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``Clean`` fuels: Does the new direction make environmental sense?

Description: This paper examines the ramifications of this a three-pronged energy philosophy, with special reference to its expected environmental impact if it is fully implemented as policy. To recapitulate, the three prongs are to rely on a free energy market to determine winners and losers, which could certainly include Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) if it remains relatively cheap and clean; refocus the bulk of government-sponsored transportation energy research toward a ``great leap ahead`` to fully renewable and essentially pollution-free fuels such as hydrogen and fuel cells; and discontinue AFV pump priming. Of special interest is a premise that appears common to all prongs--that none of these measures represents a retreat from environmental goals or accomplishments on record since the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was passed.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Saricks, C. L. & Wang, M. Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and use of the GREET model to estimate fuel-cycle energy use and emissions of various transportation technologies and fuels

Description: This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel- cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydrogen, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Wang, M. Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

Description: Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Datta, R. & Tsai, S. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

Description: The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.
Date: October 1996
Creator: Sluder, S.; Larsen, R. & Duoba, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Karvelas, D. E.; Jody, B. J.; Poykala, J. A., Jr.; Daniels, E. J. & Arman, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The economics of salt cake recycling

Description: The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Graziano, D.; Hryn, J. N. & Daniels, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactions of gaseous, elemental mercury with dilute halogen solutions

Description: Of the trace elements known to exist in fossil fuels, mercury (Hg) has emerged as one of the greatest concerns. Mercury has been found to be emitted from combustion in at least two different chemical forms: elemental Hg and oxidized Hg compounds. Precise identification of the oxidized compounds emitted has not been accomplished to date. However, most workers in this field assume that mercuric chloride should be the predominant oxidized species. Mercuric chloride should be readily removed in a wet scrubber system because of its relatively high solubility in water. However, it has been presumed, and we have shown, that elemental Hg will pass through a wet scrubber system with little or no removal being effected. Therefore, it is important, in order to obtain a high total Hg removal, to study methods that might result in a removal of gaseous, elemental Hg from a flue-gas stream. In this regard, we have been studying the effect of dilute halogen-containing solutions on elemental Hg in gas streams of various compositions. In particular, the results of passing Hg through bubblers containing solutions of iodine, chlorine, and chloric acid are described. Mercury found in the bubbler solutions is an indication of the extent of reaction (oxidation) of elemental Hg with the halogen species, since we have found very little Hg transferred to the liquid phase when only distilled water is used in the bubblers. Results using commercial iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and NOXSORB (sup TM) solutions are presented and discussed.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Mendelsohn, M. H. & Livengood, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase II environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

Description: Geophysical studies were conducted at eight sites on the tip of Gunpowder Neck (J-Field) in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The results of the studies were used to delineate the extent of three former burning pits and help determine the necessity of further investigation at five potential areas of concern (PAOCs). Intensive investigations were performed at the three former burning pits and two of the PAOCs by using electromagnetic (EM-31 and EM-61), total field magnetometry, and ground-penetrating radar geophysical techniques. The successful integration of the four data sets characterized the extent, the approximate depth and nature of fill material, and the location of metallic debris at the three former burning pits. At the two PAOC sites that were intensively investigated, no continuous areas of metallic debris, indicating organized burials, were present. Less extensive exploratory profiles conducted at three other PAOC sites indicated the presence of buried metal objects, but they were inconclusive in defining the nature and extent of buried materials.
Date: September 1995
Creator: Davies, B. E.; Thompson, M. D. & Yuen, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of Heavy Metals: Removal From Industrial Wastewaters and Contaminated Soil

Description: This paper reviews the applicable separation technologies relating to removal of heavy metals from solution and from soils in order to present the state-of-the-art in the field. Each technology is briefly described and typical operating conditions and technology performance are presented. Technologies described include chemical precipitation (including hydroxide, carbonate, or sulfide reagents), coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, extraction with chelating agents, complexation, electrochemical operation, cementation, membrane operations, evaporation, adsorption, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification. Several case histories are described, with a focus on waste reduction techniques and remediation of lead-contaminated soils. The paper concludes with a short discussion of important research needs in the field.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Peters, Robert W. & Shem, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Governmental structure of the Russian Federation with respect to environmental and energy programs

Description: An investigation was conducted by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., to provide an overview of the structure of government environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. The investigation was undertaken to provide a baseline of information to the US Department of Energy (DOE), so that technologies applicable to DOE environmental restoration and monitoring programs can be identified, tested, and transferred. Data for the report were collected through a network of Russian and American sources knowledgeable about environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. Sources of information included both US and Russian government personnel, nongovernmental organizations, private consultants, and experts from the academic and scientific communities. The peculiarities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) remain prevalent in the structure of the Newly Independent States, especially in Russia. The legacy of communism is visible in all aspects of society, most particularly in the extreme environmental degradation that has resulted from careless central planning and policies of forced industrialization. Reforms initiated under Mikhail Gorbachev during the period of Perestroika were aimed at shifting power from the party to the respective government organs. In 1992 the Commonwealth of Independent States was created, joining 11 of the 15 republics into a loose federation. The investigation undertaken by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., focused on the executive organs of the present Russian government in an effort to define key ministries with environmental and energy responsibilities. The structure of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (Minpriroda) and the Ministry of Atomic Power (Minatom) are presented. The Academy of Sciences and other ministries that have relevance to the transfer of technologies are discussed, as well as research institutions in which technologies appropriate to DOE programs are likely to reside.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Colangelo, R. V.; Reistroffer, E. L. & Edgar, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An economic and technical assessment of black-dross and salt-cake-recycling systems for application in the secondary aluminum industry

Description: The secondary aluminum industry annually disposes of large amounts of dross residues and salt cake, which are by-products from the processing of scrap aluminum for reuse. These wastes contain as much as 50% salts and are presently disposed of in conventional landfills. As the costs of landfill space increase and the availability of landfill space decreases, disposal of the residues will increasingly compromise the economics of recycling aluminum. Alternative processes exist by which the major constituents of the various drosses and salt cakes can be recovered for recycling. In this study, we review available recycling technologies and processes relevant to the recycling of black dross and salt cake and discuss new concepts that have the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of recycling technologies.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Karvelas, D.; Daniels, E.; Jody, B. & Bonsignore, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validated heat-transfer and pressure-drop prediction methods based on the discrete element method: Phase 1, Three-dimensiional roughness

Description: A computer program based on the discrete element method has been developed and validated to compute friction factors and Nusselt numbers for fully developed turbulent flow and heat transfer in pipes with three-dimensional roughness elements. Computational results are compared with appropriate cases from heat transfer experiments in the literature. The predictions were in general in very good agreement with the experimental data.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Taylor, R. P. & Hodge, B. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential energy consumption: An analysis-of-variance study

Description: In this report, tests of statistical significance of five sets of variables with household energy consumption (at the point of end-use) are described. Five models, in sequence, were empirically estimated and tested for statistical significance by using the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. Each model incorporated additional information, embodied in a set of variables not previously specified in the energy demand system. The variable sets were generally labeled as economic variables, weather variables, household-structure variables, end-use variables, and housing-type variables. The tests of statistical significance showed each of the variable sets to be highly significant in explaining the overall variance in energy consumption. The findings imply that the contemporaneous interaction of different types of variables, and not just one exclusive set of variables, determines the level of household energy consumption.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Poyer, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Volume 2, Data sets

Description: This report contains the data gathered from tests conducted on a single-cylinder diesel engine to study the benefits and problems of oxygen-enriched diesel combustion and the use of water-emulsified and low-grade diesel fuels. This research, funded by the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in the United States Department of Energy, is being conducted in support of the Industrial Cogeneration Program. The report is made up of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the description of the experiments, selected data points, discussion of trends, and conclusions and recommendations; Volume 2 contains the data sets. With the two-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Sekar, R. R.; Marr, W. W.; Cole, R. L. & Marciniak, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration and evaluation of the pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation gas-treatment system, Savannah River Site

Description: Argonne National Laboratory was asked to demonstrate and evaluate a pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation system developed by Purus, Inc., at the Volatile Organic Compounds Non-Arid Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site near aiken, South Carolina. The Purus system consists of four reactor chambers, each containing a xenon flash lamp. During the two weeks of testing, samples were taken and analyzed from the inlet and outlet sides of the Purus system. The contaminants of concern on the inlet were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA); the contaminants of concern on the outlet were PCE, TCE, TCA, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform. The evaluation of the Purus system included an examination of the reduction of both TCE and PCE and a search for any change in the concentrations. (Operating conditions included flow rates, ranging from 25 to 100 standard cubic feet per minute; inlet concentration of PCE, ranging from 360 to 10,700 parts per million volume; and flash lamp rates, ranging from 1 to 30 hertz.) The Purus system was quite efficient at reducing the concentrations of both PCE and TCE. The potential by-products, TCA, CT, and chloroform, showed no significant increases throughout the range of the various operating parameters. Overall, the Purus system appears to be a cost-efficient means of reducing the concentrations of PCE and TCE, while the removal of the initial photo-oxidation products and TCA is slower and needs further evaluation.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Schneider, J.; Wilkey, M.; Peters, R.; Tomczyk, N.; Friedlund, J.; Farber, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment and Recycling of Shredder Fluff: Final Report on Phase 1, Proof of Concept

Description: This report describes the results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to investigate the feasibility of extracting thermoplastics from shredder fluff for possible recycling. The objective of the research was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using organic solvents to selectively dissolve and recover thermoplastics from the shredder fluff. The basis of the process is physical separation of shredder fluff, which is followed by selective dissolution and recovery of thermoplastics from the plastics-rich stream. In small-scale laboratory runs, four potentially marketable products were recovered by the use of this process: clean polyurethane from (PUF), a mixture of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE), a mixture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and an iron-rich fine magnetic fraction. Because the residual shredder fluff has been preprocessed, it should be more homogeneous and have a much lower chlorine concentration and moisture content than the raw shredder fluff. These attributes should make the material more economically and environmentally attractive than raw shredder fluff as a fuel or feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A preliminary capital cost estimate of the process was also developed.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J. & Bonsignore, P. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Comparative Impact of the Market Penetration of Energy-Efficient Measures: A Sensitivity Analysis of Its Impact on Minority Households

Description: A sensitivity study was made of the potential market penetration of residential energy efficiency as energy service ratio (ESR) improvements occurred in minority households, by age of house. The study followed a Minority Energy Assessment Model analysis of the National Energy Strategy projections of household energy consumption and prices, with majority, black, and Hispanic subgroup divisions. Electricity and total energy consumption and expenditure patterns were evaluated when the households` ESR improvement followed a logistic negative growth (i.e., market penetration) path. Earlier occurrence of ESR improvements meant greater discounted savings over the 22-year period.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Bozinovich, L. V.; Poyer, D. A. & Anderson, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Evaluation of Oxygen-Enriched Air and Emulsified Fuels in a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine. Volume 1, Concept Evaluation

Description: The performance of a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was measured with intake oxygen levels of up to 35% and fuel water contents of up to 20%. Because a previous study indicated that the use of a less-expensive fuel would be more economical, two series of tests with No. 4 diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel were conducted. To control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), water was introduced into the combustion process in the form of water-emulsified fuel, or the fuel injection timing was retarded. In the first series of tests, compressed oxygen was used; in the second series of tests, a hollow-tube membrane was used. Steady-state engine performance and emissions data were obtained. Test results indicated a large increase in engine power density, a slight improvement in thermal efficiency, and significant reductions in smoke and particulate-matter emissions. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased, they could be controlled by introducing water and retarding the injection timing. The results further indicated that thermal efficiency is slightly increased when moderately water-emulsified fuels are used, because a greater portion of the fuel energy is released earlier in the combustion process. Oxygen-enriched air reduced the ignition delay and caused the heat-release rate and cumulative heat-release rates to change measurably. Even at higher oxygen levels, NO{sub x} emissions decreased rapidly when the timing was retarded, and the amount of smoke and the level of particulate-matter emissions did not significantly increase. The single-cylinder engine tests confirmed the results of an earlier technical assessment and further indicated a need for a low-pressure-drop membrane specifically designed for oxygen enrichment. Extension data set indexed separately. 14 refs.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Sekar, R. R.; Marr, W. W.; Cole, R. L. & Marciniak, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

Description: The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Li, W.; Harkness, J. B. L. & Mendelsohn, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department