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Recharge monitoring in an interplaya setting

Description: The objective of this investigation is to monitor infiltration in response to precipitation events in an interplaya setting. The authors evaluated data gathered from the interplaya recharge monitoring installation at the Pantex Plant from March through December 1998. They monitored thermocouple psychrometer (TCP) instruments to measure water potential and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes to measure water content and bulk soil conductivity. Heat-dissipation sensor (HDS) instruments were monitored to supplement the TCP data.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C. & Liang, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1996--April 30, 1996

Description: This report from the Amarillo National REsource Center for PLutonium provides research highlights and provides information regarding the public dissemination of information. The center is a a scientific resource for information regarding the issues of the storage, disposition, potential utilization and transport of plutonium, high explosives, and other hazardous materials generated from nuclear weapons dismantlement. The center responds to informational needs and interpretation of technical and scientific data raised by interested parties and advisory groups. Also, research efforts are carried out on remedial action programs and biological/agricultural studies.
Date: May 28, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote inspection system for hazardous sites

Description: Long term storage of special nuclear materials poses a number of problems. One of these is a need to inspect the items being stored from time to time. Yet the environment is hostile to man, with significant radiation exposure resulting from prolonged presence in the storage facility. This paper describes research to provide a remote inspection capability, which could lead to eliminating the need for humans to enter a nuclear storage facility. While there are many ways in which an RI system might be created, this paper describes the development of a prototype remote inspection system, which utilizes virtual reality technology along with robotics. The purpose of this system is to allow the operator to establish a safe and realistic telepresence in a remote environment. In addition, it was desired that the user interface for the system be as intuitive to use as possible, thus eliminating the need for extensive training. The goal of this system is to provide a robotic platform with two cameras, which are capable of providing accurate and reliable stereographic images of the remote environment. One application for the system is that it might be driven down the corridors of a nuclear storage facility and utilized to inspect the drums inside, all without the need for physical human presence. Thus, it is not a true virtual reality system providing simulated graphics, but rather an augmented reality system, which performs remote inspection of an existing, real environment.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Redd, J.; Borst, C.; Volz, R.A. & Everett, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Routing of radioactive shipments in networks with time-varying costs and curfews

Description: This research examines routing of radioactive shipments in highway networks with time-dependent travel times and population densities. A time-dependent least-cost path (TDLCP) algorithm that uses a label-correcting approach is adapted to include curfews and waiting at nodes. A method is developed to estimate time-dependent population densities, which are required to estimate risk associated with the use of a particular highway link at a particular time. The TDLCP algorithm is implemented for example networks and used to examine policy questions related to radioactive shipments. It is observed that when only Interstate highway facilities are used to transport these materials, a shipment must go through many cities and has difficulty avoiding all of them during their rush hour periods. Decreases in risk, increased departure time flexibility, and modest increases in travel times are observed when primary and/or secondary roads are included in the network. Based on the results of the example implementation, the suitability of the TDLCP algorithm for strategic nuclear material and general radioactive material shipments is demonstrated.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Bowler, L. A. & Mahmassani, H. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rugged miniaturized mass sensors for use in plutonium conversion processes

Description: Ionization is produced either through Plasma Desorption, in the case of a solid, using fission fragments from a Cf-252 source; or in the case of a gas, via an electron avalanche from the impact on a microsphere detector of {alpha} particles from a radioactive source. The gaseous compound analysis yielded multiple peaks on parent ion and molecular fragments. In the solid compound analysis, the results indicated that solid-state mass spectrometry will provide important information about the degradation of materials by measured changes in molecular weight.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Schweikert, E. A. & James, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock compression synthesis of hard materials

Description: The purpose of this research was to adapt the high explosives technology that was developed in conjunction with nuclear weapons programs to subjecting materials to ultra-high pressures and to explore the utility of this technique for the synthesis of hard materials. The research was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas, Texas Tech University and Pantex (Mason and Hanger Corp.). The group designed, modeled, built, and tested a new device that allows quantitative recovery of grams of material that have been subjected to unprecedented pressures. The modeling work was done at Texas Tech and Pantex. The metal parts and material samples were made at the University of Texas, and Pantex machined the explosives, assembled the devices and conducted the detonations. Sample characterization was carried out at the University of Texas and Texas Tech.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Willson, C. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption of Pu(IV) from nitric acid by bifunctional anion-exchange resins

Description: Anion exchange is attractive for separating plutonium because the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is very strongly sorbed and few other metal ions form competing anionic nitrate complexes. The major disadvantage of this process has been the unusually slow rate at which the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is sorbed by the resin. The paper summarizes the concept of bifunctional anion-exchange resins, proposed mechanism for Pu(IV) sorption, synthesis of the alkylating agent, calculation of K{sub d} values from Pu(IV) sorption results, and conclusions from the study of Pu(IV) sorption from 7M nitric acid by macroporous anion-exchange resins including level of crosslinking, level of alkylation, length of spacer, and bifunctional vs. monofunctional anion-exchange resins.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Bartsch, R.A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Elshani, S.; Zhao, W.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A stability tool for use within TELEGRIP

Description: During the assembly of a product, it is vital that the partially-completed assembly be stable. To guarantee this, one must ensure that contacts among the parts and the fixtures are sufficient to stabilize the assembly. Thus, it would be desirable to have an efficient method for testing an assembly stability, and, if this is not possible, generating a set of additional fixture contact points, known as fixels, that will stabilize it. One can apply this method to the situation of safe handling of special nuclear material (SNM). To have these functionalities should help improve the safety and enhance the performance of special nuclear material (SNM) handling and storage operations, since some methods are needed for gripping objects in a stable manner. Also, one may need a way to find a pit-holding fixture inserted into containers. In this paper, the authors present a stability tool, which they call Stab Tool, which was developed to test the stability of objects grasped by robotic hands, objects placed in fixtures, or sets of objects piled randomly on top of one another. Stab Tool runs on top of a commercial software package, TELEGRIP, which is used for geometry modeling and motion creation. The successful development of the stability depends strongly on TELEGRIP`s ability to compute the distances between pairs of three-dimensional bodies in the simulated environment. The interbody distance computation tool takes advantage of the polyhedral representations of bodies used by TELEGRIP and of linear programming techniques to yield an efficient algorithm.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Son, W. H. & Trinkle, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical summary: Feasibility study of conductivity monitoring for leak detection in double-walled plutonium containers

Description: Currently, the storage container for the pit from a dismantled warhead is a sealed outer container, or drum, within which the pit is suspended. Since the pit itself is a sealed, stainless steel container for the plutonium, the inner plus the outer containers constitute the {open_quotes}double-walled{close_quotes} configuration for plutonium storage. If either inner or outer wall of the container fails, the fill-gas between the pit and drum walls will contain species that will modify the physical properties of that gas. The work summarized here reports the initial feasibility study for an innovative approach for monitoring for leakages both for radioactive materials from the pit and for the intrusion of outside into the drum by monitoring the electrical conductivity of the fill-gas. For the gas present in a drum containing a pit, alphas from decays of plutonium are stopped by the primary container wall of the pit itself unless pit leakage occurs. If plutonium leaks from the pit and enters the fill-gas (either noble gas or air) of the outer container, each of the alpha particles due to the decay of plutonium will create about 10{sup 5} electron-ion pairs along its track. If the fill gas is a noble gas, these electrons will diffuse in the gas as free electrons.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Lu, J. X. & Marlow, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time series modeling of system self-assessment of survival

Description: Self-assessment of survival for a system, subsystem or component is implemented by assessing conditional performance reliability in real-time, which includes modeling and analysis of physical performance data. This paper proposes a time series analysis approach to system self-assessment (prediction) of survival. In the approach, physical performance data are modeled in a time series. The performance forecast is based on the model developed and is converted to the reliability of system survival. In contrast to a standard regression model, a time series model, using on-line data, is suitable for the real-time performance prediction. This paper illustrates an example of time series modeling and survival assessment, regarding an excessive tool edge wear failure mode for a twist drill operation.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Lu, H. & Kolarik, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of HMX and RDX contamination

Description: HMX and RDX are often found in the soil, groundwater, and surface waters at facilities where they are manufactured as the result of negligent disposal methods. The toxicity of these compounds and their degradation products has led to concern about their fate in the environment and the potential for human exposure. HMX and RDX are recalcitrant in the environment with low rates of biodegradation and photolysis. Several methods of treating contaminated soils and waters have been developed and studied. Many of these technologies (i.e., carbon adsorption, oxidation, and chemical treatment) have been developed to treat munition plant wastewaters that are contaminated with explosives. These methods need to be adapted to remediate contaminated water. Other technologies such as bioremediation and composting are being developed as methods of remediating HMX and RDX contamination in a solid matrix. This report describes and evaluates each of these technologies. This report also describes the processes which affect HMX and RDX in the environment. The major transformation processes of RDX and HMX in the environment are biodegradation and photolysis. A major factor affecting the transport and treatment of RDX and HMX in soil-water environments is their sorption and desorption to soil particles. Finally, this report draws conclusions as to which treatment methods are currently most suitable for the remediation of contaminated soils and waters.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Card, R. E., Jr. & Autenrieth, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

Description: There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D.; Rainwater, K.A.; Lightfoot, J.M. & Richardson, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Literature review: Phytoaccumulation of chromium, uranium, and plutonium in plant systems

Description: Phytoremediation is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the cleanup of contaminated soils, which combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential application in decontamination of metal-polluted soils. Traditional engineering technologies may be too expensive for the remediation of most sites. Removal of metals from these soils using accumulator plants is the goal of phytoremediation. The emphasis of this review has been placed on chromium (Cr), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U). With the exception of Cr, these metals and their decay products exhibit two problems, specifically, radiation dose hazards and their chemical toxicity. The radiation hazard introduces the need for special precautions in reclamation beyond that associated with non-radioactive metals. The uptake of beneficial metals by plants occurs predominantly by way of channels, pores, and transporters in the root plasma membrane. Plants characteristically exhibit a remarkable capacity to absorb what they need and exclude what they don`t need. But most vascular plants absorb toxic and heavy metals through their roots to some extent, though to varying degrees, from negligible to substantial. Sometimes absorption occurs because of the chemical similarity between beneficial and toxic metals. Some plants utilize exclusion mechanisms, where there is a reduced uptake by the roots or a restricted transport of the metal from root to shoot. At the other extreme, hyperaccumulator plants absorb and concentrate metals in both roots and shoots. Some plant species endemic to metalliferous soils accumulate metals in percent concentrations in the leaf dry matter.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J. & Szaniszlo, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms of formation of trace decomposition products in complex high explosive mixtures

Description: A significant concern in the nation`s stockpile surveillance program in prediction of the lifetimes of the high explosives (HE) and their components as the weapons age. The Department of Energy`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target issues of degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. These material science topics are being addressed at the DOE national laboratories and production plants, including Pantex. The principal goal of this project is to identify the mechanisms of decomposition of HE, plasticizers, plastic polymer binders, and radical stabilizers resulting from exposures to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The following reports the work completed for 1998, including a comprehensive literature review about some of the materials examined and the laboratory work completed to date. The materials focused on in the laboratory are TATB, Estane 5301, and Irganox 1010.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Woodyard, J. D.; Burgess, C. E. & Rainwater, K. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A methodology for the analysis and selection of alternatives for the disposition of surplus plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

Description: The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is currently involved in the development of a comprehensive approach to the long-term storage and disposition of fissile materials. A major objective of this effort is to provide a framework for US efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. This will entail both the elimination of excess highly enriched uranium and plutonium, and the insurance of the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is supporting an Interagency Working Group that has initiated a comprehensive review of alternatives for plutonium disposition which takes into account non-proliferation, economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. These alternatives were identified by the development of screening criteria as a guide to the selection of alternatives that best achieve the fissile nuclear material long-term storage and disposition goals of the US Government.
Date: July 5, 1995
Creator: Mulder, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of the performance of weapons MOX fuel in light water reactors

Description: Both the Russian Federation and the US are pursing mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) for the disposition of excess plutonium from disassembled nuclear warheads. Fuel performance models are used which describe the behavior of MOX fuel during irradiation under typical power reactor conditions. The objective of this project is to perform the analysis of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of weapons MOX fuel pins under LWR conditions. If fuel performance analysis indicates potential questions, it then becomes imperative to assess the fuel pin design and the proposed operating strategies to reduce the probability of clad failure and the associated release of radioactive fission products into the primary coolant system. Applying the updated code to anticipated fuel and reactor designs, which would be used for weapons MOX fuel in the US, and analyzing the performance of the WWER-100 fuel for Russian weapons plutonium disposition are addressed in this report. The COMETHE code was found to do an excellent job in predicting fuel central temperatures. Also, despite minor predicted differences in thermo-mechanical behavior of MOX and UO{sub 2} fuels, the preliminary estimate indicated that, during normal reactor operations, these deviations remained within limits foreseen by fuel pin design.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Alvis, J.; Bellanger, P.; Medvedev, P.G.; Peddicord, K.L. & Gellene, G.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOX use in reactors: Benchmarking of neutronic codes -- Analyses of selected Saxton plutonium program experiments using WIMS7a

Description: As part of the effort for the benchmarking neutronic codes for plutonium utilization, the deterministic code WIMS7a (and its associated JEF 2.2 nuclear data library) was employed to calculationally model a selected group of the Saxton experiments. The selection of the experimental configurations to be modeled was performed based on the best experimental information available, and so as to fully exploit the neutronic variety of the Saxton plutonium program experiments. The modular WIMS7a code can be run in many ways. For the analyses presented here, a solver strategy was implemented using WIMS7a`s most evolved modules. The results showed a slightly better agreement with the experimental values for the effective neutron multiplication than the earlier results (obtained in 1997) using the codes, WIMSD4m and DIF3D. However, the calculated relative rod power distributions were not improved even though several energy group structures were tried. The simulations were carried out at Texas A and M University with access to WIMS7a being obtained via a one year lease from the AEA Technology.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Cuevas Vivas, G. F. & Paris, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-destructive control of the plutonium content of spent fuel under uncertainties on irradiation history

Description: It is apparent that serious attention must be given to the use of weapons-grade plutonium in fuel cycles in nuclear power plants. It is becoming increasingly necessary to organize a mixed fuel cycle which would be presumed to have ordinary, low-enriched uranium fuel and weapons-grade plutonium fuel in a one-time reactor core loading. This research examined the problem of how to detect the possible substitution of a low-enriched uranium bundle for a bundle containing weapons-grade plutonium. Final determination of fuel assembly substitution was made using a non-destructive control methodology, which was based on gamma-spectra analysis of spent fuel for initial fuel composition identification.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Savander, V. & Glebov, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimal routing of hazardous substances in time-varying, stochastic transportation networks

Description: This report is concerned with the selection of routes in a network along which to transport hazardous substances, taking into consideration several key factors pertaining to the cost of transport and the risk of population exposure in the event of an accident. Furthermore, the fact that travel time and the risk measures are not constant over time is explicitly recognized in the routing decisions. Existing approaches typically assume static conditions, possibly resulting in inefficient route selection and unnecessary risk exposure. The report described the application of recent advances in network analysis methodologies to the problem of routing hazardous substances. Several specific problem formulations are presented, reflecting different degrees of risk aversion on the part of the decision-maker, as well as different possible operational scenarios. All procedures explicitly consider travel times and travel costs (including risk measures) to be stochastic time-varying quantities. The procedures include both exact algorithms, which may require extensive computational effort in some situations, as well as more efficient heuristics that may not guarantee a Pareto-optimal solution. All procedures are systematically illustrated for an example application using the Texas highway network, for both normal and incident condition scenarios. The application illustrates the trade-offs between the information obtained in the solution and computational efficiency, and highlights the benefits of incorporating these procedures in a decision-support system for hazardous substance shipment routing decisions.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Woods, A. L.; Miller-Hooks, E. & Mahmassani, H. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition

Description: Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Schwartz, K. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1--July 31, 1998

Description: Progress is reported on research projects related to the following: Electronic resource library; Environment, safety, and health; Communication, education, training, and community involvement; Nuclear and other materials; and Reporting, evaluation, monitoring, and administration. Technical studies investigate remedial action of high explosives-contaminated lands, radioactive waste management, nondestructive assay methods, and plutonium processing, handling, and storage.
Date: September 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1997--January 31, 1998

Description: This report provides information on projects conducted by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, a consortium of Texas A&M University, Texas Tech University, and the University of Texas. Progress is reported for four major areas: (1) plutonium information resource; (2) environmental, safety, and health; (3) communication, education, training, and community involvement; and (4) nuclear and other material studies. Environmental, safety, and health projects reported include a number of studies on high explosives. Progress reported for nuclear material studies includes storage and waste disposal investigations.
Date: March 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of a new time scale based low {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model to natural convection from a semi-infinite vertical isothermal plate

Description: The low {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model proposed by Yang and Shih (1992) is applied to the calculation of the turbulent natural convective boundary layer over a semi-infinite, vertical, isothermal surface. Using {kappa}/{var_epsilon} as the turbulent time scale will introduce a singularity in the {var_epsilon} equation, near the wall. This model uses a modified turbulent time scale near the wall to eliminate this singularity. The constants in the equation for damping function are modified to produce better results for both, natural convection and force convection. The results are compared with available experimental data and the results obtained from Chien`s model and are found to be in reasonable agreement. Here {kappa} represents the turbulent kinetic energy and {var_epsilon} represents the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Woods, A. L.; Senthooran, S. & Parameswaran, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biodegradation of high explosives on granular activated carbon [GAC]: Enhanced desorption of high explosives from GAC -- Batch studies

Description: Adsorption to GAC is an effective method for removing high explosives (HE) compounds from water, but no permanent treatment is achieved. Bioregeneration, which treats adsorbed contaminants by desorption and biodegradation, is being developed as a method for reducing GAC usage rates and permanently degrading RDX and HMX. Because desorption is often the limiting mass transfer mechanism in bioregeneration systems, several methods for increasing the rate and extent of desorption of RDX and HMX are being studied. These include use of cosolvents (methanol and ethanol), surfactants (both anionic and nonionic), and {beta}- and {gamma}-cyclodextrins. Batch experiments to characterize the desorption of these HEs from GAC have been completed using Northwestern LB-830, the GAC being used at Pantex. Over a total of 11 days of desorption, about 3% of the adsorbed RDX was desorbed from the GAC using buffered water as the desorption fluid. In comparison, about 96% of the RDX was extracted from the GAC by acetonitrile over the same desorption period. Ethanol and methanol were both effective in desorbing RDX and HMX; higher alcohol concentrations were able to desorb more HE from the GAC. Surfactants varied widely in their abilities to enhance desorption of HEs. The most effective surfactant that was studied was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which desorbed 56.4% of the adsorbed RDX at a concentration of 500 mg SDS/L. The cyclodextrins that were used were marginally more effective than water. Continuous-flow column tests are underway for further testing the most promising of these methods. These results will be compared to column experiments that have been completed under baseline conditions (using buffered water as the desorption fluid). Results of this research will support modeling and design of further desorption and bioregeneration experiments.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Morley, M. C. & Speitel, G. E., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department