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Medicare: Private Contracts

Description: This report discusses private contracting for medicare,which is the term used to describe situations where a physician and a patient agree not to submit a claim for a service which would otherwise be covered and paid for by Medicare.
Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer & Echeverria, Cecilia O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Grazing Fees: An Overview

Description: This report briefly discusses charging fees for grazing private livestock on federal lands, which is a long-standing but contentious practice. Generally, livestock producers who use federal lands want to keep fees low, while conservation groups and others believe fees should be raised to approximate "fair market value."
Date: May 21, 1996
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade

Description: Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers.
Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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U.S.-European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues

Description: The European Union (EU) is the second largest market for U.S. agricultural exports. The EU's ban on meat produced using growth-promoting hormones is a food safety issue that has been particularly contentious in U.S.-EU agricultural trade relations. EU policy on bio-engineered products has also been an issue. A World Trade Organization dispute settlement panel has ruled that the ban contravenes the EU's international obligations under the WTO, but left open the option to the EU to conduct a risk assessment of hormone-treated meat. Rules governing trade in bio-engineered products may become an issue in WTO agricultural trade negotiations scheduled to begin in 1999. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: October 21, 1998
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The 'Terminator Gene' and Other Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs) in Crops

Description: Plant Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs) are a group of complex genetic transformations that insert a genetic "on-off switch" in plants to prevent the unauthorized use of genetic traits contained within. GURTs are one of the latest bioengineering products developed for agriculture, with over 30 patents issued in the United States and Europe since 1997. The current state of biotechnology may allow GURTs to be introduced into the commercial seed market in the next 5 to 7 years
Date: October 21, 1999
Creator: Segarra, Alejandro E. & Rawson, Jean M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Global Climate Change Treaty: Negotiations and Related Issues

Description: This report discusses the negotiations leading the Kyoto conference of the parties. The United States and other parties to the 1992 Climate Change Convention signed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro will meet December 1-12 in Kyoto, Japan, to conclude year-long negotiations on a legally binding protocol or amendment to reduce or stabilize emissions of greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. proposal to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases to 1990 levels between 2008-2012 is less ambitious than environmentalists and many other treaty Parties urge, but represents a commitment that others, including many in business, fear could damage the economy. A key aspect of the negotiations also is what should be expected of developing nations, whose current emissions of greenhouse gases are relatively small, but are expected to increase rapidly over the next decade with economic development. A sense of the Senate resolution calls for all countries to meet scheduled reductions, and would agree to U.S. participation only if harm to the domestic economy is avoided. If agreement is reached in Kyoto, Senate approval would be required for U.S. ratification, and legislation to implement commitments would also likely be necessary.
Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Description: Mexican wolves were extirpated from the United States by the 1940s as part of the Predatory Animal and Rodent Control program (PARC); wild wolves are believed to exist in secluded areas in Mexico. Listed on the endangered species list in 1967, Mexican wolves exist in the United States only in captivity. The Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is currently developing plans to reintroduce the wolves into their historic habitat. The plans are controversial, and the species' conservation may be debated during reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act (ESA).
Date: October 21, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Endangered Species: Continuing Controversy

Description: The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) has been one of the most controversial of all environmental laws. Undoubtedly, the controversy stems from the strict substantive provisions of this law compared to many other environmental laws which tend to be more procedurally oriented or to permit greater administrative discretion. As a result of the ESA’s standards, the Act often plays a role in disputes in which all sides agree that a given species is not the center of the debate.
Date: November 21, 2000
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Date: March 21, 2003
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Budget for Fiscal Year 2003

Description: This report discusses the budget for fiscal year 2003. It debates issues such as budget action, receipts surpluses or deficits, and the economy.
Date: January 21, 2003
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Role of the Office of Management and Budget in Budget Development

Description: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) assists the President in carrying out his budgetary duties. Originally created by the 1921 Budget and Accounting Act as the Bureau of the Budget, it was reconstituted as OMB in 1970. Its primary function is to oversee the development and implementation of the federal budget.
Date: April 21, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: May 21, 2002
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: August 21, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument

Description: This report discusses controversial issues regarding the creation of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. Issues include the President's use of the Antiquities Act of 1906 to create the Monument; the Monument's general effect on land uses; the implications for development of minerals and school trust lands; and the bearing on the designation of wilderness.
Date: December 21, 1998
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Going to Conference in the Senate

Description: This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee.
Date: April 21, 2003
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth & Bach, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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