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Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

Description: The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.
Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika & Hoversten, G. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Test of a Catalytic Combustion System for Non-Ammonia Control of Gas Turbine NOx Emissions

Description: Under federal Award/Proposal Number DE-FG26-04NT42078, the California Energy Commission (CEC) will subgrant $100,000 to the City of Riverside, California, where the project will be located. In turn, the City of Riverside will subaward the federal funds to Alliance Power and/or Catalytica Energy Systems, Inc. (CESI). Alliance Power will coordinate administrative and management activities associated with this task to ensure compliance with CEC grant requirements. CESI will design and fabricate two Xonon{trademark} modules according to General Electric (GE) specification for operating conditions in the GE-10 gas turbine. CESI will ship the modules to the GE test facility for engine testing. CESI will provide test personnel as required to oversee the installation, testing and removal of the Xonon modules. GE will perform an engine test of the CESI-supplied Xonon modules on a GE-10 test engine in the fall of 2004. GE will record all test data as appropriate to evaluate the emissions and operating performance of the Xonon module. Following the test, GE will provide a letter report of the engine test findings. The letter report shall summarize the testing and provide an assessment of Xonon's ability to ultimately achieve less than 3 ppm NOx emissions on the GE-10. All expenses incurred by GE for this task will be paid by GE; no federal funds will be used. Following the reporting of findings, GE will make a decision whether or not to proceed with the Riverside retrofit project. GE will write a letter to CESI giving their decision. GE and CESI will report of engine test findings and the decision letter to the CEC Project Manager.
Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Burns, James F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of California Geopressured-Geothermal Potential

Description: Geopressured reservoirs contain three types of energy: thermal, hydraulic, and methane gas. The thermal energy generally is a function of depth of burial. It can be converted to electricity using the binary or flash power plant cycle, the flash technology being commercial only if the fluid temperature exceeds about 340 F. The hydraulic energy can be converted to electrical power using a hydraulic turbine. The dissolved gas can be separated and either used to produce electricity using a gas turbine or sold commercially. These reservoirs occur in many states in the USA, including California. An overburden pressure is caused by the combined weight of the formation rock and the fluids (water/gas/oil) present in the pore spaces overlying the formation of interest. The overburden pressure, in general, increases relatively uniformly with depth, whereas the hydrostatic gradient is mainly a function of two variables: the dissolved solids concentration and the temperature gradient. The hydrostatic pressure gradient for fresh water is 0.433 psi/ft. Geopressured reservoirs are overpressured; that is, the fluid pressure in the reservoir exceeds the pressure corresponding to the local hydrostatic pressure gradient. (Fig. 3) Confining bed or cap rock is necessary in order for a formation to be geopressured. Otherwise, the pressure would equalize to hydrostatic through upward flow. The pressures in a geopressured reservoir may approach the overburden pressure of about 1 psi/ft. Gulf Coast geopressured reservoirs typically exist between 12,000 to 20,000 feet below the surface. Flow rates of between 10,000 to 40,000 barrels per day, temperatures from 270 to 500 F, bottom hole pressures from 12,000 to 18,500 pounds psi, salinities of 20,000 to 200,000 milligrams per liter, and gas contents of 23 to 100 standard cubic feet per barrel, have been reported from geopressured wells.
Date: March 24, 1992
Creator: Birkinshaw, Kelly
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulatory and Permitting Issues

Description: As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., reviewed current state and federal regulations related to carbon dioxide capture and storage within geologic formations and enhanced carbon uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. We have evaluated and summarized the current and possible future permitting requirements for the six states that comprise the West Coast Regional Partnership. Four options exist for CO{sub 2} injection into appropriate geologic formations, including storage in: (1) oil and gas reservoirs, (2) saline formations, (3) unmineable coal beds, and (4) salt caverns. Terrestrial CO{sub 2} sequestration involves improved carbon conservation management (e.g. reduction of deforestation), carbon substitution (e.g., substitution for fossil fuel-based products, energy conservation through urban forestry, biomass for energy generation), and improved carbon storage management (e.g., expanding the storage of carbon in forest ecosystems). The primary terrestrial options for the West Coast Region include: (1) reforestation of under-producing lands (including streamside forest restoration), (2) improved forest management, (3) forest protection and conservation, and (4) fuel treatments for the reduction of risk of uncharacteristically severe fires (potentially with associated biomass energy generation). The permits and/or contracts required for any land-use changes/disturbances and biomass energy generation that may occur as part of WESTCARB's activities have been summarized for each state.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Myer, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

Description: As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Downey, Cameron & Clinkenbeard, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mitigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions in the Geysers KGRA (Staff Draft)

Description: Violations of the ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are currently being experienced in The Geysers KGRA and could significantly increase in the future. Attainment and maintenance of the H2S AAQS is a potential constraint to optimum development of this resource. The availability of reliable H2S controls and the development of a validated air dispersion model are critical to alleviating this constraint. The purpose of this report is to assess the performance capabilities for state-of-the-art controls, to identify potential cost-effective alternative controls, and to identify the California Energy Commission (CEC) staffs efforts to develop a validated air dispersion model. Currently available controls (Stretford, Hydrogen Peroxide, and EIC) are capable of abating H2S emissions from a proposed facility to five lbs/hr. Alternative controls, such as condensate stripping and condensate pH control, appear to promising, cost-effective control option. The CEC staff is currently developing a validated air dispersion model for The Geysers KGRA. The CEC staff recommends investigation of retrofit control options for existing units, investigation of alternative control technologies, and dispersion analysis for optimum plant location in order to maximize the development potential of The Geysers KGRA. Energy cost studies suggest that the EIC process would be the most cost-effective for retrofits at The Geysers. (DJE-2005)
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Buell, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental impact report (draft)

Description: The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The California Energy Commission's geothermal activities

Description: Thank you for the invitation to participate in this distinguished gathering. I would like to briefly relate the interests of the California Energy Commission in geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is a basic component of many of our primary activities, and is expressly cited in our statutory authority, the Warren-Alquist Act (1974). Our mandates affect the geothermal industry both directly and indirectly. The Commission is responsible for 5-, 12-, and 20-year forecasts of California electricity supply and demand. These forecasts are reported in our biennial Electricity Report. These forecasts are used in various official regulatory proceedings. The primary use is in the Commission's power plant siting authority. The forecasts establish the base used to determine the need for new capacity and energy in the current planning period. The forecasts are also used in other Commission activities as well as in proceedings at the Public Utilities Commission. The 1990 Electricity Report represents a dramatic change in the way this agency balances the relative importance of price competition, environmental quality, demand management as a system resource, and the implications of continued reliance on natural gas. Generally, the Commission is grappling with the elusive and complex problems of quantifying the appropriate value to assign to external (i. e., non-market) environmental attributes of competing technologies. While we have not decisively established such values, we do believe that they do exist and that we are moving in the right direction. The adopted policies have positive long term implications for geothermal and the other renewable technologies. The Commission has been in existence since 1975 and during that time has seen the development of geothermal energy in several areas of the state. As a regulatory agency, we have authority over the construction of thermal electric plants over 50 megawatts (MW). To date the Commission has certified the construction ...
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Crowley, Barbara
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of California initiative in geothermal development: its objectives, accomplishments and schedules

Description: California has the most abundant known reserves of geothermal resources in the nation, and California State government has taken several important actions to accelerate the environmentally acceptable development of geothermal energy. The roles played by various California State government agencies and the legislature to accomplish this goal are discussed.
Date: November 28, 1978
Creator: Reed, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology and geothermal potential of Susanville, Lassen County, California

Description: Detailed geologic mapping is described in, and immediately surrounding, the City of Susanville in order to determine the pattern of complex faulting controlling the subsurface hydrologic character of the area, and to explore for hot springs or areas of hydrothermal mineral alteration, which might suggest additional geothermal systems. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Rudser, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Water Resources' notice of intention to file an application for certification of DWR Bottle Rock. Final report

Description: Preliminary findings and conclusions are presented on the following: conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; conformity of the proposed site and related facilities with applicable local, regional, state, and federal standards, ordinances, and laws, including any long-range land use plans or guidelines adopted by the state or by any local or regional planning agency; the safety and reliability of the facility; and the relative merit of any alternative site and related facility proposed in the notice or in sufficient detail at the hearings. A Proposed Decision, approving the Notice, with conditions for consideration by the full commission is included. A description of the proposed project; a summary of the proceedings to date, comments from the general public, and government agency comments on the Preliminary Report are given. The comments of the applicant and the Commission staff regarding the Preliminary Report and the Committee's view of those issues that require further consideration are included. (MHR)
Date: May 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report on the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's notice of intention to seek certification for Geysers Unit 17, 78-NOI-3

Description: Final findings and conclusions are presented on: conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; conformity of the proposed site and facility with applicable local, regional, state, and federal standard ordinances, and laws; and the safety and reliability of the facility. Also included is a proposed decision approving the notice, with conditions, for consideration by the full Commission. In addition, a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date; local, state, and federal government agency comments on the Preliminary Report, and the Committee's view of those issues that require further consideration are included. (MHR)
Date: December 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report on the Northern California Power Agency's Notice of Intention to seek certification for NCPA Geothermal Project No. 2

Description: This preliminary report on the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA) geothermal power plant proposal has been prepared pursuant to California Public Resources Code Sections 25510, 25512, and 25540. It presents the preliminary Findings of fact and Conclusions adopted by the Commission Committee assigned to conduct proceedings on the Notice. In addition, the report contains a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date, and local, state, and Federal government agency comments on the proposal. Finally, the report presents the Committee's view of those issues that require further consideration in future proceedings on the Notice. Pursuant to Public Resources Code Sections 25512 and 25540, the report presents preliminary Findings and Conclusions on: (1) conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; (2) the degree to which the proposed site and facility conform with applicable local, regional, state and Federal standards, ordinances, and laws; and (3) the safety and reliability of the facility.
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report on the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's notice of intention to seek certification for Geysers Unit 16 (78-NOI-6)

Description: The preliminary findings of fact and conclusion adopted by the Commission Committee are presented. Also, a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date, and local, state, and federal government agency comments on the proposal are included. Preliminary findings and conclusions are presented on: (a) conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; (b) the degree to which the proposed site and facility conform with applicable local, regional, state, and federal standards, ordinances and laws; (c) the safety and reliability of the facility; and (d) the relative merit of the proposed transmission line corridors. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report on the Department of Water Resources Notice of Intention to file an application for certification of DWR Bottle Rock, 78-NOI-7

Description: The preliminary findings of fact and conclusion adopted by the Commission Committee are presented. Also, a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date, and local, state, and federal government agency comments on the proposal are included. Preliminary findings and conclusions are presented on: (a) conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; (b) the degree to which the proposed site and facility conform with applicable local, regional, state, and federal standards, ordinances and laws; (c) the safety and reliability of the facility; and (d) the relative merit of the proposed transmission line corridors. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Northern California Power Agency's notice of intention to file an application for certification of NCPA Geothermal Project No. 2. Final report

Description: Final findings and conclusions are presented on: conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; conformity of the proposed site and facility with applicable local, regional, state, and federal standards, ordinances, and laws; and the safety and reliability of the facility. Also included is a proposed decision approving the notice, with conditions, for consideraion by the full Commission. In addition, a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date; local, state, and federal government agency comments on the Preliminary Report; and the Committee's view of those issues that require further consideration are included. (MHR)
Date: March 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

Description: Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced ...
Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: Myer, Larry; Downey, Cameron; Clinkenbeard, John; Thomas, Steven; Stevens, Scott; Benson, Sally et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Quarterly Report: October - December 2003

Description: The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.
Date: January 2004
Creator: Myer, Larry; Surles, Terry & Birkinshaw, Kelly
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

California Energy Commission staff paper. Issues related to reliability of power plants in California

Description: This paper reflects the concern that without reexamination on the part of the industry of its past policies, traditions, and practices, the power plants yet to be licensed in the State of California may not fulfill their full productivity potential. Also, this document seeks a recognition of all parties participating in the regulatory processes, that unless appropriate and deliberate measures are applied, the reliability of the future power generating facilities may be inconsistent with the energy needs, and consequently the reliability deficiency may have to be compensated for by construction of additional generating units that otherwise should not be required. Accordingly, the causes and factors contributing to degradation of power plants reliability are identified, and various means of reduction (or elimination) of such causes, along with related economic aspects are discussed. Basic policies derived from the statutory requirements, the ensuing Commission's role, and the role of the Commission's staff relative to the reliability issues are identified. The contents of this document are applicable to any type of baseload power generating facility. The provided record, pointing to the need for reliability improvement, covers the history of nuclear, geothermal, coal, gas, and oil-fired units. The record encompasses variables such as the generating unit size (MW) and the plant maturity (age). Also, certain facilities with exceptional productivity levels, which resulted from specific measures taken to achieve them, are identified. In addition to the specific measures that can be taken to increase the power plant's reliability, the recommendation to study the merits of incentivising the power industry to improve the productivity levels of future power plants is included.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Shurley, L A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the hydrothermal resources of the Desert Hot Springs Region, California

Description: The Desert Hot Springs hydrothermal resource demonstrates its limited capacity to sustain additional utilization and development. The evaluation included, the delineation of the areal extent, determination of the hydraulic characteristics, calculation of a safe yield, and identification of the source of heat. The areal extent based on well water temperatures and the area enclosed by 90/sup 0/F (32/sup 0/C) isotherm, is about 5.5 square miles. Thirteen aquifer tests were conducted which indicated the average transmissivity to be 29,000 gallons per day per foot and the storativity to be 1.15 x 10/sup -4/, representing an artesian system. Meteorologic and hydrologic data are used to estimate the components of the hydrologic budget for the calculation of the safe yield. The safe yield is 3,400 acre feet and the safest safe yield is 2,100 acre feet. The data generated by the field investigation is employed in a multivariate regression analysis to identify the source of heat. The analysis indicated the hydrothermal waters come to surface in the Blind Canyon fault zone before entering the Desert Hot Springs area.
Date: February 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air quality as the limiting factor on development of the Geysers geothermal resources

Description: An air quality problem exists at the Geysers California as a result of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions from geothermal power generation. The policy and legal issues engulfing the air quality problem and efforts to mitigate the problem are examined. Estimates are made of the air quality impacts of future generation capacity based on utility electricity supply plans as submitted to California Energy Commission (CEC). The status of current and developing H/sub 2/S abatement technologies is examined for availability and technical characteristics. Analysis is provided on the prospect and consequences of inadequate control of H/sub 2/S emissions. H/sub 2/S control efficiencies of less than 95 percent may ultimately be ineffective if full field development is to be achieved at the Geysers.
Date: August 16, 1978
Creator: Fontes, R.A. & Joyce, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department