurements reveal that shelf water flowing into the cavity west of Roosevelt Island might follow a sub-ice path with nearly constant water column thickness of 200 m. This would largely exclude the grounding line of the northern Siple Coast from the contact with open ocean water masses. In contrast to the forcing with time-independent summer profiles, seasonal forcing causes a higher spatial and temporal variability of the cavity`s circulation and property distribution. At the model`s open boundaries the intermitted inflow of shelf water displaces the meltwater outflow originating from the interior ice shelf base to greater depth and initiates an additional shallow meltwater plume. The average melting along the ice shelf base increases from 0.07 m/a to 0.38.m/a due to seasonality in shelf water characteristics, and to 2.3 m/a, if we introduce a 100-year temperature rise of 1{degree}C. The rate decreases, if salinity simultanously decreases; a possible scenario, if the enhanced meltwater outflow mixes with shelf water in front of the ice shelves.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Hellmer, H. H. & Jacobs, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent changes of weather patterns in North America. Progress report for period ending April 1, 1994

Description: This report contains information dealing with climatic change in North America. Results gathered from present and previous DOE contracts are discussed. These include: usage of the Historical Climatology Network, characteristics of recent climate change, impacts of increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, seasonal trends, geographic and seasonal distribution of temperature anomalies, paleoclimates, weather pattern differences between eastern and western regions, daily temperature variations, general circulation models, and results of oceanic circulation.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Kukla, G. J. & Karl, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GBRN/DOE Project: Dynamic enhanced recovery technologies. Quarterly technical report, January 1994--March 1994

Description: Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth faults in EI-330 field are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. Previous work, which incorporated pressure, temperature, fluid flow, heat flow, seismic, production, and well log data, indicated active fluid flow along fault zones. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production test of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. The quarterly progress reports contains accomplishments to date for the following tasks: Management start-up; database management; field and demonstration equipment; reservoir characterization, modeling; geochemistry; and data integration.
Date: April 15, 1994
Creator: Anderson, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 11/5 in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21)

Description: This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and chemical data during R/V Meteor Expedition 11/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean, including the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; and the Eastern South Atlantic Ocean. This cruise was conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The cruise started from Ushuaia, Argentina, on January 23, 1990, and ended at Capetown, South Africa on March 8, 1990. Samples were collected at 78 stations that covered the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; a section along the 58 W parallel; and two segmented S-N sections between the Northern Weddell Sea and Capetown, South Africa. Measurements taken at WOCE sections A-12 and A-21 included pressure, temperature, salinity measured by the Conductivity, Temperature and Depth sensor (CTD); bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrate; silicate; total carbon concentration (TCO{sub 2}); and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured at 20 C. In addition, potential density at 0 decibar (dbar) and potential temperature were calculated from the measured variables. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometer with an estimated precision of approximately {+-} {mu}mol/kg.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Chipman, D. W.; Takahashi, T.; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S. C.; Kozyr, A. & Gaslightwala, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department