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Cost estimating issues in the Russian integrated system planning context

Description: An important factor in the credibility of an optimal capacity expansion plan is the accuracy of cost estimates given the uncertainty of future economic conditions. This paper examines the problems associated with estimating investment and operating costs in the Russian nuclear power context over the period 1994 to 2010.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Allentuck, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment for forests: Prototype development

Description: This paper presents details of a study that was done to assess the damage that elevated carbon dioxide has on forest ecosystems. Topics discussed include: elevated concentration of carbon dioxide can it be maintained at ground level; effects of wind variations; is there a problem with carbon dioxide and how serious is it; and can forests management strategies be altered to sustain forest productivity, health and diversity.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Hendrey, G. & Strain, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave measurements of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell photocathode rf gun

Description: The longitudinal accelerating field E. has been measured as a function of azimuthal angle in the full cell of the cold test model for the 1.6 cell BNL/SLAC/UCLA {number_sign}3 S-band RF Gun using a needle rotation/frequency perturbation technique. These measurements were conducted before and after symmetrizing the full cell with a vacuum pump out port and an adjustable short. Two different waveguide to full cell coupling schemes were studied. The dipole mode of the full cell is an order of magnitude less severe before symmetrization for the 0{theta}-coupling scheme. The multi-pole contribution to the longitudinal field asymmetry are calculated using standard Fourier series techniques. The Panofsky-Wenzel theorem is used in estimating the transverse emittance due to the multipole components of E{sub x}.
Date: June 1995
Creator: Palmer, D. T.; Miller, R. H.; Winick, H.; Wang, X. J.; Batchelor, K.; Woodle, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo simulations of muon production

Description: Muon production requirements for a muon collider are presented. Production of muons from pion decay is studied. Lithium lenses and solenoids are considered for focusing pions from a target, and for matching the pions into a decay channel. Pion decay channels of alternating quadrupoles and long solenoids are compared. Monte Carlo simulations are presented for production of {pi} {yields} {mu} by protons over a wide energy range, and criteria for choosing the best proton energy are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.; Fernow, R.C.; Torun, Y.; Neuffer, D. & Winn, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BRAHMS: Conceptual design report. Forward angle and midrapidity hadron spectrometers at RHIC

Description: The Broad RAnge Hadron Magnetic Spectrometers experiment (BRAHMS) is designed to measure charged hadrons over a wide range of rapidity and transverse momentum for all available beams and energies. This conceptual design report describes the BRAHMS detector and how it will be installed and operated at RHIC. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the physics program to be achieved with the BRAHMS Experiment. This is followed in Chapter 3 by an overview of the detector systems, a description which is close to earlier designs but changed to reflect updates. The magnet design is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the requirements that the BRAHMS Experiment sets for the intersection region. The arguments for the proposed positioning of the two magnet arms are presented. The needed support buildings and their possible placements are discussed. Chapter 6 examines the requirements on the elements of the forward arm, and demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed combination of magnets and tracking detectors. Most of the detectors are small TPC`s, and several features of a prototoye TPC and the testing thereof are describes. The particle identification in BRAHMS is achieved by time-of-flight techniques and Cerenkov counters. This is describes in Chapter 7. The global detectors, i.e., the beam-beam counters and the multiplicity detector, are described next in Chapter 8. The concept for a centrality detector based on silicon strips is presented; a backup scheme employs an array of proportional gas counters. Considerations on data aquisition and triggers, as given next in Chapter 9, are fairly conventional and shoud not pose any major problems for development. The cost estimate for the experiment is given last; the total budget for BRAHMS is within the original goal.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Collaboration, BRAHMS
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brain imaging studies of the cocaine addict: Implications for reinforcement and addiction

Description: These studies document dopaminergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. They also suggest a regulatory role of Dopamine (DA) in frontal metabolism. The correlation of striatal D{sub 2} receptor availability with metabolism was strongest for orbital frontal cortex (OFC) cingulate and prefrontal cortices. In cocaine abusers tested during early withdrawal (<1 week) the OFC was found to be hypermetabolic and metabolism in OFC and prefrontal cortices were found to be significantly associated with cocaine craving . Thus, we postulate that repeated and intermittent DA stimulation, as seen during a cocaine binge, activates the prefrontal and OFC cortices increasing the drive to compulsively self-administer cocaine. During cocaine discontinuation and protracted withdrawal and with decreased DA stimulation, these frontal cortical regions become hyponietabolic. Dopaminergic stimulation by a DA-enhancing drug and/or environmental conditioning will reactivate these frontal regions resetting the compulsion to self-administer cocaine and the inability to terminate this behavior. The pharmacokionetic studies with [11C]cocaine are consistent with behavioral and pharmacological studies in animals as well as in vitro studies which have revealed that while the mechanisms for cocaine`s reinforcing properties are complex, they partly involve the brain`s dopamine system and also highlight the importance of cocaine`s pharmacokinetic on its unique reinforcing properties.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Volkow, N.D. & Fowler, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brookhaven highlights 1994

Description: Established in 1947 on Long Island, New York, on the site of the former army Camp Upton, BNL is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated Universities, Inc., under contract to the US Department of Energy. BNL`s annual budget is about $400 million, and the Laboratory`s facilities are valued at replacements cost in excess of over $2.8 billion. Employees number around 3,300,and over 4,000 guests, collaborators and students come each year to use the Laboratory`s facilities and work with the staff. Scientific and technical achievements at BNL have made their way into daily life in areas as varied as health care, construction materials and video games. The backbone of these developments is fundamental research, which is and always will be an investment in the future.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of a transient +2 sulfur oxidation state intermediate from the oxidation of aqueous sulfide

Description: The oxidation H{sub 2}S to sulfate involves a net transfer of eight electrons and occurs through the formation of several partially oxidized intermediates with oxidation states ranging from {minus}1 to +5. Known intermediates include elemental sulfur (oxidation state 0), polysulfides (outer sulfur: {minus}1, inner sulfur: 0), sulfite (+4) and thiosulfate (outer sulfur: {minus}1, inner sulfur: +5). A noticeable gap in this series of intermediates is that of a +2 sulfur oxidation state oxoacid/oxoanion species, which was never detected experimentally. Here, we present evidence of the transient existence of +2 oxidation state intermediate in the Ni(II)-catalyzed oxidation of aqueous sulfide. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and Fourier-transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize this species; they suggest that it has a sulfoxylate ion (SO{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}}) structure.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Vairavmurthy, M.A. & Zhou, Weiqing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colliding Crystalline Beams

Description: Crystalline Beams* are an ordered state of an ensemble of ions, circulating in a storage ring, with very small velocity fluctuations. They can be obtained from ordinary warm ion beams with the application of powerful cooling techniques (stochastic, electron, laser, ...). Depending on the focussing properties and dimensions of the storage ring, and on the ion beam density, several ground states are possible. All of them can be visualized as a bundle of n{sub s} symmetrically distributed, parallel strings. The longitudinal ion separation {lambda} is the same for all strings. The minimum temperature that can be achieved depends on die background noise of the cooling technique used. It is required for stability that the vibration amplitude of the ions is only a fraction of the separation {lambda}.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D. & Ruggiero, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of a charged particle beam energy spectrometer utilizing transition radiation grating

Description: A new technique of measuring the energy spectrum of a charged particle beam using optical transition radiation is presented in this paper. The charged particle beam energy spectrum can be studied by analyzing the optical spectrum of the optical transition radiation produced in a multi-foil configuration. This type of energy spectrometer can have a very large energy acceptance which can not be matched by a simple conventional magnetic dipole spectrometer. The theory of transition radiation from a single boundary and from a foil with finite thickness are reviewed. Multi-foil transition radiation theory and its application for charged particle beam energy spectrum measurement are presented. The practical issues which might affect the performance of a multi-foil transition radiation energy spectrometer are discussed.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Qiu, X.Z.; Wang, X.J.; Batchelor, K. & Ben-Zvi, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data resources for nuclear medicine

Description: The objective of this article is to list data resources needed for nuclear medicine and provide information on how to access them. This list will include publications of data compilations or evaluations, databases, and data processing codes for both nuclear structure and decay, as well as reaction data. Sources of bibliographic and related information on nuclear data are also be listed. The authors of this article have used their judgement in choosing a representative list of data sources; a more complete listing may be found in the references.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bhat, M.R. & Lemmel, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

Description: Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.
Date: July 6, 1995
Creator: Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P. & Viren, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a safety assessment approach for decontamination and decommissioning operations at nuclear facilities

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for nearly 1000 nuclear facilities which will eventually be decommissioned. In order to ensure that the health and safety of the workers, other personnel on site and the public in general is maintained during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations, a methodology specifically for use in evaluating the nuclear safety of the associated activities is being developed within the Department. This methodology represents not so much a departure from that currently fish in the DOE when conducting safety assessments of operations at nuclear facilities but, rather, a formalization of those methods specifically adapted to the D&D activities. As such, it is intended to provide the safety assessment personnel with a framework on which they can base their technical judgement, to assure a consistent approach to safety assessment of D&D operations and to facilitate the systematic collection of data from facilities in the post-operational part of the life cycle.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Worthington, P.R. & Cowgill, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic response of a pair of walls retaining a viscoelastic solid

Description: Making use of a previously reported, simple, approximate method of analysis, a critical evaluation is made of the dynamic pressures and forces induced by horizontal ground shaking on a pair of infinitely long, parallel walls retaining a uniform viscoelastic solid. The walls are presumed to be rigid but elastically constrained against rotation at their base. The effects of both harmonic and earthquake-induced excitations are examined. The accuracy of the method is assessed by comparing its predictions for the special case of fixed-based walls with those obtained by an exact method, and comprehensive numerical data are presented which elucidate the underlying response mechanisms, and the effects and relative importance of the parameters involved. The parameters examined include the characteristics of the ground motion, the ratio of the distance between walls to the height of the contained material, and the flexibility of the rotational wall constraints. In addition to valuable insights into the responses of the systems investigated, the results presented provide a convenient framework for the analysis of more complex systems as well.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Veletsos, A.S.; Parikh, V.H.; Younan, A.H. & Bandyopadhyay, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The E866 Mark II Bull`s Eye performance and promise

Description: The performance of the E866 Bull`s Eye during the Sept--Oct 1994 gold beam runs is examined. Multipeaked pedestal distributions and direct hits of produced or scattered particles on the PMTs are noted. A simple procedure is described to correct for the observed dependence of BE response on event position. Nonlinearity of the BE Hard Sum compared to the Soft Sum is observed and shown to lead to an artificially good resolution of the former signal which defines the INT trigger. Suggestions are made for changes and additional measurements including a ``gate valve`` experiment during the next running period.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Cumming, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of groundwater on soil-structure interaction

Description: This paper presents results of a parametric study performed to investigate the effect of pore water in saturated soils on the response of nuclear containment structures to seismic motions. The technique employed uses frequency domain algorithm which incorporates impedances for both dry and saturated soils into an SSI model. A frequency domain time history analysis is carried out using the computer code CARES for a typical PWR containment structure. Structural responses presented in terms of floor response spectra indicate that considering the presence of the pore water in soils could benefit the design of massive nuclear containment structures.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Xu, J.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K. & Kassir, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and phenomenological approaches to the structure of exotic nuclei

Description: The structure of exotic nuclei that will become accessible with radioactive beams, especially in extremely neutron-rich nuclei where there is a large ``lever arm`` from the valley of stability, is likely to be quite different from anything we have yet encountered. There have been suggestions of radically-different shell structure due, for example, to more-rounded shell potentials (no ``l{sup 2}`` term in the Nilsson potential) or to weaker l{center_dot}s interactions. Also, the weak binding of the outermost nucleons, the coupling to the continuum, changes in residual p-n and pairing interactions, will all contribute to new types of structure and collectivity. Among other effects, magic numbers are likely to lose their robustness; sequences of shell model orbits might be altered in major ways; the onset, manifestations, and evolution of collectivity could be different; unique parity orbits may revert to their parent shells. Radioactive beams will provide the opportunity to study these exotic nuclei, but, at the same time, the amount of data obtainable win be much less than we are accustomed to. Hence, it will be necessary to develop highly-efficient experimental approaches on the one hand, and new signatures of structure, based on the simplest-to-obtain data, on the other. Recently, progress has been made in both areas, and this work is discussed below.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Casten, R.F. & Zamfir, N.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental determination of linear optics including quadrupole rotations

Description: The measured response matrix giving the change in orbit at beam position monitors (BPMs) with changes in steering magnet excitation can be used to accurately determine many important parameters in a storage ring. Using the NSLS X-Ray Ring measured response matrix we have determined the gradients in all 56 quadrupole magnets; the calibration of the steering magnets and BPMs; the rotational mis-alignments of the quadrupoles, steering magnets, and BPMs about the electron beam direction; the longitudinal magnetic centers of the orbit steering magnets; and the transverse mis-alignments of the sextupoles. Random orbit measurement error of the BPMs propagated to give 0.04% rms error in determination of individual quadrupole gradients and 0.4 mrad rms error in the determination of quadrupole rotational alignment. Small variations of a few parts in a thousand in the quadrupole gradients within an individual family were resolved. The improved understanding of the X-Ray Ring has enabled us to better control the electron beam size.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Safranek, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploitation of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a remote chemical sensor

Description: We have discussed recent experimental results using a resonance-Raman-based LIDAR system as a remote chemical sensor. This spectroscopy has the fundamental advantage that it is based on optical fingerprints that are insensitive to environmental perturbations. By taking advantage of resonance enhancement, which 6 orders-of-magnitude, can be as large as 4 to an increased sensing range for a given chemical concentration or lower detection limit for a given stand-off distance can be realized. The success discussed above can in part be traced back to the use of new state-of-the-art technologies which, only recently, have allowed the phenomenon of resonance-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to be fully exploited as a remote chemical sensor platform. Since many chemicals have electronic transitions in the UV/IS, it is expected that many will have pronounced resonance enhancements.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Sedlacek, A.J. & Chen, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alignment and survey of the elements in RHIC

Description: The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two rings with cryogenic magnets at a 4.5K operating temperature. Control of positions of the dipole and quadrupole cold masses (iron laminations) and the beam position monitors (BPM`s) during production and installation is presented. The roll of the dipoles is controlled by a combination of rotating coil measurements with the surveying measurements. The center of the quadrupole magnetic field is obtained by direct measurement of the field shape within a colloidal cell placed inside the quadrupoles. Special attention is given to the triplet quadrupole alignment and determination of the field center position.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Trbojevic, D.; Cameron, P. & Ganetis, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1994 Activity Report, National Synchrotron Light Source. Annual report, October 1, 1993-September 30, 1994

Description: This report is a summary of activities carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source during 1994. It consists of sections which summarize the work carried out in differing scientific disciplines, meetings and workshops, operations experience of the facility, projects undertaken for upgrades, administrative reports, and collections of abstracts and publications generated from work done at the facility.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Rothman, E. Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Amtex DAMA Project: The Brookhaven contribution

Description: The Amtex Partnership organized in 1993 as a Technology Transfer Collaboration among members of the integrated textile industry, the DOE National Laboratories, a number of universities, and several research/education/technology transfer organizations (RETTs). Under the Amtex umbrella organization, a number of technology areas were defined and individual projects were launched addressing various aspects of improving the health and competitiveness of the American textile industry. The first and, to date, the largest of these has been the computer-based Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project. Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in DAMA beginning in March of 1993 and remained an active participant through January of 1995. It was staffed almost exclusively with personnel of the Computing and Communications Division. This document summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Brookhaven team in working with the larger collaboration. Detailed information about the Amtex Partnership, the DAMA Project, and specific BNL contributions are documented elsewhere.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Peskin, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of pion production data from E-802 at 14.6 GeV/c using ARC

Description: We compared the invariant cross sections for pion production by a 14.6 GeV/c proton beam on Be, Al, Cu and Au targets from the measurements of Abbott et.al. with predictions of the ARC program. The agreement was found to be good in the region where data exists. Most pions are found at low momenta in the lab frame. Unfortunately very little data exists for low momentum pions.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Kahana, D. & Torun, Yagmur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anharmonic vibrator description of collective nuclei

Description: It is shown that a simple anharmonic vibrator model can account for the properties of yrast states in collective nuclei, as well as the quasi-band states built on the {gamma}-vibration or on the O{sub 2}{sup +} state. This description extends from nearly harmonic vibrator nuclei to pure rotor nuclei and encompasses both energies and B(E2) values. It survives both ``horizontal`` and ``vertical`` perspectives on the data of nuclear physics and offers a challenge to microscopic theories of nuclear structure.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Casten, R.F. & Zamfir, N.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department