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Reactor Engineering Division Quarterly Report, June 1, 1949 - August 31, 1949

Description: Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory covering the quarterly report from the Reactor Engineering Division. A summary of reactor programs, designs, development, and experiments are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: October 7, 1949
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Reactor Engineering Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Relative Thermal Conductivities of Liquid Lithium, Sodium, and Eutectic NaK, and the Specific Heat of Liquid Lithium

Description: Report discussing the relative thermal conductivities of liquid lithium, sodium, and eutectic NaK, and the specific heat of liquid lithium, as well as the methods and materials used to determine this information.
Date: April 21, 1950
Creator: Yaggee, F. L. & Untermyer, Samuel, 1912-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COREMAP: Graphical user interface for displaying reactor core data in an interactive hexagon map

Description: COREMAP is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed to assist users read and check reactor core data from multidimensional neutronic simulation models in color and/or as text in an interactive 2D planar grid of hexagonal subassemblies. COREMAP is a complete GEODST/RUNDESC viewing tool which enables the user to access multi data set files (e.g. planes, moments, energy groups ,... ) and display up to two data sets simultaneously, one as color and the other as text. The user (1) controls color scale characteristics such as type (linear or logarithmic) and range limits, (2) controls the text display based upon conditional statements on data spelling, and value. (3) chooses zoom features such as core map size, number of rings and surrounding subassemblies, and (4) specifies the data selection for supplied popup subwindows which display a selection of data currently off-screen for a selected cell, as a list of data and/or as a graph. COREMAP includes a RUNDESC file editing tool which creates ``proposed`` Run-description files by point and click revisions to subassembly assignments in an existing EBRII Run-description file. COREMAP includes a fully automated printing option which creates high quality PostScript color or greyscale images of the core map independent of the monitor used, e.g. color prints can be generated with a session from a color or monochrome monitor. The automated PostScript output is an alternative to the xgrabsc based printing option. COREMAP includes a plotting option which creates graphs related to a selected cell. The user specifies the X and Y coordinates types (planes, moment, group, flux ,... ) and a parameter, P, when displaying several curves for the specified (X, Y) pair COREMAP supports hexagonal geometry reactor core configurations specified by: the GEODST file and binary Standard Interface Files and the RUNDESC ordering.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Muscat, F.L. & Derstine, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixed-conducting ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane

Description: The most significant cost associated with the conventional partial oxidation of methane is that of an oxygen plant. Our new technology offers a way to lower this cost, and in this paper we explore the technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions. Mixed-conducting ceramic materials have been produced from mixed-oxide systems of the La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) type, in the form of tubes and bars. Thermodynamic stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be adequate for a reactor in the case of SFC-2: Electronic and ionic conductivities were measured; SFC-2 is unique in the sense that the ratio of ionic to electronic conductance is close to unity. Performance of the membrane tubes was good only with SFC-2. Fracture of other SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. SFC-2 tubes provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. These tubes have operated for >1000 h.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A permanent-magnet rotor for a high-temperature superconducting bearing

Description: Design, fabrication, and performance, of a 1/3-m dia., 10-kg flywheel rotor with only one bearing is discussed. To achieve low-loss energy storage, the rotor`s segmented-ring permanent-magnet (PM) is optimized for levitation and circumferential homogeneity. The magnet`s carbon composite bands enable practical energy storage.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Mulcahy, T.M.; Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.; Abboud, R.G.; Wise, J.H. & Carnegie, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an ultrasonic process for soil remediation

Description: An ultrasonic process for the detoxification of carbon tetrachloride- (CCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) contaminated soil was investigated in the laboratory by using a batch irradiation reactor equipped with a 600-W ultrasonic power supply operated at a frequency of 20 kHz. Key parameters studied included soil characteristics, irradiation time, CCl{sub 4} concentration, steady-state operating temperature, applied ultrasonic-wave energy, and the ratio of soil to water in the system. The results of the experiments showed that (1) residual CCl{sub 4} concentrations could be decreased with longer irradiation periods and (2) detoxification efficiency was proportional to steady-state operating temperature and applied ultrasonic-wave energy. The characteristics of the contaminated soil were found to be an important factor in the design of an ultrasonic detoxification system. A soil-phase CCl{sub 4} concentration below 1 ppm (initial concentration of 56 ppm) was achieved through this process, indicating that the application of ultrasonic irradiation is feasible and effective in the detoxification of soil contaminated by organic compounds. On the basis of the experimental results, a schematic of a full-scale ultrasonic soil-detoxification system was developed. Improvements to this novel process are discussed.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S. & Livengood, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiences in the D&D of the EBWR reactor complex at Argonne National Laboratory

Description: EBWR went critical in Dec 1957 at 20 MW(t), was upgraded to 100 MW(t) operation. EBWR was shut down July 1967 and placed in dry lay-up. In 1986, the D&D work was planned in 4 phases: final planning and preparations for D&D, removal of reactor systems, removal of reactor vessel complex, and final decontamination and project closeout. Despite precautions, there was an uptake of {sup 241}Am by D&D workers following underwater plasma arc cutting within the pool; the cause was traced to an experimental {sup 241}Pu foil (200 {mu}g) that was lost in the mid-1960s in the reactor vessel. Several major lessons were learned from this episode, among which is the fact that research facilities often involve unusual experiments which may not be recorded. Safety analysis and review procedure for D&D operations need to be carefully considered since they represent considerably different situations than reactor operations. EBWR is one of the very few cases of a prototypic reactor facility designed, operated, tested and now D&D`d by one organization.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Boing, L.E. & Fellhauer, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The DART dispersion analysis research tool: A mechanistic model for predicting fission-product-induced swelling of aluminum dispersion fuels. User`s guide for mainframe, workstation, and personal computer applications

Description: This report describes the primary physical models that form the basis of the DART mechanistic computer model for calculating fission-product-induced swelling of aluminum dispersion fuels; the calculated results are compared with test data. In addition, DART calculates irradiation-induced changes in the thermal conductivity of the dispersion fuel, as well as fuel restructuring due to aluminum fuel reaction, amorphization, and recrystallization. Input instructions for execution on mainframe, workstation, and personal computers are provided, as is a description of DART output. The theory of fission gas behavior and its effect on fuel swelling is discussed. The behavior of these fission products in both crystalline and amorphous fuel and in the presence of irradiation-induced recrystallization and crystalline-to-amorphous-phase change phenomena is presented, as are models for these irradiation-induced processes.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Rest, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal and structural analyses of variable thickness plane problems

Description: Finite difference formulations for variable thickness thermal analysis and variable thickness plane stress analysis are presented. In heat transfer analysis, radiation effects and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are taken into account. While in thermal stress analysis, the thermal expansion coefficient is considered as temperature dependent. An application of the variable thickness window for synchrotron radiation beamline under very strong X-ray is provided.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Wang, Zhibi & Kuzay, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixed and low-level radioactive waste disposal from the Argonne National Laboratory-East Map Tube Facility

Description: The Map Tube Facility was a storage unit for small, highly radioactive objects. The facility consisted of 129 cast-iron pipes cast vertically in a concrete monolithic structure. The objects were packaged and placed into the pipes for storage prior to disposal or reuse in research experiments. Deterioration of the facility allowed water to enter the pipes. Release of this contaminated water has resulted in radiological contamination of underlying soil and groundwater. Sediment, principally corrosion products, collected in the bottom of the pipes. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Map Tube Facility generated a large quantity of radioactive mixed and low-level waste. All low-level and mixed waste that can not be treated on-site is sent to the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in Richland, Washington for storage or disposal. Because of the difficulty and cost of disposing radioactive mixed waste, a great amount of effort was expended to limit the mixed waste volume. The final volume of mixed waste was approximately 99 percent less than originally generated with total waste disposal costs being reduced by roughly two-thirds.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Wescott, J.B. & Moos, L.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Contribution 1994 Summary Report Task T12: Compatibility and irradiation testing of vanadium alloys

Description: Vanadium alloys exhibit important advantages as a candidate structural material for fusion first wall/blanket applications. These advantages include fabricability, favorable safety and environmental features, high temperature and high wall load capability, and long lifetime under irradiation. Vanadium alloys with (3-5)% chromium and (3-5)% titanium appear to offer the best combination of properties for first wall/blanket applications. A V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is recommended as the reference composition for the ITER application. This report provides a summary of the R&D conducted during 1994 in support of the ITER Engineering Design Activity. Progress is reported for Vanadium Alloy Production, Welding, Physical Properties, Baseline Mechanical Properties, Corrosion/Compatibility, Neutron Irradiation Effects, Helium Transmutation Effects on Irradiated Alloys, and the Status of Irradiation Experiments. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports from this publication.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Smith, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of the hands of radiologists

Description: A group of radiologists were studied for evidences of radiation damage to the skin of their hands. The technics used were the same as those used for routine hand studies of Argonne National Laboratory personnel and consist of examination of wax impressions of the finger ridges and examination of photographs of the vessels and Papillae in the nail fold. Of the 323 radiologists examined by the first method 48% were found to have ridge abnormalities. The incidence of abnormality increased with years of exposure to radiation up to 100% after 35 years. The irregular use of lead gloves does not give adequate protection against damage of the ridges by radiations. Photographs of the nail fold of 152 radiologists were studied and compared to similar photographs of 101 laboratory workers and of 41 persons over 63 years of age. Some of the abnormalities occurred in all 3 groups. All of the changes which were found among the radiologists were found also in the aged. The incidence of abnormality among the radiologists increased with years of exposure to radiation and exceeded the incidence of abnormality in the aged. No radiologist had normal findings after 30 years of exposure. It is concluded that abnormalities of the vessels and of the papillae in the nail fold are induced earlier in radiologists than in persons not exposed to radiation.
Date: June 1, 1947
Creator: Nickson, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The importance of secondary phases in glass corrosion

Description: The analytical expression used to model glass reaction in computer simulations such as EQ6 is compared to experiments used to support the simulations. The expression correctly predicts the acceleration observed in experiments performed at high glass surface area/leachant volume ratios (SA/V) upon the formation of secondary phases. High resolution microscopal analysis of reacted glass samples suggests that the accelerated nature of the reaction after secondary phase formation is due to changes in the reaction affinity (i.e., is a solution affect) and not a change in the glass reaction mechanism. Solutions generated on samples reacted in steam are consistent with the effects of the secondary phases predicted in the model. Experiments which lead to the generation of secondary phases within short reaction times can be used to identify important secondary phases which must be included in the data base of computer simulations to correctly project long-term glass reaction behavior. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Ebert, W.L. & Bates, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of the toxicity characteristic for metals in soil: A comparison of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and total metal determination

Description: A comparison is made of the concentrations of metals extracted from soils using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a total determination method. This information is of interest in two ways. First, it is hoped that a relationship might be established between the amount of each metal determined after extraction by the TCLP and the amount determined using a total determination method. And second, data are also presented which indicate the general extractability of various metals in soil samples using the TCLP. This study looks specifically at inorganic elements (Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mg, Hg, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in soils from a firing range. Results show that total determination methods for metals can not generally be used for heterogeneous samples, such as soil samples from a firing range. Some correlation between a total determination method and TCLP was observed when Ba and Cd were present in the samples at lower concentrations (less than 80 mg/kg for Ba and less than 25 mg/kg for Cd); however, additional data are necessary to verify this correlation.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Bass, D.A. & Taylor, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A chaotic system of two-phase flow in a small, horizontal, rectangular channel

Description: Various measurement tools that are used in chaos theory were applied to analyze two-phase pressure signals with the objective of identifying and interpreting flow pattern transitions for two-phase flows in a small, horizontal rectangular channel. These measurement tools included power spectral density function, autocorrelation function, pseudo-phase-plane trajectory, Lyapunov exponents, and fractal dimensions. It was demonstrated that the randomlike pressure fluctuations characteristic of two-phase flow in small rectangular channels are chaotic. As such, they are governed by a high-order deterministic system. The correlation dimension is potentially a new approach for identifying certain two-phase flow patterns and transitions.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Cai, Y.; Wambsganss, M. W. & Jendrzejczyk, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF): A tool for the integrated assessment of acid deposition

Description: A major challenge that has faced policy makers concerned with acid deposition is obtaining an integrated view of the underlying science related to acid deposition. In response to this challenge, the US Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of an integrated Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) which links together the key acid deposition components of emissions, air transport, atmospheric deposition, and aquatic effects in a single modeling structure. The goal of TAF is to integrate credible models of the scientific and technical issues into an assessment framework that can directly address key policy issues, and in doing so act as a bridge between science and policy. Key objectives of TAF are to support coordination and communication among scientific researchers; to support communications with policy makers, and to provide rapid response for analyzing newly emerging policy issues; and to provide guidance for prioritizing research programs. This paper briefly describes how TAF was formulated to meet those objectives and the underlying principals which form the basis for its development.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Bloyd, C.N.; Henrion, M. & Marnicio, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overall design concepts for the APS storage ring machine protection system

Description: The basic design and status of the machine protection system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are discussed. The machine is passively safe to the bending magnet sources, but the high power of the insertion devices requires missteering conditions to be identified and the beam aborted in less than one millisecond. The basic aspects of waterflow, temperature, beam position, etc. monitoring are addressed. Initial commissioning of subsystems and sensors is statused.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Lumpkin, A.; Fuja, R.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Shu, D.; Stepp, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-scale Intelligent Transporation Systems simulation

Description: A prototype computer system has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capable of running on massively parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems. The prototype includes the modelling of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units capable of optimal route planning and Traffic Management Centers (TMC). The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces to support human-factors studies. The prototype has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of our design is that vehicles will be represented by autonomus computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Ewing, T.; Canfield, T.; Hannebutte, U.; Levine, D. & Tentner, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the Integrated Performance Evaluation Program (IPEP) for the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management

Description: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and DOE`s Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), and Grand Junction Project office (GJPO) are collaborating with DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), Analytical Services Division (ASD, EM-263) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop an Integrated Performance Evaluation Program (IPEP). The purpose of the IPEP is to integrate information from existing PE programs with expanded QA activities to develop information about the quality of radiological, mixed waste, and hazardous environmental sample analyses provided by all laboratories supporting EM programs. The IPEP plans to utilize existing PE programs when available and appropriate for use by DOE; new PE programs will be developed only when no existing program meets DOEs needs. Interagency Agreements have been developed between EPA and DOE to allow DOE to use major existing PE programs developed by EPA. In addition, the DOE radiological Quality Assessment Program (QAP) administered by EML is being expanded for use in EM work. RESL and GJPO are also developing the Mixed Waste Performance Evaluation Program (MAPEP) to provide radiological, inorganic, and organic analytes of interest to EM programs. The use of information from multiple PE programs will allow a more global assessment of an individual laboratory`s performance, as well as providing a means of more fairly comparing laboratories` performances in a given analytical area. The EPEP will interact with other aspects of the ASD such as audit and methods development activities to provide an integrated system for assessment and improvement of data quality.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Lindahl, P.; Streets, E.; Bass, D.; Hensley, J.; Newberry, R. & Carter, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department