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An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

Description: The major project objective is to determine the feasibility of using the char from coal and/or biomass pyrolysis, ammonia and CO2 emissions at smokestacks to produce clean hydrogen and a sequestered carbon fertilizer. During this work period, literature review has been completed. The project plan, design and test schedules were made on the basis of discussion with partner in experimental issues. Installation of pilot scale units was finished and major units tests were fully performed. Modification of the pyrolyzer, reformer and gas absorption tank have been done. Integration testing is performing recently. Lab scale tests are in operation phase. The experimental installations are discussed in this paper.
Date: March 15, 2005
Creator: Wang, Z. & Bota, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

Description: The new technology concept integrates two significant complementary hydrogen production and CO{sub 2}-sequestration approaches that have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Clark Atlanta University. The process can convert biomass into hydrogen and char. Hydrogen can be efficiently used for stationary power and mobile applications, or it can be synthesized into Ammonia which can be used for CO{sub 2}-sequestration, while char can be used for making time-release fertilizers (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) by absorption of CO{sub 2} and other acid gases from exhaust flows. Fertilizers are then used for the growth of biomass back to fields. This project includes bench scale experiments and pilot scale tests. The Combustion and Emission Lab at Clark Atlanta University has conducted the bench scale experiments. The facility used for pilot scale tests was built in Athens, GA. The overall yield from this process is 7 wt% hydrogen and 32 wt% charcoal/activated carbon of feedstock (peanut shell). The value of co-product activated carbon is about $1.1/GJ and this coproduct reduced the selling price of hydrogen. And the selling price of hydrogen is estimated to be $6.95/GJ. The green house experimental results show that the samples added carbon-fertilizers have effectively growth increase of three different types of plants and improvement ability of keeping fertilizer in soil to avoid the fertilizer leaching with water.
Date: March 15, 2007
Creator: Wang, Zhicheng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Integrated Hydrogen Producton-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

Description: The major project objective is to determine the feasibility of using the char from coal and/or biomass pyrolysis, ammonia and CO2 emissions at smokestacks to produce clean hydrogen and a sequestered carbon fertilizer. During this work period, literature review has been completed. The project plan, design and test schedules were made on the basis of discussion with partner in experimental issues. Installation of pilot scale units was finished and major units tests were fully performed. Modification of the pyrolyzer, reformer and gas absorption tank have been done. Integration testing is performing recently. Lab scale tests have been performed. Field tests of char/fertilizer have been conducted. The experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Wang, Z.; Bota, K.B. & Day, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical and Numerical Studies of Nonstandard Difference Equation Models of Differential Equations

Description: This research examined the following items/issues: the NSFD methodology, technical achievements and applications, dissemination efforts and research related professional activities. Also a list of unresolved issues were identified that could form the basis for future research in the area of constructing and analyzing NSFD schemes for both ODE's and PDE's.
Date: December 22, 2008
Creator: Mickens, Ronald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Intergrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

Description: The major project objective is to determine the feasibility of using the char from coal and/or biomass pyrolysis, ammonia and CO2 emissions at smokestacks to produce clean hydrogen and a sequestered carbon fertilizer. During this work period, the project plan, design and test schedules were made on the basis of discussion with partner in experimental issues. Installation of pilot scale units was finished and major units tests were fully performed. Modification of the pyrolyzer, reformer and gas absorption tank have been done. Integration testing is performing recently. Lab scale tests have been performed. Field tests of char/fertilizer have been conducted.
Date: March 15, 2006
Creator: Wang, Z. & Bota, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

Description: Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.
Date: September 28, 2006
Creator: Williams, Michael D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST

Description: The objectives of this project are to synthesis nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates and evaluate the ''zeolite Y/Nanoporous host'' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. Our results to date are summarized as follows. The synthesis of high surface ordered nanoporous silica of expanded pore diameter of 25 nm (larger than the standard size of 8.4 nm) using trimethylbenzene as a pore size expander was accomplished. The synthesis of zeolite Y nanoparticles with median pore size of approximately 50 nm (smaller than the 80 nm typically obtained with TMAOH) using combined TMABr/TMAOH as organic additives was also accomplished. The successful synthesis of zeoliteY/Nanoporous host composite materials by sequential combination of zeolite precursors and nanoporous material precursor mixtures was implied based on results from various characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectra, thermal analysis, porosimetry data. The resulting materials showed pore sizes up to 11 nm, and infrared band at 570 cm{sup -1} suggesting the presence of both phases. New results indicated that good quality highly ordered nanoporous silica host can be synthesized in the presence of zeolite Y seed precursor depending on the amount of precursor added. Preliminary research on the catalytic performance of the materials is underway. Probe acid catalyzed reactions, such as the cracking of cumene is currently being conducted. Work in the immediate future will be focused on the following three areas: (1) Further characterization of all-silica and aluminosilicate mesoporous materials with expanded pore sizes up to 30 nm will continue; (2) Research efforts to reduce the average particle size of zeolite nanoparticles down to 35-30 nm will continue; (3) Further synthesis of ZeoliteY/Nanoporous host composite catalysts of improved structural and physicochemical characteristics will be conducted by changing the amount ...
Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Ingram, Conrad & Mitchell, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOSTS

Description: The focus of this project is to improve the catalytic performance of zeolite Y for petroleum hydrocracking by synthesizing nanoparticles of the zeolite ({approx}20-25 nm) inside nanoporous silicate or aluminosilicate hosts. The encapsulated zeolite nanoparticles are expected to possess reduced diffusional path lengths, hence hydrocarbon substrates will diffuse in, are converted and the products quickly diffused out. This is expected to prevent over-reaction and the blocking of the zeolite pores and active sites will be minimized. In this phase of the project, procedures for the synthesis of ordered nanoporous silica, such as SBA-15, using block copolymers and nonionic surfactant were successful reproduced. Expansion of the pores sizes of the nanoporous silica using trimethylbenzene is suggested based on shift in the major X-Ray Diffraction peak in the products to lower 2 angles compared with the parent SBA-15 material. The synthesis of ordered nanoporous materials with aluminum incorporated in the predominantly silicate framework was attempted but is not yet successful, and the procedures needs will be repeated and modified as necessary. Nanoparticles of zeolite Y of particle sizes in the range 40 nm to 120 nm were synthesized in the presence of TMAOH as the particle size controlling additive.
Date: September 3, 2003
Creator: Ingram, Conrad
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host

Description: The addition of hydrothermally-aged zeolite Y precursor to an SBA-15 synthesis mixture under a mildly acidic condition resulted in the formation of a mesoporous aluminosilicate catalyst, AlSBA-15. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst contains strong Br{umlt o}nsted acid sites and aluminum (Al) stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalyst varied as a function of the synthesis conditions. The catalyst possessed surface areas ranging between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm, and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to the parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Two wt % Al was present in the catalyst that was obtained from the reaction mixture that contained the highest Al content. The Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination after calcination at a temperature of 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and the activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. In preparation for the final phase of the project, the catalyst was embedded into a psuedoboemite alumina (catapal B) matrix and then formed into pellets. In the final phase of the project, the pelletized catalyst is being evaluated for the conversion of a heavy petroleum feedstock to naphtha and middle distillates. This phase was significantly delayed during the past six months due to a serious malfunction of the fume hoods in the Clark Atlanta University's Research Center for Science and Technology, where the project is being conducted. The fume hood system was repaired and the catalyst evaluation is now underway.
Date: March 31, 2007
Creator: Ingram, Conrad & Mitchell, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host

Description: The addition of hydrothermally-aged zeolite Y precursor to an SBA-15 synthesis mixture under a mildly acidic condition resulted in the formation of mesoporous aluminosilicate catalyst, Al-SBA-15, containing strong Broensted acid sites and aluminum (Al) stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalyst varied as a function of the synthesis conditions. The catalyst possessed surface areas ranging between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm, and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to the parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Two wt% Al was present in the catalyst that was obtained from the reaction mixture that contained the highest Al content. The Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination after calcination at 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and the activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. In preparation for the final phase of the project, the catalyst was embedded into psuedoboemite alumina (catapal B) matrix and then formed into pellets. In the final phase of the project, the pelletized catalyst will be evaluated for the conversion of heavy petroleum feedstocks to naphtha and middle distillates.
Date: September 30, 2006
Creator: Ingram, Conrad & Mitchell, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST

Description: Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalysts with strong Broensted acid sites and Al stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination was synthesized from the addition of hydrothermally aged zeolite Y precursor to SBA-15 synthesis mixture under mildly acidic condition of pH 5.5. The materials possessed surface areas between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Up to 2 wt. % Al was present in the most aluminated sample that was investigated, and the Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination, even after calcination at 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. The catalyst's activity was not affected by the aging time of the precursor for up to the 24 hr aging time investigated. This method of introducing Al and maintaining it in a total tetrahedral coordination is very effective, in comparison to other direct and post synthesis alumination methods reported. The catalytic performance of the zeolite Y/SBA-15 composite materials will be compared with that of pure SBA-15. The catalysts will then be evaluated for the conversion of heavy petroleum feedstocks.
Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: Ingram, Conrad & Mitchell, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host

Description: The objective of this project is to synthesize nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y nanoclusters, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates, and evaluate the 'zeolite Y/Nanoporous host' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. In comparison to conventionally-used zeolite Y catalysts of micron size particles, the nanocrystals (< 100 nm particle size) which contain shorter path lengths, are expected to allow faster diffusion of large hydrocarbon substrates and the catalysis products within and out of the zeolite's channels and cages (<1 nm size). This is expected to significantly reduce deactivation of the catalyst and to prolong their period of reactivity. Encapsulating zeolite Y nanocrystals within the nanoporous materials is expected to protect its external surfaces and pore entrances from being blocked by large hydrocarbon substrates, since these substrates will initially be converted to small molecules by the nanoporous host (a catalyst in its own right). The project consisted of four major tasks as follows: (1) synthesis of the nanoparticles of zeolite Y (of various chemical compositions) using various techniques such as the addition of organic additives to conventional zeolite Y synthesis mixtures to suppress zeolite Y crystal growth; (2) synthesis of nanoporous silicate host materials of up to 30 nm pore diameter, using poly (alkylene oxide) copolymers which when removed will yield a mesoporous material; (3) synthesis of zeolite Y/Nanoporous Host composite materials as potential catalysts; and (4) evaluation of the catalyst for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks.
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: Ingram, Conrad & Mitchell, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advance concepts for conversion of syngas to liquids. Quarterly report No. 3, April 29, 1995--July 28, 1995

Description: The aim of this phase of our study is to demonstrate how cobalt-containing aluminophosphate molecular sieves with structure types AFI and AEL can be synthesized from a clear homogeneous solution. The advantage of beginning with a clear solution is that transient phases, either crystalline or amorphous, can be more easily identified. The nature of these phases and their role in the crystallization process can be seen more easily. HF is used as a mineralizing agent. It has been reported that the presence of F anions in the synthesis mixture can improve considerably the AlPO{sub 4}-5 type crystals.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Szostak, R.; Abotsi, G. & Mitchell, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advance concepts for conversion of syngas to liquids. Quarterly report, September 28, 1994--January 28, 1995

Description: In this study, MeAPO-36 was crystallized from a reaction mixture of molar composition 1.8 Pr{sub 3}N; 0.156 MgO; 0.97 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 0.936 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}; 41.4H{sub 2}O; and 0.31 HOAC at 100 C for 48 h followed by 150 C for 24 to 72 h. Its formation was dependent on the source of aluminum, template concentration and the reaction temperature and time. MeAPO-5 was a competing impurity phase and its formation can be suppressed by changes in the reaction conditions. The report includes a discussion of the synthesis procedure for MeAPO-36 and its characterization by x-ray diffraction.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Szostak, R.; Abotsi, G.; Mitchell, M. & Ingram, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advance concepts for the conversion of syngas liquids. Quarterly report no. 6, January 1--March 31, 1996

Description: Research activities for the period January 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996 have been focused on the characterization of catalyst samples, mainly by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopic Techniques. These studies revealed the strong presence of hydroxyls in our synthetic metal substituted aluminophosphate (MeAPO-36) samples, the amount of which appear to vary depending on the type of metal in the framework. In this report, cases of magnesium, cobalt and manganese are highlighted and compared. The hydroxyl groups present in these samples also shows some interaction with basic probe molecules such as ammonia. Details studies are in progress.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Szostak, R. & Ingram, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advance concepts for the conversion of syngas liquids. Quarterly report {number_sign}5, October 30, 1995--January 31, 1996

Description: Research efforts for the report period have been focused on the characterization of catalyst samples, mainly by ion exchange and spectroscopic techniques. Other activities included the preparation of more variants of the MeAPO-36 family containing various types and amounts of metals in their frameworks. Characterization of these samples by X-ray diffraction analysis was delayed due to malfunction of the Diffractometer since October of 1995. The instrument was back in working condition only since the ending of January and XRD analysis has resumed since then. Efforts from the research group were also concentrated on the preparation of manuscripts for publication. Work in progress includes: synthesis of MnAPO5 and MgAPO5; synthesis of CoAPO5; chemical analysis; preliminary investigation of ion exchange capacities of zeolites; uptake kinetics on the Na-exchanged MnAPO5 and MgAPO5 with alkali and alkali earth metals.
Date: February 12, 1996
Creator: Szostak, R. & Ingram, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advance concepts for the conversion of syngas to liquids. Quarterly report No. 8, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: Large pore Metal Substituted Aluminophosphate Molecular sieves, (H-MAPO-5, H-MnAPO-5, H-CoAPO-5 and H-MAPO-36) were evaluated for the conversion of ethanol in a continuous flow fixed microreactor. At 400{degrees}C, high conversion levels were observed. Ethylene and diethyl ether were the two major products obtained however the catalysts were more selective for ethylene under the reaction conditions. At 500{degrees}C ethylene was the only product detected. The low concentration of acid sites combined with the possibly mild acid strengths of the molecular sieves were speculated to be possible reasons for the absence of higher hydrocarbons form the reaction products. Trends for the catalytic behavior of the various catalysts were unpredictable due to a number of reasons. Among these are (1) differing levels of divalent metal substitution, (2) varying amount of extraframework species which can have tremendous negative impact on catalytic performance, (3) differing levels of H{sup +} exchange, and (4) differing levels of crystallinity and thermal stability.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Szostak, R. & Ingram, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioremediation of mixed microbial mats: System development of mixed contaminants for application at the Savannah River Site. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

Description: The fundamental objective of this project is to develop and field test the mixed microbial mat bioremediation system for decontamination of target sites at SRS. Although microbial mats have performed well in several pilot projects in the past, atypical problems and site characteristics at SRS demand special field designs. In the interest of designing a pilot and locating it at an appropriate site, the project investigators have worked closely with the technical staff at the SREL. We have concluded that the diverse characteristics of contaminations at SRS may dictate testing several pilot designs during the course of this project.
Date: September 24, 1996
Creator: Bender, J. & Phillips, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy oil upgrading. Semi annual report {number_sign}2, April 1--September 30, 1996

Description: For the period April 1 to September 30, 1996, research efforts were focused on the synthesis and characterization of large quantities of Metal Substituted Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves Catalysts of type 36 structure (MeAPO-36) for use in the upgrading of petroleum residuum. So far the authors have succeeded in synthesizing catalysts samples containing magnesium, zinc, cobalt and manganese in the frameworks of the respective molecular sieve. Preliminary characterization studies done by Infrared Spectroscopy demonstrated that these materials contains the Bronsted acid sites that they proposed will be active centers in the Mild Hydrocracking Process. Recently, a range of interesting aluminosilicates mesoporous materials was synthesized by Mobil R and D. These materials, known as MCM-41 type materials, contain ultra large pore unidimensional channels ranging from 20 angstrom to 100 angstrom and therefore have tremendous potential for Resid upgrading since their acid strengths are milder than zeolite. To broaden the scope of the project, MCM 41 was synthesized in the laboratory according to published procedures and the structure was confirmed by XRD. In addition, an ultra large pore high silica zeolite, UTD-1, containing a 14 angstrom tetrahedral atom pore opening was recently synthesized by Researchers at Texas A and M University. Like MCM-41, this material also has tremendous potential for Resid Upgrading since the pores are capable of accommodating larger organic molecules. The authors are currently characterizing samples of this zeolite that they intend to use in conjunction with the MeAPOs to form composite catalysts for use in resid upgrading.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology and Waste Management Consortium annual report, 1990--1991

Description: The HBCU/MI Environmental Technology and Waste Management Consortium was established in January 1990, through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) among the member institutions. This group of research-oriented Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions (HBCU/MI) agreed to work together to initiate research, technology development and education programs to address the nation`s critical environmental problems. As a group the HBCU/MI Consortium is uniquely positioned to reach women and the minority populations of African Americans, Hispanics and American Indians. As part of their initial work, they developed the Research, Education, and Technology Transfer (RETT) Plan to actualize the Consortium`s guiding principles. In addition to developing a comprehensive research agenda, four major programs were begun to meet these goals. This report summarizes the 1990--1991 progress.
Date: December 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low temperature VOC combustion over manganese, cobalt and zinc AlPO{sub 4} molecular sieves. Semi-annual report-1, September 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

Description: The objective of this project is to prepare manganese, cobalt and zinc containing AlPO{sub 4} large pore molecular sieves of structure type -36 and evaluate their ability to function as successful oxidation catalysts for the removal of low levels of VOC`s from gas streams. The tasks to be accomplished are as follows: (1) To develop reliable synthesis methods that produce the large pore metal aluminophosphates containing manganese, cobalt and zinc in their framework. (2) To characterize these materials to determine phase purity and the location of the incorporated metal in the framework. Characterization will also include the nature of the active sites within the structures and the effect manganese, cobalt and zinc has on the structures` acidity. (3) To screen the material for their catalytic activity in the oxidation of hydrocarbons and aromatics. This report gives a summary of the status of the project as of 28th February 1996.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Szostak, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology for evaluating energy R&D. Final report

Description: Recent budgetary shortfalls and hightened concern over balancing the federal budget have placed increasing demand on federal agencies to document the cost effectiveness of the programs they manage. In fact, the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) requires that by 1997 each executive agency prepare a Strategic Plan that includes measurable performance goals. By the year 2000, the first round of Annual Reports will become due which describes actual program performance. Despite the growing emphasis on measuring performance of government programs, the technology policy literature offers little in terms of models that program managers can implement in order to assess the cost effectiveness of the programs they manage. While GPRA will pose a major challenge to all federal government agencies, that challenge is particularly difficult for research-oriented agencies such as the Department of Energy. Its basic research programs provide benefits that are difficult to quantify since their values are uncertain with respect to timing, but are usually reflected in the value assigned to applied programs. The difficulty with quantifying benefits of applied programs relates to the difficulties of obtaining complete information on industries that have used DOE`s supported technologies in their production processes and data on cost-savings relative to conventional technologies. Therefore, DOE is one of several research-oriented agencies that has a special need for methods by which program offices can evaluate the broad array of applied and basic energy research programs they administer. The general findings of this report are that few new methods are applicable for evaluation of R&D programs. It seems that peer review and bibliometrics are methods of choice for evaluating basic research programs while more quantitative approaches such as ROI, cost-benefits, etc. might be followed in evaluating applied programs.
Date: April 23, 1997
Creator: Carter, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} abatement using zeolite-supported copper. Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

Description: The authors have begun the investigation of the adsorption of NO on the Cu/{gamma}-alumina samples. The object of this aspect of the project is to investigate the modes of adsorption of NO on the Cu/{gamma}-alumina sorbents, to investigate the potential activity of these materials for the catalysis of the reduction of NO. Additionally, when subsequent measurements of NO interacting with a sulfated sorbent are investigated, a baseline of data will have been obtained which can be used to evaluate the effects of surface sulfation on the adsorption process in the absence of other competing effects. Based on the current results and by comparing results with those found by others, the authors have determined that the copper species exist predominantly as isolated copper atoms on the aluminum oxide surface, which behave chemically as copper aluminate. The copper species is responsible for the formation of an NO/Cu{sup 2+} complex which gives rise to an infrared absorption at 1,863 cm{sup {minus}1}. There do exist some Cu{sup +} species on the surface, which are formed only after some time by an interaction with NO, which give rise to an NO{sup {minus}}/Cu{sup +} complex with an infrared absorption at approximately 1,700 cm{sup {minus}1}. Additionally, an intense feature at 1,640 cm{sup {minus}1} is observed which may be due to NO{sub 2} on the surface, which is the expected oxidation product if NO reduces Cu from Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup +}.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Mitchell, M.B. & White, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department