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Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

Description: The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Zhou, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Escaping Ions in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator

Description: Positively charged ions trapped in the negatively charged beam of the Fermilab antiproton accumulator pose a limit to beam stability and density. To better understand the dynamics and the consequences of the beam-ion interaction, they have built and installed a low energy ion detector and energy analyzer in the Fermilab accumulator. This analyzer is capable of energy analysis of the escaping ions using a probe with energy retarding grids and may also be scanned in the pitch angle of the escaping ions. Measurements have been made in both longitudinal and transverse planes under a variety of machine operating conditions. The experimental measurement results are presented together with attempts to model the ion dynamics and explain observations.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Zhou, P.; Colestock, P.L.; Junck, K.; Crawford, C.A. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trapped Ions and Beam Coherent Instability

Description: In accelerators with negatively charged beams, ions generated from the residual gas molecules may be trapped by the beam. Trapped ions may interact resonantly with the beam and cause a beam-ion coherent instability. This coherent instability bears many similarities to the resistive wall instability and can present important limitations to those machines operation. A description of this effect requires a treatment of the beam coherent instability including both the normal machine wake field and the interaction with ions. They present a linear approach incorporating contributions from the machine impedance as well as ion forces. it also includes spreads in beam and ion frequencies and thus Landau damping. The analysis results in a modified stability diagram which will be used together with physical arguments to explain experimental observations in the Fermilab antiproton accumulator.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Zhou, P.; Colestock, P.L.; Werkema, S.J. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The determination of the 805 MHz side coupled cavity dimensions for the Fermilab Linac upgrade

Description: In order to achieve the proper frequencies and coupling in Side Coupled Accelerator Structures, it is often necessary to model the cavities. In order to reduce the number of modeling steps and hence reduce machine shop time and cost, we have drawn heavily upon previous LAMPF experience and present day numerical calculation programs. Using a few aluminum cavity models at selected machine energies, we have been able to predict the frequency and coupling of our structures with good accuracy. This paper will describe the steps used to determine the cavity dimensions that meet our structure requirements. 6 refs., 6 figs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Jurgens, T.G.; Miller, H.W.; Moretti, A. & Zhou, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An 805 MHz disk and washer structure for the Fermilab Linac Upgrade

Description: The Linac Upgrade program, a portion of the Tevatron Upgrade, calls for increasing the energy of the existing 200 MeV, 201.25 MHz linac to 400 MeV in order to reduce beam emittance degradation in the Booster. This is to be accomplished by replacing the last four Alvarez linac tanks with more efficient, higher gradient 805 MHz linac structure. One of the linac structures currently under study in a collaboration between Fermilab and SAIC is the Disk-and-Washer accelerating structure with bi-periodic tee supports, four per washer pair. This structure has a stop-band for the TM/sub 11/ mode (a problem in other designs) centered near the ..pi.. TM/sub 02/ accelerating mode frequency. A novel heat shrinking technique is used in the construction of a ten-cell one-meter long vacuum prototype structure. Description of the structure, testing techniques and test results are presented. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: October 3, 1988
Creator: Moretti, A.; Young, D.; Lee, G.; Mills, F.E.; Zhou, P.; Swenson, D.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program

Description: The POC Bench Option Project (PB-Series) is geared to evaluate different novel processing concepts in catalytic direct coal liquefaction and coprocessing of organic wastes such as plastics, heavy resids, waste oils, and ligno-cellulose wastes with coal. The new ideas being explored in this program include using novel dispersed slurry catalysts and combinations of dispersed and supported catalysts (hybrid mode), and coprocessing of coal with waste plastics, low quality resids, waste oils, and ligno-cellulosic wastes, etc. The primary objective of bench run PB-07 was to study the impact of dispersed catalyst composition and loading upon the direct liquefaction performance of a high volatile bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal. The run was carried out for 20 operating days (including the four days used for the production of O-6 bottoms material for West Virginia University), spanning over five process conditions. Results are reported.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Comolli, A.G.; Zhou, P.Z.; Lee, T.L.K.; Hu, J.; Karolkiewicz, W.F. & Popper, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report presents the results of the bench-scale work, Bench Run PB-09, HTI Run Number 227-106, conducted under the DOE Proof-of-Concept Option Program indirect coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Bench Run PB-09 was conducted using two types of Chinese coal, Shenhua No.2 and Shenhua No.3, and had several goals. One goal was to study the liquefaction performance of Shenhua No.2 and Shenhua No.3 with respect to coal conversion and distillate production. Another goal of Bench Run PB-09 was to study the effect of different GelCatw formulations and loadings. At the same time, the space velocity and the temperature of the fmt reactor, K-1, were varied to optimize the liquefaction of the two Chinese coals. The promoter-modified HTI GelCat{trademark} catalyst was very effective in the direct liquefaction of coal with nearly 92% maf coal conversion with Shenhua No.3 and 93% maf coal conversion with 9 Shenhua No.2. Distillate yields (CQ-524 C)varied from 52-68% maf for Shenhua No.3 coal to 54-63% maf for Shenhua No.2 coal. The primary conclusion from Bench Run PB-09 is that Shenhua No.3 coal is superior to Shenhua No.2 coal in direct liquefaction due to its greater distillate production, although coal conversion is slightly lower and C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} light gas production is higher for Shenhua No.3. The new promoter modified GelCat{trademark} proved successful in converting the two 9 Chinese coals and, under some conditions, producing good distillate yields for a coal-only bench run. Run PB-09 demonstrated significantly better performance of China Shenhua coal using HTI's coal direct liquefaction technology and GelCat{trademark} catalyst than that obtained at China Coal Research Institute (CCRI, coal conversion 88% and distillate yield 61%).
Date: December 30, 1999
Creator: Comolli, A.G.; Lee, T.L.K.; Hu, J.; Popper, G.; Elwell, M.D.; Miller, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An 805 MHz disk and washer accelerating structure with coaxial coupler for the Fermilab upgrade

Description: The Disk and Washer (DAW) structure with four bi-periodic tees to support the washers has been studied at Fermilab for the Linac Upgrade by constructing two, 805 MHz, one-meter sections joined by a coaxial coupler. The coupler provides an rf drive port, an adjustable tuner, a vacuum port, and an enclosure for the installation of beam focussing and monitoring devices. This configuration is suitable for a high beta proton linear accelerator. The bi-periodic tee supports in the DAW structure suppress the TM{sub 11} mode at the operating frequency which has been a problem with previous designs. Frequency-mode spectra have been calculated and measured as well as the quantities Q, R/Q, and ZT{sup 2}. The structure has been evacuated and operated at high power levels and high accelerating fields. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1989
Creator: Young, D.E.; Moretti, A.; Lee, G.; Mills, F.E.; Zhou, P. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Swenson, D.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors Controlling In Situ Uranium and Technetium Bioreductionat the NABIR Field Research Center

Description: This research hypotheses is: (1) Indigenous microorganisms in the shallow aquifer at the FRC have the capability to reduce U(VI) and Tc(VII) but rates are limited by--Scarce electron donor, Low pH and potentially toxic metals, and High nitrate. (2) U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction rates can be increased by--Successive donor additions, Raising pH to precipitate toxic metals, and Adding humics to complex toxic metals and serve as electron shuttles.
Date: March 17, 2004
Creator: Istok, J.; Jones, J.; Park, M.; Sapp, M.; Selko, E.; Laughman, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics of the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line commissioning

Description: This paper presents beam physics results from the fall 1995 AGS-to- RHIC (ATR) transfer line commissioning run with fully ionized gold nuclei. We first describe beam position monitors and transverse video profile monitors, instrumentation relevant to measurements performed during this commissioning. Measured and corrected beam trajectories demonstrate agreement with design optics to a few percent, including optical transfer functions and beamline dispersion. Digitized 2- dimensional video profile monitors were used to measure beam emittance, and beamline optics and AGS gold ion beam parameters are shown to be comparable to RHIC design requirements.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Satogata, T.; Ahrens, L.; Brennan, M.; Brown, K.; Clifford, T.; Connolly, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department