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Hazards control progress report No. 55, July through December 1977

Description: Progress is reported on environmental protection and enhanced filtration studies. Environmental protection studies emphasized on-line x-ray fluorescence analysis of transition metals in waste water. Enhanced filtration studies included the following: expansion of test facility; cost-benefit analysis of placing prefilters before HEPA filters; effect of fiber-size distribution on filter pressure drop; and experimental and theoretical studies on filter loading. The following technical notes are included: data retrieval program for the whole body counter; hydrogen cyanide sorption by acid-gas respirator cartridges; glove permeation study; fire safety evaluation of boron-loaded polymer; and high-explosive shipping container studies. (HLW)
Date: August 16, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heating of field-reversed plasma rings estimated with two scaling models

Description: Scaling calculations are presented of the one temperature heating of a field-reversed plasma ring. Two sharp-boundary models of the ring are considered: the long thin approximation and a pinch model. Isobaric, adiabatic, and isovolumetric cases are considered, corresponding to various ways of heating the plasma in a real experiment by using neutral beams, or by raising the magnetic field. It is found that the shape of the plasma changes markedly with heating. The least sensitive shape change (as a function of temperature) is found for the isovolumetric heating case, which can be achieved by combining neutral beam heating with compression. The complications introduced by this heating problem suggest that it is desirable, if possible, to create a field reversed ring which is already quite hot, rather than cold.
Date: May 18, 1978
Creator: Shearer, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility studies of thermonuclear neutron capture synthesis of SHE

Description: A variety of thermonuclear neutron sources and neutron capture targets were investigated for their potential of allowing signigicant production of heavy, perhaps superheavy, isotopes. The neutron sources considered range from inertial confinement microexplosives to (underground) macroexplosives. Optimal capture targets appear to be composites containing uranium and protactinium. 1 figure.
Date: April 10, 1978
Creator: Meldner, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study for computerized automation of EPA Region II Technical Support Branch

Description: Three options are presented for automating the chemistry laboratories at the Surveillance and Analysis Division, Environmental Protection Agency , at Edison, New Jersey. The laboratory served New York State, New Jersey and Puerto Rico. Each option was found to be cost-effective. For two of the systems, existing EPA laboratory software would be used without (option 1) and with (option 2) data management. For the third system, laboratory and data functions would be implemented on a different computer (PDP-11) from those now installed. Option 2, the most favorable system, would make use of existing programs and data-management features now being developed; it would break even in 1.82 y and accumulate $373,928 in the five years after installation.
Date: February 9, 1978
Creator: Stephens, F.B.; Morris, W.F.; Barton, G.W. Jr. & Fisher, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study for automating the analytical laboratories of the Chemistry Branch, National Enforcement Investigation Center, Environmental Protection Agency

Description: The feasibility of automating the analytical laboratories of the Chemistry Branch of the National Enforcement Investigation Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, Colorado, is explored. The goals of the chemistry laboratory are defined, and instrumental methods and other tasks to be automated are described. Five optional automation systems are proposed to meet these goals and the options are evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness and other specified criteria. The instruments to be automated include (1) a Perkin-Elmer AA spectrophotometer 403, (2) Perkin-Elmer AA spectrophotometer 306, (3) Technicon AutoAnalyzer II, (4) Mettler electronic balance, and a (5) Jarrell-Ash ICP emission spectrometer. (WHK)
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Morris, W.F.; Fisher, E.R. & Barton, G.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and evaluated nuclear plus interference cross sections for light charged particles

Description: Experimental and evaluated integral parameters derived from nuclear plus interference differential elastic scattering cross sections are presented for all projectile/target combinations of the particles p, d, t, /sup 3/He, and ..cap alpha... The data include reaction rates, average fractional energy losses per collision and per unit path length, and average laboratory scattering cosines. The resulting parameters are of potential use in analysis of charged-particle transport.
Date: July 4, 1980
Creator: Perkins, S.T. & Cullen, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High performance inertial fusion targets

Description: Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration.
Date: August 8, 1978
Creator: Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C. & Pan, Y.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helios pulsed nuclear propulsion concept

Description: A Helios-propelled vehicle would make use of a containment vessel--perhaps 30 feet in diameter--in which small nuclear explosive charges would be placed, together with a few hundred pounds of hydrogen. Firing of a charge would result in bringing the mixture of charge residue and hydrogen to a high temperature--say 5000 or 6000/sup 0/K--and subsequent release through a nozzle would provide propulsive thrust. This process would be repeated several thousand times, at intervals likely to be 10 seconds or longer. High impulsive acceleration loads would be moderated by a system of shock absorbers between the engine and vehicle. The paper summarizes characteristic features of the concept, especially with reference to system optimization studies and analysis of heat transfer to the engine structure.
Date: June 2, 1965
Creator: Hadley, J.W.; Stubbs, T.F.; Janssen, M.A. & Simons, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of radiological performance objectives interim results: trade-offs in attitudes toward radioactive waste

Description: In order to measure the risk associated with radioactive waste it is necessary to ascertain public opinion concerning the relative significance of the different possible health effects of radiation, and public attitudes towards uncertainty. LLL has directed Decisions and Designs, Incorporated (DDI), to elicit such views from various members of the public. Purpose of this note is to give a brief account of some of the views so far obtained, provide some interpretation of these results, and briefly demonstrate how these results can be used to guide the drafting of regulations.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Lathrop, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct-semidirect and pure-resonance model calculations of fast neutron capture on /sup 208/Pb

Description: Fast neutron capture on /sup 208/Pb is calculated in a formalism in which only a giant-dipole resonance term appears explicitly. The calculations give reasonable fits to the data, and are much less sensitive to form-factor ambiguities than direct-semidirect calculations.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Dietrich, F.S. & Kerman, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite difference solution of the diffusion equation on coupled Eulerian and Lagrangian grids. [Improvement to CEL and CHAMP codes]

Description: A diffusion equation modeling the flow of radiation was added to the hydrodynamic equations of two coupled Eulerian and Lagrangian finite-difference computer codes. This addition permits the extension of the range of problems to which these codes may be applied to include those in which temperatures on the order of a thousand electron volts are attained. The coupled codes are first-order-accurate shock hydrodynamics programs designed to calculate transient effects resulting from concentrations of high energy density. Such phenomena occur when a projectile impacts a target or when a high explosive is detonated. When the energy density is very high, as when a nuclear explosive is fired or a laser fusion pellet is imploded, radiation energy becomes a significant portion of the total energy and account must be taken of it. The diffusion approximation has proven to be a useful means of incorporating radiation physics in codes of this type. The three principal problems associated with the finite difference solution of the diffusion equation are the conservation of energy, the spatial differencing on grids that are becoming distorted with the passage of time, and the coupling of calculations done on the separate regional grids that together constitute the geometry of the problem. The difference techniques described are applied to the calculation of the prompt effects of an explosive detonated at the earth's surface. The explosive and the region of the earth more than 3 m from the explosive were zoned with Lagrangian coordinates. The air, the earth directly under the explosive, and a distant sink region were zoned in Eulerian coordinates. The calculation was carried out until most of the energy of the explosive was converted into kinetic energy and thermal energy in the air and earth.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Hickman, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission cross section for /sup 242m/Am. [0. 01 eV to 20 MeV, neutron flux, fission fragments]

Description: The neutron-induced fission cross section for /sup 242m/Am(152y) was measured at the Livermore 100-MeV electron linac in the neutron energy range of 0.01 eV to 20 MeV. Fission fragments were detected using a hemispherical fission chamber. The neutron flux was measured below 10 keV using lithium glass scintillators. Above 10 keV, the /sup 242m/Am fission cross section was measured relative to the /sup 235/U fission cross section. Below 20 eV, the data were fit with a sum of single-level Breit-Wigner resonances. Results for the distribution of fission widths, the average fission width, and the average level spacing are presented. The fission cross section in the 100 MeV range is compared with previous measurements. 11 references.
Date: September 20, 1978
Creator: Browne, J.C.; Howe, R.E.; Dougan, R.J.; Dupsyk, R.J. & Landrum, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma spectrometric methods for measuring plutonium

Description: Nondestructive analyses of plutonium can be made by detecting and measuring the gamma rays emitted by a sample. Although qualitative and semiquantitative assays can be performed with relative ease, only recently have methods been developed, using computer analysis techniques, that provide quantitative results. This paper reviews some new techniques developed for measuring plutonium. The features of plutonium gamma-ray spectra are reviewed and some of the computer methods used for spectrum analysis are discussed. The discussion includes a description of a powerful computer method of unfolding complex peak multiplets that uses the standard linear least-squares techniques of data analysis. This computer method is based on the generation of response profiles for the isotopes composing a plutonium sample and requires a description of the peak positions, relative intensities, and line shapes. The principles that plutonium isotopic measurements are based on are also developed, followed by illustrations of the measurement procedures as applied to the quantitative analysis of plutonium liquid and solid samples.
Date: February 16, 1978
Creator: Gunnink, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluid inclusions in salt: an annotated bibliography

Description: An annotated bibliography is presented which was compiled while searching the literature for information on fluid inclusions in salt for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's study on the deep-geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The migration of fluid inclusions in a thermal gradient is a potential hazard to the safe disposal of nuclear waste in a salt repository. At the present time, a prediction as to whether this hazard precludes the use of salt for waste disposal can not be made. Limited data from the Salt-Vault in situ heater experiments in the early 1960's (Bradshaw and McClain, 1971) leave little doubt that fluid inclusions can migrate towards a heat source. In addition to the bibliography, there is a brief summary of the physical and chemical characteristics that together with the temperature of the waste will determine the chemical composition of the brine in contact with the waste canister, the rate of fluid migration, and the brine-canister-waste interactions.
Date: January 26, 1979
Creator: Isherwood, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic factors in nuclear waste disposal. [Salt, shale, and crystalline rock]

Description: The study of geosciences and their relation to nuclear waste disposal and management entails analyzing the hydrology, chemistry, and geometry of the nuclear waste migration process. Hydrologic effects are determined by analyzing the porosity and permeability (natural and induced) of rock as well as pressures and gradients, dispersion, and aquifer length of the system. Chemistry parameters include radionuclide retardation factors and waste dissolution rate. Geometric parameters (i.e., parameters with dimension) evaluated include repository layer thickness, fracture zone area, tunnel length, and aquifer length. The above parameters act as natural barriers or controls to nuclear waste migration, and are evaluated in three potential geologic media: salt, shale, and crystalline rock deposits. Parametric values are assigned that correspond to many existing situations. These values, in addition to other important inputs, are lumped as a hydrology input into a computer simulation program used to model and calculate nuclear waste migration from the repository to the biosphere, and potential individual and population dose and radiation effects. These results are preliminary and show trends only; they do not represent an actual risk analysis.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Towse, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluid-flow monitoring using electromagnetic probing

Description: High-frequency electromagnetic probing is used to monitor the rate and direction of flow of fluids injected into the ground. This method shows the potential for providing more detailed information than procedures presently used. The experimental technique and the test-of-concept experimental results are discussed. This technique has applications in oil-reservoir engineering and in hydrology studies concerning storage of chemical and nuclear wastes. 11 figures.
Date: October 5, 1979
Creator: Lytle, R.J.; Lager, D.L.; Laine, E.F.; Salisbury, J.D. & Okada, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluid structure coupling algorithm

Description: A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two-dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D.
Date: April 10, 1980
Creator: McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S. & Quinones, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and delivery of cryogenic targets for laser fusion experiments

Description: In designs for high gain targets for laser driven inertial confinement fusion, the deuterium-tritium fuel is at cryogenic temperatures. We are adapting cryogenic target fabrication techniques to the high power Shiva Laser Facility. The complex but compact cryogenic system which meets the Shiva laser requirements is described.
Date: August 23, 1978
Creator: Woerner, R.L.; Bell, J.W. & Steward, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department