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Description: OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D{sub {alpha}} time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with {beta}{sub N}*H{sub 89L} product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved.
Date: August 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil-shale utilization at Morgantown, WV

Description: Fully aware of the nation's need to develop high-risk and long-term research in eastern oil-shale and low-grade oil-shale utilization in general, the US DOE/METC initiated an eastern oil-shale characterization program. In less than 3 months, METC produced shale oil from a selected eastern-US oil shale with a Fischer assay of 8.0 gallons/ton. In view of the relatively low oil yield from this particular oil shale, efforts were directed to determine the process conditions which give the highest oil yield. A 2-inch-diameter electrically heated fluidized-bed retort was constructed, and Celina oil shale from Tennessee was selected to be used as a representative eastern oil shale. After more than 50 runs, the retorting data were analyzed and reviewed and the best oil-yield operating condition was determined. In addition, while conducting the oil-shale retorting experiments, a number of technical problems were identified, addressed, and overcome. Owing to the inherent high rates of heat and mass transfers inside the fluidized bed, the fluidized-bed combustor and retorting appear to be a desirable process technology for an effective and efficient means for oil-shale utilization. The fluidized-bed operation is a time-tested, process-proven, high-throughput, solid-processing operation which may contribute to the efficient utilization of oil-shale energy.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Shang, J.Y.; Notestein, J.E.; Mei, J.S.; Romanosky, R.R.; King, J.A. & Zeng, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive Measurements and Modeling of SOL, and Core Plasma Fueling and Carbon Sources in DIII-D

Description: Plasma boundary modeling of low density, low confinement plasmas in DIII-D has been benchmarked against a comprehensive set of measurements and indicates that recycling of deuterium ions at the divertor targets, and chemical sputtering at the divertor target plates and walls, can explain the poloidal core fueling profile and core carbon density. Key measurements included the 2-D intensity distribution of deuterium neutral and low-charge state carbon emission in the divertor and around the midplane of the high-field scrape-off layer (SOL). Chemical sputtering plays an important role in producing carbon at the divertor targets and walls, and was found to be a prerequisite to reproduce the measured emission distribution.
Date: June 24, 2005
Creator: Groth, M.; Porter, G.; Bray, B.; Brooks, N.; Fenstermacher, M.; Groebner, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A271 TRANSPORT OF ELM ENERGY AND PARTICLES INTO THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D. The reduction in size of Type I edge localized models (ELMs) with increasing density is explored in DIII-D for the purpose of studying the underlying transport of ELM energy. The separate convective and conductive transport of energy due to an ELM is determined by Thomson scattering measurements of electron density and temperature in the pedestal. The conductive transport from the pedestal during an ELM decreases with increasing density, while the convective transport remains nearly constant. The scaling of the ELM energy loss is compared with an edge stability model. The role of the divertor sheath in limiting energy loss from the pedestal during an ELM is explored. Evidence of outward radial transport to the midplane wall during an ELM is also presented.
Date: November 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELM-Induced Plasma Transport in the DIII-D SOL

Description: High temporal and spatial resolution measurements in the boundary of the DIII-D tokamak show that edge localized modes (ELMs) are composed of fast bursts of hot, dense plasma that travel radially starting at the separatrix at {approx}450 m/s and rotate in the scrape off layer (SOL), convecting particles and energy to the SOL and walls. The temperature and density in the ELM plasma initially correspond to those at the top of the density pedestal but decay with radius in the SOL. The temperature decay length ({approx}1.2-1.5 cm) is much shorter than the density decay length ({approx}3-8 cm), which in turn decreases with increasing pedestal density. The local particle and energy flux at the wall during the bursts are 10-50% ({approx} 1-2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and 1-2% ({approx} 20-30 kW/m{sup 2}) respectively of the LCFS average fluxes, indicating that particles are transported radially much more efficiently than heat.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Boedo, J; Rudakov, D; Hollmann, E; Moyer, R; McKee, G; Burrell, K et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent progress on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

Description: Recent upgrades to the NSTX facility have led to improved plasma performance. Using 5MW of neutral beam injection, plasmas with toroidal {beta}{sub T} (= 2{mu}{sub 0}<p>/B{sub T}{sup 2} where B{sub T} is the vacuum toroidal field at the plasma geometric center) > 30% have been achieved with normalized {beta}{sub N} (={beta}{sub T}aB{sub I}/I{sub p}) {approx} 6% {center_dot} m {center_dot} T/MA. The highest {beta} discharge exceeded the calculated no-wall {beta} limit for several wall times. The stored energy has reached 390kJ at higher toroidal field (0.55T) corresponding to {beta}{sub T} {approx} 20% and {beta}{sub N} = 5.4. Long pulse ({approx}1s) high {beta}{sub p} ({approx}1.5) discharges have also been obtained at higher B{sub {phi}} (0.5T) with up to 6MW NBI power. The highest energy confinement times, up to 120ms, were observed during H-mode operation which is now routine. Confinement times of {approx} 1.5 times ITER98pby2 for several {tau}{sub E} are observed during both H-Mode and non-H-Mode discharges. Calculations indicate that many NSTX discharges have very good ion confinement, approaching neoclassical levels. High Harmonic Fast Wave current drive has been demonstrated by comparing discharges with waves launched parallel and anti-parallel to the plasma current.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Maqueda, R. J. (Ricardo J.); Wurden, G. A. (Glen A.); Gates, D. A.; Bell, M. G.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Experiments have been performed where the T{sub e} profile stiffness was tested at several spatial locations by varying the ECH resonance location. Propagation of the pulses was Fourier analyzed and compared to simulations based on several transport models. The plasma appears to be near the critical T{sub e} gradient for ETG modes and marginally stable to ITG modes. However, the local T{sub e} response to a locally applied heat pulse does not indicate a nonlinear, critical gradient model where T{sub e} is clipped when trying to rise above a critical gradient. The response can be simply understood as the plasma integrating the ECH power, producing an increase in T{sub e} which equilibrates to a new local level with an exponential time constant representing the local confinement time.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: DeBOO, J.C.; AUSTIN, M.E.; BRAVENEC, R.V.; KINSEY, J.E; LOHR, J.; LUCE, T.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A271 ELM PARTICLE AND ENERGY TRANSPORT IN THE SOL AND DIVERTOR OF DIII-D. Results from a series of dedicated experiments measuring the effect of particle and energy pulses from Type-I Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in the DIII-D scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor are compared with a simple model of ELM propagation in the boundary plasma. The simple model asserts that the propagation of ELM particle and energy perturbations is dominated by ion parallel convection along SOL fields lines and the recovery from the ELM perturbation is determined by recycling physics. Time scales associated with the initial changes of boundary plasma parameters are expected to be on the order of the ion transit time from the outer midplane, where the ELM instability is initiated, to the divertor targets. To test the model, the ion convection velocity is changed in the experiment by varying the plasma density. At moderate to high density, n{sub e}/n{sub Gr} = 0.5-0.8, the delays in the response of the boundary plasma to the midplane ELM pulses, the density dependence of those delays and other observations are consistent with the model. However, at the lowest densities, n{sub e}/n{sub Gr} {approx} 0.35, small delays between the response sin the two divertors, and changes in the response of the pedestal thermal energy to ELM events, indicate that additional factors including electron conduction in the SOL, the pre-ELM condition of the divertor plasma, and the ratio of ELM instability duration to SOL transit time, may be playing a role. The results show that understanding the response of the SOL and divertor plasmas to ELMs, for various pre-ELM conditions, is just as important to predicting the effect of ELM pulses on the target surfaces of future devices as is predicting the characteristics of the ELM perturbation of the core plasma.
Date: April 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of B-Field Dependent Particle Drifts on ELM Behavior in the DIII-D Boundary Plasma

Description: ELM effects in the DIII-D pedestal and boundary plasmas were measured with multiple fast diagnostics in matched, lower single null, ELMing H-mode discharges with the ion Bx{gradient}B drift toward and away from the divertor. Data show a strong dependence of the delay in inner vs. outer divertor ELM D{sub alpha} emission on drift direction, and a weaker drift dependence of the inner vs. outer delay of the total radiated power, in addition to the strong density dependence seen in previous work [1]. Time dependent modeling of the boundary plasma during an ELM was done with the UEDGE code including a six-species fluid carbon model and the effect of B-field induced particle drifts [2]. The ELM perturbation was modeled as an instantaneous, outer midplane peaked, increase of diffusion coefficients from the top of the pedestal to the outer SOL. The simulations show delays in the ELM perturbation at the inner vs. outer divertor targets that are similar to the measured delays.
Date: May 18, 2004
Creator: Fenstermacher, M; Leonard, A; Porter, G; Boedo, J; Brooks, N; Groth, M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle and Energy Transport in the SOL of DIII-D and NSTX

Description: The far scrape-off layer (SOL) radial transport and plasma-wall contact is mediated by intermittent and ELM-driven transport. Experiments to characterize the intermittent transport and ELMs have been performed in both DIII-D and NSTX under similar conditions. Both intermittent transport and ELMs are comprised of filaments of hot, dense plasma (n{sub e} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, T{sub e} {approx} 400 eV) originating at the edge, transport both particles and heat into the SOL by convection, increasing wall interaction and causing sputtering and impurity release. Both intermittent filaments and ELMs leave the pedestal region at speeds of {approx}0.5-3 km/s, losing heat and particles by parallel transport as they travel through the SOL. The intermittency shows many similarities in NSTX and DIII-D, featuring similar size (2-5 cm), large convective radial velocity, ''holes'' inside and peaks outside the LCFS which quickly decay and slow down with radius. Whereas in DIII-D the intermittency decays in both intensity and frequency in H-mode, it chiefly decays in frequency in NSTX. In the low collisionality (v* = {pi}R{sub q{sub 95}}/{lambda}C) (v* {approx} 0.1, N{sub G} {approx} 0.3) case, the ELMs impact the walls quite directly and account for {approx}90% of the wall particle flux, decreasing to {approx}30% at (v* {approx} 1.0, N{sub G} > 0.6).
Date: October 9, 2006
Creator: Boedo, J; Maqueda, R; Rudakov, D; McKee, G; Kugel, H; Maingi, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modification of Edge Plasma Turbulence by External Magnetic Pertubations

Description: Magnetostatic perturbations applied to the DIII-D plasma using a n=3 coil set have significant impact on the plasma edge, such as edge localized mode (ELM) suppression [1], but also affect the background turbulence levels. Discharges with parameters R=1.75 m, a=0.56 m, B{sub T} {approx} 1.6 T, I{sub p} {approx} 1 MA and n{sub e} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}-n{sub e} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} (low, v*{sub e} {approx} 0.1 and moderate, v*{sub e} {approx} 1 electron pedestal collisionality) were used as a target for the perturbation, [applied at 3 s Fig. 1(a) and 2 s Fig. 1(b)]. The global density and energy content, among many other parameters, are unaffected, raising the issue of what mechanism replaces the particle and heat exhaust otherwise mediated by ELMs. Mixed ELMs (high frequency, low amplitude Type II ELMs interspersed with Type I) in the moderate collisionality regime and Type I ELMs in the low collisionality regime, are replaced by intermittency and broadband turbulence or semiperiodic events. It is important to notice that the coils can be energized in high poloidal mode spectra (upper and lower coils produce fields in the same direction) or odd configuration (upper and lower coils produce fields in the opposite direction) and also rotated 60 deg toroidally. Although we will focus on scanning probe [2] data obtained in the scrape-off layer (SOL), other diagnostics, beam emission spectroscopy (BES), reflectometry [3], were used to study the changes in the plasma turbulence when the ELMs are suppressed and the underlying turbulence and transport change. Thomson scattering n{sub e} and T{sub e} profiles (Fig. 2) accumulated over 200 ms before (red) and during (blue) I-coil perturbation are fitted with y = a + b* tanh[(r-c)/d] resulting in a,b staying constant while d varies from -0.009 to -0.011 and ...
Date: June 19, 2006
Creator: Boedo, J; McKee, G; Rudakov, D; Reiser, D; Evans, T; Moyer, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: OAK-B135 Results from dedicated ELM experiments, performed in DIII-D with fast diagnostics to measure the evolution of Type-I ELM effects in the SOL and divertor, are compared with a simple ion convection model and with initial time-dependent UEDGE simulations. Delays between ELM effects observed in the inner versus the outer divertor regions in the experiments scale, as a function of density, with the difference in ion convection time along field lines from the outer midplane to the divertor targets. The ELM perturbation was modeled as an instantaneous radially uniform increase of diffusion coefficients from the top of the pedestal to the outer SOL. The perturbation was confined to a low field side poloidal zone {+-} 40{sup o} from the outer midplane. The delays in the simulations are similar to those observed in the experiments.
Date: August 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: OAK-B135 A stochastic magnetic boundary, produced by an externally applied edge resonant magnetic perturbation, is used to suppress large edge localized modes (ELMs) in high confinement (H-mode) plasmas. The resulting H-mode displays rapid, small oscillations with a bursty character modulated by a coherent 130 Hz envelope. The H-mode transport barrier is unaffected by the stochastic boundary. The core confinement of these discharges is unaffected, despite a three-fold drop in the toroidal rotation in the plasma core. These results demonstrate that stochastic boundaries are compatible with H-modes and may be attractive for ELM control in next-step burning fusion tokamaks.
Date: November 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DIII-D Experiments and Modeling of Core Confinement in Quiescent Double Barrier Plasmas

Description: We continue to explore Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) operation on DIII-D to address issues of critical importance to internal transport barrier (ITB) plasmas. QDB plasmas exhibit both a core transport barrier and a quiescent, H-mode edge barrier. Both experiments and modeling of these plasmas are leading to an increased understanding of this regime and it's potential advantages for advanced-tokamak (AT) burning-plasma operation. These near steady plasma conditions have been maintained on DIII-D for up to 4s, times greater than 35{tau}{sub E}, and exhibit high performance with {beta}{sub N} > 2.5 and neutron production rates S{sub n} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 16}s{sup -1}. Recent experiments have been directed at exploring both the current profile modification effects of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and electron cyclotron (ECH) heating-induced changes in temperature, density and impurity profiles. We use model-based analysis to determine the effects of both heating and current drive on the q-profile in these QDB plasmas. Experiments based on predictive modeling achieved a significant modification to the q-profile evolution [1] resulting from the non-inductive current drive effects due to direct ECCD and changes in the bootstrap and neutral beam current drive components. We observe that the injection of EC power inside the barrier region changes the density peaking from n{sub e}/<n{sub e}> = 2.1 to 1.5 accompanied by a significant reduction in the core carbon and high-Z impurities, nickel and copper.
Date: October 24, 2003
Creator: Jayakumar, J; Casper, T A; Lasnier, C J; Burrell, K H; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Edge Stability and Performance of the ELM-Free Quiescent H-Mode and the Quiescent Double Barrier Mode on DIII-D

Description: The quiescent H (QH) mode, an edge localized mode (ELM)-free, high-confinement mode, combines well with an internal transport barrier to form quiescent double barrier (QDB) stationary state, high performance plasmas. The QH-mode edge pedestal pressure is similar to that seen in ELMing phases of the same discharge, with similar global energy confinement. The pedestal density in early ELMing phases of strongly pumped counter injection discharges drops and a transition to QH-mode occurs, leading to lower calculated edge bootstrap current. Plasmas current ramp experiment and ELITE code modeling of edge stability suggest that QH-modes lie near an edge current stability boundary. At high triangularity, QH-mode discharges operate at higher pedestal density and pressure, and have achieved ITER level values of {beta}{sub PED} and {nu}*. The QDB achieves performance of {alpha}{sub N}H{sub 89} {approx} 7 in quasi-stationary conditions for a duration of 10 tE, limited by hardware. Recently we demonstrated stationary state QDB discharges with little change in kinetic and q profiles (q{sub 0} > 1) for 2 s, comparable to ELMing ''hybrid scenarios'', yet without the debilitating effects of ELMs. Plasma profile control tools, including electron cyclotron heating and current drive and neutral beam heating, have been demonstrated to control simultaneously the q profile development, the density peaking, impurity accumulation and plasma beta.
Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: West, W P; Burrell, K H; Casper, T A; . Doyle, E J; Snyder, P B; Gohil, P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implications of Wall Recycling and Carbon Source Locations on Core Plasma Fueling and Impurity Content in DIII-D

Description: Measurement and modeling of the 2-D poloidal D{alpha} intensity distribution in DIII-D low and medium density L-mode and ELMy H-mode plasmas indicate that hydrogen neutrals predominantly fuel the core from the divertor X-point region. The 2-D distribution of neutral deuterium and low-charge-state carbon were measured in the divertor and the high-field side midplane scrape-off layer (SOL) using tangentially viewing cameras. The emission in the high-field SOL at the equatorial plane was found to be three to four orders of magnitude lower than at the strike points in the divertor, suggesting a strong divertor particle source. Modeling using the UEDGE/DEGAS codes predicted the poloidal fueling distribution to be dependent on the direction of the ion Bx{Delta}B drift. In plasmas with the Bx{Delta}B drift into the divertor stronger fueling from the inner divertor than from the outer is predicted, due to a lower-temperature and higher-density plasma in the inner leg. UEDGE simulations with carbon produced by both physical and chemical sputtering at the divertor plates and walls only are in agreement with a large set of diagnostic data. The simulations indicate flow reversal in the inner divertor that augments the leakage of carbon ions from the divertor into the core.
Date: October 14, 2004
Creator: Groth, M; Porter, G D; Boedo, J A; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure, Stability and ELM Dynamics of the H-Mode Pedestal in DIII-D

Description: Experiments are described that have increased understanding of the transport and stability physics that set the H-mode edge pedestal width and height, determine the onset of Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs), and produce the nonlinear dynamics of the ELM perturbation in the pedestal and scrape-off layer (SOL). Predictive models now exist for the n{sub e} pedestal profile and the p{sub e} height at the onset of Type-I ELMs, and progress has been made toward predictive models of the T{sub e} pedestal width and nonlinear ELM evolution. Similarity experiments between DIII-D and JET suggested that neutral penetration physics dominates in the relationship between the width and height of the n{sub e} pedestal while plasma physics dominates in setting the T{sub e} pedestal width. Measured pedestal conditions including edge current at ELM onset agree with intermediate-n peeling-ballooning (P-B) stability predictions. Midplane ELM dynamics data show the predicted (P-B) structure at ELM onset, large rapid variations of the SOL parameters, and fast radial propagation in later phases, similar to features in nonlinear ELM simulations.
Date: October 13, 2004
Creator: Fenstermacher, M E; Leonard, A W; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; Thomas, D M; Boedo, J A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELM Suppression in Low Edge Collisionality H-Mode Discharges Using n=3 Magnetic Perturbations

Description: Using resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n = 3, we have produced H-mode discharges without edge localized modes (ELMs) which run with constant density and radiated power for periods up to about 2550 ms (17 energy confinement times). These ELM suppression results are achieved at pedestal collisionalities close to those desired for next step burning plasma experiments such as ITER and provide a means of eliminating the rapid erosion of divertor components in such machines which could be caused by giant ELMs. The ELM suppression is due to an enhancement in the edge particle transport which reduces the edge pressure gradient and pedestal current density below the threshold for peeling-ballooning modes. These n = 3 magnetic perturbations provide a means of active control of edge plasma transport.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Burrell, K H; Evans, T E; Doyle, E J; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J; Leonard, A W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department