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UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT. ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS

Description: The engineering considerations are given on which the design and construction of tanks for the storage of low-level radioactive waste solutions were based. The tanks have a nominal capacity of 1,300,000 gal each. While conforming to the principle of total confinement, these tanks were built at a considerably lower cost than the tarks designed for storing high-level radioactive wastes. This saving was brought abeut by the elimination of a number of features such as cooling coils and the angular space and secondary saucer container around the tank. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1960
Creator: Daniel, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for January 1960

Description: Approximately one-quarter of the construction and 85% of the firm design of the Heavy jWater Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) were complete at the end of January 1960. Safeguards analyses of the liquid-D/sub 2/O-cooled loop of the HWCTR showed that none of the accidents considered to date have serious potential. Exploratory tests of the a device for quenching the steam that would be generated in the boiling-D/sub 2/O- cooled loop of the HWCTR showed that a quencher could be designed to operat satisfactorily without excessive accompanying noise or vibration. Two Zircaloy-=cald tubes of crused, fused uranium oxide were cold swaged to a density of greater than 90% of theoretical. Several other cold-swagged oxide tubes clad with stainless steel were fabricated for irradiation specimens. Mechanical, hydraulic pressure, thermal-and pressure- cycling tests of tubular metallurgical joints between Zircaloy and stainless steel continued to show excellent properties. (For preceding period see DP-455.) (auth)
Date: March 1, 1960
Creator: Isakoff, L. comp.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS PROGRESS REPORT FOR NOVEMBER 1959

Description: At the end of November, 20% of the construction and 80% of the firm design of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) were complete. Proof testing of various seals and mechanisms for the HWCTR continued satisfatorily. Further analyses are given of the transient behavior of the HWCTR isolated coolant loops and of the experimental data on the nuclear effects of hot moderator. The results of additional fabrication and irradiation tests of uranium metal and uranium oxide are recorded. The manufacture of tubular metallurgical joints between Zircaloy and stainless steel is also reported. (See also DP-415.) (auth)
Date: December 1, 1959
Creator: Hood, R.R. & Isakoff, L. comps.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for October 1959

Description: Continued progress is reported on the design and construction of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor; 78% of the firm design and 17% of the construction were complete at the end of October 1959. Approximateiy 15% of the firm design for the isolated coolant loops of the HWCTR was also complete. The results of further fabrication tests and irradiation tests of fuel tubes of natural uranium metal are reported. One of the metal tubes failed under irradiation, while other irradiations of metal fuels progressed satisfactorily. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1959
Creator: Hood, R.R. & Isakoff, L. comps.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for December 1959

Description: At the end of 1959, 25% of the construction and 85% of the firm design of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) were complete. Further safeguards analyses of the HWCTR, done with the aid of analog and digital computers, corroberated earlier data which indicated that the reactor is highly self-regulating, and that the safety system should prevent release of radioactivity outside the containment building. Fabrication tests of metallic uranium fuels and preparation of irradiation specimens of swaged uranium oxide fuel tubes continued. A tube of Zircaloy-2-clad U-2 wt.% Zr failed during a low temperature, low pressure irradiation test to modest exposure. Preliminary examinations of tubular metallurgical joints between Zircaloy and stalnless steel were promising. (For preceding period see DP-445.) (J.R.D.)
Date: January 1, 1960
Creator: Hood, R.R. & Isakoff, L. comps.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for February 1960

Description: At the end of February 1960, 30% of the construction of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) was compplete. Limits for safe operation of the reactor were defined, and the general procedures for startup, shutdown, and normal operation here formulated. A detailed analysis of operating stresses in the reactor vessel defined the ling that can be tolerated. Core swelling produced a maximum cladding strain of 0.7% in a Zircaloy-2-clad tube of U-2 wt.% Zr that was irradiated to an average burnup of 1100 Mwd/t in the VBWR. (For preceding period see DP-465.) (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Hood, R.R. & Isakoff, L. comp.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS PROGRESS REPORT FOR MAY 1960

Description: BS>A Zircaloy-clad tube of unalloyed uranium that was irradiated in a loop of the NRU reactor to a maximum exposure of 950 Mwd/ton at a maximum uranium temperature of 40O deg C experienced less than 1.5% volume increase and 0.14% outer-cladding strain. Inspection of the swaged oxide tube that had failed during irradiation in a Savannah River reactor revealed that a 9-in.-long crack of as-yet-unknown origin had developed in the outer stainless-steel cladding of the tube. Transient calculations showed that boiling D/sub 2/O reactors that are fueled with uranium metal probably would not operate stably as presently designed, but that those fueled with uranium oxide operating at high fuel temperature probably would be stable. A computer code for the calculation of the lattice bucklings of D/sub 2/O-moderated reactors is described. A description is presented of the tandem-extrusion process that was developed for the fabrication of bonded joints of Zircaloy and stainless steel. (For preceding period see DP- 495.) (auth)
Date: July 1, 1960
Creator: Hood, R.R. & Isakoff, L. comps.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ACCIDENTAL DISPERSION OF REACTOR POISONS AND THE CONTROLLED DISTANCE REQUIRED

Description: Two types of hypothetical reactor catastrophe are considered. In the first of these, the Boiling Accident,'' it is assumed that a fraction of the radioactive material in a reactor is released to the atmosphere at a steady rate over a period of hours. In the second, the Puff Accident,'' it is assumed that the release of the radioactive material takes place instantaneously.'' The following concepts are used as measures of the hazard existing outside the controlled plant area. Danger Distance,'' defined as that distance beyond which the fission product cloud becomes so dilute that it cannot cause death; Probabiiity of Death per Capita per Accident,'' which is a measure of the hazard to any individual; and Expectation Number of Deaths per Accident.'' which is a statistical measure of the hazard to the entire off-site populace. Three mechanisms for each type of catastrophe were considered: direct irradiation from the fission product cloud, inhalation of the air in the cloud, and rainout from the cloud followed by irradiation from the ground. Failout is not considered. for it requires that a very energetic explosion be assumed. It is concluded that the size of the plant should be set by the hazard of irradiation from the low- lying poison cloud produced in the boiling accident. A formula is proposed that permits the calculation of the controiled area that should exist around any reactor. Inversion and average meteoroiogy are analyzed in terms of their effect on off-site hazard. The same theory, utilizing the concepts of the probabiiity of death and the expectation number of deaths, is useful in estimating the hazard in the event a tank of H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/. or Cl ruptures. releasing to the atmosphere great quantities of gaseous poison. This problem is treated briefly at the end of the report. It ...
Date: March 1, 1958
Creator: Menegus, R.L. & Ring, H.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SIGMA PLUG WELDING OF SPUN-OVER FUEL CANS

Description: Efforts made to employ the sigma welding process for plug welding Closures in spun-over fuel cans were unsuccessful. No combination of welding conditions was found which would produce satisfactory, leak-tight, plug welds in aluminum. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1952
Creator: Winsor, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy Water Moderated Power Reactors. Progress Report, January-February 1964

Description: ABS>The HWCTR was operated most of January for irradiation tests of fuel assemblies. The reactor was shut down early in February for repair of a D/sub 2/ O leak in one of the steam generators. The D/sub 2/O loss during reactor operation in January averaged 14 pounds per day, which is equivalent to the annual loss of 7% of the inventory. An assembly of compacted UO/sub 2/ tubes was undamaged by irradiation to 10,000 Mwd/tonne in the HWCTR; the free-gas content of the tubes was somewhat lower than expected. Two Zircaloy-clad tubes of unalloyed uranium exhibited large local decreases in outer diameter during irradiation to 7,000 Mwd/tonne. Experimental data were obtained on heat-flux limits for water flow in tubular channels at 750 to 1500 psia. Burnout measurements were made on single tabes and on three tubes connected in parallel to a common coolant supply. (auth) O H15521 The interest in fast reactors is indicated; and the design, construction, operation, experimental program, and performance of the Dounreay fast reactor are summarized. (D.C.W.)
Date: March 1, 1964
Creator: Hood, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS PROGRESS REPORT, SEPTEMBER 1961

Description: At the end of September l961, construction of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor was about 90% complete. Thirty-two compacted tubes of crushed, fused uranium oxide in Zircaloy sheaths were fabricated for irradiation tests and destructive evaluation. lrradiation tests of the tubes were started in the Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor and at Savannah River. The fabrication process for the tubes included steps designed to exclude hydrogenous material from the oxide cores, thereby eliminating the probable cause of sheath failures in previous irradiations. Additional experimental data on heat transfer burnout of tubes in subcooled water at pressures of about 100 to 1000 psi showed that the burnout heat flux is not affected significantiy by pressure in this range. The data were correlated in terms of water velocity and subcooling. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1961
Creator: Hood, R.R. comp.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department