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Outline of a study of the energy needs, uses, and resources of developing countries and the implications for AID programs

Description: A study is outlined that will satisfy the requirement in the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977 for the President to carry out ''studies to identify the energy needs, uses, and resources that exist in developing countries.'' The study also considers those policies and programs in the energy area that can most effectively carry out the intent of the Act and the overall mandate of the Agency for International Development (AID).
Date: August 24, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-statistical effects in neutron capture. [Lectures, reaction mechanisms, resonance and thermal regions, J,. pi. , M1 transitions, signature]

Description: Lectures are presented describing present understanding of departures from the extreme statistical model in radiative s- and p-wave neutron capture in the resonance as well as the thermal regions in terms of simple reaction mechanisms. Supporting evidence from inverse threshold photonuclear reactions is also presented. While an exhaustive study is not made, the most interesting examples are treated. Also spin and parity determinations and recent developments in the understanding of M1 transitions are considered. It is concluded that nonstatistical effects in both s- and p-wave radiative neutron capture do exist in the thermal and resonance region. The gamma ray energy dependence of the partial decay widths provide a signature of the type of reaction mechanism. 94 references. (JFP)
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1977 breeding bird censuses and vegetation surveys in two successional stages of oak--pine forest

Description: As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and surrounding areas, two breeding bird census plots were established in 1977 to document the occurrence and abundance of breeding species in two extreme successional stages of Long Island oak-pine forest. A 9.3-hectare plot located near the northeastern corner of the Laboratory site is composed of second growth oak-pine forest in a late successional stage. The second plot measures 9.7 hectares and is located in the scrub oak-pitch pine barrens at Westhampton. Each plot was surveyed with a transit and steel tape and marked with wooden stakes at 100-foot intervals. Quantitative vegetational surveys were made in each plot and all plant species identified. Tree composition was measured as a function of species and size. Shrub density, percent of ground cover and percent of canopy were also measured. The Laboratory plot contained 2100 trees of five species per hectare, 72% ground cover and 84% canopy coverage. The Westhampton plot contained only one tree species, Pitch Pine, at 366 trees per hectare, 92% ground cover and no canopy. Twelve census trips, mostly of two to three hour duration, were made in each plot. Each bird observed was located on a scale map of the plot. At the end of the season, the number of territories was determined from the distribution of sightings. Eighteen territorial bird species were found in the Laboratory plot with between 479 and 629 territorial males per km/sup 2/. In Westhampton, only five breeding species were present. Density was between 312 and 374 males per km/sup 2/. The Rufous-sided Towhee was the most common species in both plots. Future studies will document changes in both bird and plant species composition and abundance.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Raynor, G.S.; Ruscica, J.J.; Clinton, J.H. & Larsen, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GAUSSIAN 76: an ab initio molecular orbital program

Description: Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.
Date: unknown
Creator: Binkley, J.S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P.C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W.J.; Lathan, W.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

External radiation survey and dose predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls

Description: External radiation measurements were made at several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands, which are known or suspected to have been the recipients of tropospheric fallout during the Pacific Testing Programs. Sufficient data were available to ascertain realistic dose predictions for the inhabitants of Rongelap and Utirik Atolls where the 30 year integral doses from external sources exclusive of background radiation were 0.65 and 0.06 rem respectively. These estimates are based on realistic life-style models based on observations of each atoll community. Ailuk and Wotje Atolls were found to be represenatives of regional background radiation levels.
Date: December 13, 1977
Creator: Greenhouse, N.A. & Miltenberger, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of the sextupole distribution on the momentum aperture in the small cooling ring lattice at Fermilab

Description: In the process of cooling and accumulating antiprotons for use in p-anti p collisions, rings must be designed with a large usable momentum aperture, on the order of 3% or larger. Since long straight sections and dispersionless regions are generally required, the sextupole field correction system for ''chromatic aberration'' is an important aspect of the overall lattice design. The Fermilab small cooling ring, whose purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of cooling and accumulating protons (and antiprotons) with electrons, is a particularly simple system. This lattice is used to show the sensitivity of the momentum aperture to the sextupole correction system distribution.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Month, M. & Wiedemann, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic region

Description: This report presents a review of the energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic Region. It describes the patterns of energy production, supply and demand by state and compares these to national and regional averages. It presents a picture of existing energy and environmental interactions and a view of potential energy and environmental conflicts. A review of the major issues by energy sector is included as is a description of the existing energy actors and major energy programs for Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, Maryland, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Washington, DC.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Munson, J S & Brainard, J P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy needs, uses, and resources in developing countries

Description: The report identifies the energy needs, uses, and resources in the developing countries of the world and examines the energy options available to them for their continued social and economic growth. If traditional patterns of development are to continue, oil consumption in the non-OPEC LDCs will grow steadily to become comparable with current U.S. consumption between 2000 and 2020. Attempts to exploit indigenous hydrocarbon resources even in those LDCs with untapped reserves will be limited by shortages of capital and technical manpower. In the absence of major actions to replace noncommercial fuels or to increase the effectiveness with which they are used, a large fraction of the 3 to 4 billion LDC rural population in the year 2000 will not be able to raise their energy usage above subsistence levels. There is a wide variety of solutions to these problems, many of them emerging directly from the changed economics of energy. For example, most LDCs have not adequately explored and developed their own indigenous resources; in virtually all energy conversion and utilization processes there are opportunities for improvements in efficiency and substitution of renewable energy forms. In virtually all these areas there are opportunities for effective assistance activities.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.; Beardsworth, E. & Hale, S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron cooling of high energy beams

Description: A short note is presented to clarify the relationship between electron cooling time and beam energy and also to see how the nature of the electron beam enters. In particular, whether it is electron total current or current density that is significant is considered. There is no attempt to include any measure of sophistication, such as the effect of a solenoid field, but simply to use Coulomb scattering and statistical equilibrium. For simplicity, the 3 phase spaces (horizontal, vertical and momentum) are taken to have equal occupied areas, and the terminology for the transverse case is used. It appears from the analysis that it is impractical to consider using electron cooling at high energies for the purpose of cooling and accumulating antiprotons. However, if we already have ''cold'' proton and antiproton beams, it might be conceivable to use electron beams from storage rings for the purpose of sustaining constant luminosity and perhaps limiting beam loss and, therefore, background.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Month, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Higher order effects and their influence on the HTGR core

Description: An HTGR core responds nonlinearly to an earthquake input. Nonlinear systems are different from linear systems. Academically, there is no characteristic natural frequency in the no linear vibratory system. Instead, there are resonant peaks that can develop. These are related to the amplitude and frequency of the forcing function as well as to the system characteristics and the transients that exist at the time. In particular, the frequency of peak response is strongly affected by the magnitude of the input amplitude. As in linear systems, resonance can be produced when the forcing frequency is equal to or less than the natural frequency. In addition, in a nonlinear system only, resonances can be produced when the forcing frequency is above the ''natural'' frequency. When this occurs, the resonance is referred to as a subharmonic resonance, that is, the frequency is 1/n times the forcing frequency. The occurrence of subharmonic resonance in a series of blocks with clearance between blocks and with springs on the outermost ends is the subject of the paper. The response of an idealized nonlinear one degree of freedom system to two sine waves is discussed. The influence of the elastic characteristics and damping is also examined.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Curreri, J.; Bezler, P.; Koplik, B.; Reich, M. & Subudhi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

Description: A PWC system was developed and extensively used in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4 to 1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23 to 370 GeV/c). This ''electronic collimator'' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 nsec) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 msec) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hard-wired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events were read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.H. & Kycia, T.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of potential coal utilization, 1985--2000

Description: Growing energy requirements beyond 1985 will require continued expansion of coal use and will impose a considerable strain on the mining and transportation industries. National projections tend to obscure the reality that the impacts of this expansion will not be borne equally throughout the nation, but will fall heavily on the coal-producing regions, particularly on those in the west. The Federal government's policy to develop a commercial synthetic fuels industry may result in a new and growing coal market during this period, as well. To examine these factors, regional supplies and demands for coal, oil, and natural gas were estimated for 1985 and 2000. National coal supplies of 1018 million tons in 1985 (consistent with FEA's 1976 National Energy Outlook) and 1836 million tons in 2000 were employed in this analysis. In order to estimate transportation and consumption patterns for these supplies, a substantial data base was assembled estimating interregional energy-transportation costs. Delivered energy costs were then estimated regionally by combining the wellhead or mine-mouth costs of the fuel resource with these transportation charges. Coal transportation and use patterns for electric utilities, industrial steam, and synthetic-fuel producers were determined by linking the supply, demand, and cost estimates and solving the resulting network through a cost-minimizing linear program formulation. The coal-use patterns generated through this formulation constituted the basis of an investigation of constraints that might preclude this development. Major findings are summarized.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Gunwaldsen, D.; Bhagat, N. & Beller, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Much ado about nothing: deep minima in /sup 45/Sc and /sup 56/Fe total neutron cross sections

Description: The deep minima in /sup 45/Sc and /sup 56/Fe neutron total cross sections were measured at the Gaerttner Linac Laboratory by using thick, ultra-pure samples in transmission experiments. The samples are used to produce quasi-monoenergetic beams at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor. For the /sup 45/Sc minimum near 2.05 keV we obtain sigma/sub total/ = 0.71 +- 0.03 barns, in sharp contrast to a previously reported value of approximately 0.05 barns. The /sup 56/Fe measurement was carried out with a 6 kg, 68.58-cm-long sample of 99.87% isotopically pure sample of /sup 56/Fe; a minimum cross section of 0.0085 +- 0.004 barns at 24.39 keV is inferred. This may be compared to a value of 0.420 barns for natural iron.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Chrien, R.E.; Liou, H.I.; Block, R.C.; Singh, U.N. & Kobayashi, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of stresses on superconducting properties of Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors

Description: This investigation of the degradation in the superconducting properties of Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors when subjected to mechanical strain can be divided into the following areas: (I) monofilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn wires, (II) multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors and wires, (III) effects of additives to Nb/sub 3/Sn, (IV) mechanisms for degradation, and (V) construction of test facilities. Efforts to the present time have been concentrated in the investigation of T/sub c/, J/sub c/, and H/sub c2/ variations in monofilamentary wires. The most important finding in this study is that a Nb/sub 3/Sn composite wire can sustain an effective mechanical strain well beyond ''1%'' if a proper ratio of the matrix to the Nb core has been chosen.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Suenaga, M.; Luhman, T.S.; Sampson, W.B.; Onishi, T. & Klamut, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat transfer with a split water channel

Description: The heat transfer problem associated with the incidence of synchrotron radiation upon a vacuum chamber wall cooled by a single water channel was previously studied, and a numerical solution to the potential problem was found using the two-dimensional magnet program POISSON. Calculations were extended to consider the case of a split water channel using POISSON to solve the potential problem for a given choice of parameters. By optimizing the dimensions, boiling of the water can be avoided. A copper chamber is a viable solution to the heat transfer problem at a beam port.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Krinsky, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear programming model for county-level electric facility siting

Description: A mathematical programming approach to the disaggregation of regional electric-sector energy scenarios is developed, with particular emphasis on integration with the Brookhaven Regional Energy System Optimization model that defines the regional generation mix, and the Brookhaven atmospheric transport models that allow computation of air quality given emissions at the county level. The model sites generation and transmission facilities by county, in such a way as to satisfy exogenously specified generation constraints at the power pool level. Land use, water resources, and air pollution constraints, as well as cost penalties for various cooling and air-pollution control modes, are included. The objective function can be specified either in terms of costs, or in terms of minimizing emissions subject to fiscal constraints. The model is particularly suited to the evaluation of siting strategy trade-offs, and as a component of integrated environmental-economic analysis of energy-planning options.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Meier, P.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam separation for p-anti p collisions in a single ring in the multibunch mode

Description: A discussion is given of proton-antiproton colliding beam operation in storage rings. Some means of separating the beams at points where no experiment is being performed seems to be an important feature for a p-anti p colliding beam ring. By exciting a betatron oscillation in some appropriate, localized region, one could create a specific collision point while at the same time cause the p and anti p beams to oscillate in opposition so that their orbits meet at only a small number of points, roughly given by twice the tune, 2..nu...
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Berley, D.; Garren, A.A. & Month, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual highlights of the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems

Description: The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven has been in operation since January 1976. This annual highlights report outlines the scope of activities of the Center involving the integrated analyses of technological, economic, environmental, and social aspects of energy at the regional, national, and international levels. The objectives of the Center and major accomplishments of 1977 are described along with a list of active projects and publications. The energy data bases and analytical models used in the course of policy analyses are also described. The major ongoing activities of the Center include: long-range forecasting on energy-economic relationships; regional energy and environmental policy; comparative health effects of alternative energy systems; technology assessment and energy R and D priorities; development of energy-economic-environmental models and data bases; R and D strategies for the International Energy Agency; and energy technologies for developing countries.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Hoffman, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occurrence of human enteroviruses in a groundwater aquifer recharged with tertiary wastewater effluents

Description: A two-year study of the impact of human viruses on a tertiary treatment-groundwater recharge system located on Long Island is currently nearing completion. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and groundwater from beneath a uniquely designed recharge basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of indigenous human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. While high concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from sewage influents, the chlorinated tertiary effluents were positive for virus in only 3 of 20 samples. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were detected in the groundwater aquifer on several occasions indicating their ability to percolate through the recharge basin. This finding was confirmed by the results of two poliovirus seeding experiments carried out at the field installation. At both high (75 to 100 cm/hr) and low (6 cm/hr) infiltration rates seeded polioviruses were detected at all sampling levels as well as in the groundwater aquifer, 7.62 m below the recharge basin. It would appear that lower infiltration rates promote better virus removal in the specific type of soil used in this study.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Vaughn, J M & Landry, E F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual highlights of the energy technology programs

Description: This report presents an overview of the programs in the energy technology area during 1977. The objective, scope, significent accomplishments in 1977, principal activities planned for 1978, and publications are presented for each program. The Energy Storage and Conversion Division programs are in two broad areas: electrolysis-based hydrogen energy storage systems and related technologies and conservation in buildings and community systems. The Engineering Division programs include work in solar energy, fossil energy, and combustion technology areas. The Conservation Program Management Group has responsibilities of national scope involving R and D projects carried out in coordination with industry and universities. (MCW)
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

Description: The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I. & Aloia, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Note on beam--beam tune shift in single ring multi bunch mode

Description: If many identical counter-rotating bunches of protons and antiprotons are stored in a single ring, they will have identical orbits. The question is: Is this total tune shift relevant to the problem of beam stability. The answer is: not in general. The nonlinear force is described by its ''strength'', ..delta nu../sub I/, for each bunch interaction individually. It is not at all clear that the sum of the individual ..delta nu../sub I/ is the significant quantity.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Month, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental critique of solar power by bioconversion methods

Description: Idealistic approaches to the resolution of the energy crisis by increased usage of bioconversion methods are discussed. It is pointed out that shortcomings of the technology make such a goal unrealistic. Lack of land, water, and nutrients make a significant contribution to world energy needs impossible. Even modest application of bioconversion processes may damage valuable biotic communities and other natural resources, especially soils. Data on minimum projected land, water, and nutrient requirements are presented; obvious generic impacts are discussed. (JGB)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Calef, C E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Postmortem study of stable carbon isotope ratios in human cerebellar DNA: preliminary results. [Comparison of North American and European populations]

Description: It is observed that /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios in tissue specimens removed postmortem in the United States and Canada are significantly different from corresponding ratios in European specimens. On the basis of this information, measurements of carbon isotope ratios in DNA isolated from cerebella of native-born and European-born North Americans are in progress with the goal of estimating the average lifetime rate of DNA turnover in human neurons. Preliminary results from twenty postmortem examinations are consistent with the hypothesis that a significant proportion of human cerebellar DNA is renewed during the lifetime of an individual.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Slatkin, D N; Irsa, A P & Friedman, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department