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Computational and experimental analysis of a U-6w/oNb vacuum consumable arc remelted ingot. A progress report for the Sandia macrosegregation study

Description: A computer code (ZAP) has been developed to simulate the thermodynamic, magnetohydrodynamic, and fluid flow conditions in the liquid and solid-liquid regions of a solidifying ingot during vacuum consumable arc remelting. The code is coupled and constrained with experimentally determined measurements of boundary conditions and melt parameters such as melt rate, melt current, and melt time. The work reported presents one preliminary step in the coupled experimental-numerical process. A 538 kg U-6w/oNb ingot was remelted to obtain regions of constant melting current of 2 through 6 kA in 1 kA increments. The melt was simulated numerically using inputs for the code that were obtained from this experiment. Results of this numerical simulation are compared to experimental results obtained from ingot radiography and chemical analysis.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Zanner, F. J. & Bertram, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interaction between computational modelling and experiments for vacuum consumable arc remelting

Description: A combined computational-experimental modelling effort is currently underway to characterize the vacuum consumable arc remelt process. This effort involves the coupling of experimental results with a magnetohydrodynamic flow model which is capable of time accurate solutions of the interdependent fluid flow-solidification process in the ingot. Models such as this are driven by boundary conditions. Considerable data have been compiled from direct observation of the electrode tip and molten pool surface by means of high speed photography in order to gain an understanding of the processes at the pool surface and the appropriate corresponding boundary conditions. The crucible wall/molten metal miniscus conditions are less well understood. Pool volumes are computed at different melting currents and show reasonable agreement with experimentally determined values. Current flow through the ingot is evaluated numerically and the results indicate that a significant portion of the melt current does not reach the interior of the ingot. U-6 wt. % Nb alloy was used.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Bertram, L. A. & Zanner, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 2

Description: In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and US. Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US. Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Zanner, F.J. & Moffatt, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 1

Description: In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and U S Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Zanner, F.J. & Moffatt, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two- and three-dimensional flow simulations of ingot growth in an EBeam furnace

Description: Electron-Beam (EBeam) melting furnaces are routine used to minimize the occurrence of second-phase particles in the processing of segregation-sensitive alloys. As one part of the process, a circulating electron beam impinges the surface of a crucible melt pool to help control the shape of the solidification front below. By modeling melt pool hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and the shape of solidification boundaries, we plan to optimize the dwell pattern of the beam so that the material solidifies with a composition as spatially homogeneous as possible. Both two- and three-dimensional models are being pursued with FIDAP 5.02, the former serving as a test bed for various degrees of model sophistication. A heat flux distribution is specified on the top of the domain to simulate the EBeam dwell pattern. In two dimensions it is found that an inertially-driven recirculation in the melt pool interacts with a counter-rotating buoyancy-driven recirculation, and that both recirculations are influenced heavily by surface tension gradients on the melt-pool surface. In three dimensions the inertial cell decays quickly with distance from the position of the inlet stream, causing the fluid to precess the crucible. Ingot macrosegregation patterns for a U-6 wt. % Nb alloy are calculated with the Flemings-Mehrabian equation of solute redistribution; the sensitivity of these patterns to EBeam dwell pattern is explored.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Schunk, P.R.; Fisher, R.W. & Zanner, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anisotropic porous metals production by melt processing

Description: The collapse of the Soviet Union has left many of its scientific institutes and technical universities without their traditional backbone of financial support. In an effort to stem the export of science to nations advocating nuclear proliferation, and to acquire potentially useful technology, several US government-sponsored programs have arise to mine the best of former USSR scientific advances. In the field of metallurgy, the earliest institutes to be investigated by Sandia National Laboratories are located in Ukraine. In particular, scientists at the State Metallurgical Academy have developed unique porous metals, resembling what could be described as gas-solid ``eutectic``. While porous metals are available in the US and other western countries, none have the remarkable structure and properties of these materials. Sandia began a collaborative program with the Ukrainian scientists to bring this technology to the US, verify the claims regarding these materials, and begin production of the so-called Gasars. This paper will describe the casting process technology and metallurgy associated with the production of Gasars, and will review the progress of the collaborative project.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Shapovalov, V.; Boiko, L.; Baldwin, M.D.; Maguire, M.C. & Zanner, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The influence of VAR processes and parameters on white spot formation in Alloy 718

Description: Significant progress has occurred lately regarding the classification, characterization, and formation of white spots during vacuum arc remelting (VAR). White spots have been generally split into three categories: discrete white spots, which are believed to be associated with undissolved material which has fallen in from the shelf, crown, or torus regions; dendritic white spots, usually associated with dendrite clusters having fallen from the electrode; and solidification white spots, believed to be caused by local perturbations in the solidifications conditions. Characteristics and proposed formation mechanisms of white spots are reviewed and discussed in context of physical processes occurring during VAR, such as fluid flow and arc behavior. Where possible, their formation mechanisms will be considered with respect to specific operating parameters. In order to more fully understand the formation of solidification white spots, an experimental program has been begun to characterize the solidification stability of Alloy 718 and variants with respect to changes in growth rate and thermal environment. A description of the experimental program and preliminary results are included.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Damkroger, B. K.; Kelley, J. B.; Schlienger, M. E.; Van Den Avyle, J. A.; Williamson, R. L. & Zanner, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department