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Description: The magnetic jack is a device for positioning the control rods In a nuclear reactor, especially in a reactor containing water under pressure. Magnetic actuation precludes the need for shaft seals and eliminates the problems associated with mechanisms operating in water. It consists of a pressure shell, four sets of external stationary magnet coils (hold, grip, lift, pull down), and one Internal moving part (ammature) that impants linear motion to a cluster of rods. (W.L.H.)
Date: November 1, 1959
Creator: Young, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The magnetic jack is a hermetically sealed, step-motion linear motor which saiisfies the need for a reliable, lowcost, nuclear reactor conirol rod drive. It is especially applicable for operation under adverse conditions peculiar to pressurized water-cooled reactors. The jack consists of a pressure shell, four sets of external magnet coils, and one internal moving part ivhich imparts linear motion to rod extensions of the control rod. The desired motion is achieved by energizing and de-energizing the various coils in a given sequence. An electromagnetic position indicator registers the position of the drive rods, thereby loeating the position of the control rod in the reactor core. Two magmetic jacks were operated under simulated boiling water reactor operating conditions for 3150 hours (18,300 ft total rod travel, 2210 scrams) and 13 0 hours (7,700 ft total rod travel, 1000 scrams), respeetively. There were no mechanical malfunctions and no significant wear was observed on the components. The position of the rod was indicated to an accuracy of 0.05 in. Complementary information includes detailed formulas and work sheets for calculating magnetic circuits and component drawings for two alternate magnetic jack designs. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1957
Creator: Young, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

Description: Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing /sup 60/Co and /sup 63/Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated.
Date: July 1, 1986
Creator: Young, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological fate of cobalt-60 released during the corrosion of neutron-activated stanless steel in seawater

Description: Passing seawater over radioactive Type 347 stainless steel in a sediment/seawater laboratory system and exposing marine animals to this environment provided information on the bioaccumulation of /sup 60/Co from radioactive structural material. Exposure of marine organisms to radioactive corrosion products and directly to radioactive stainless steel in seawater simulated some of the possible conditions which could arise from the deposition of radioactive stainless steel on the ocean floor. Detectable levels of /sup 60/Co in marine animals were not observed on a short term basis (5 weeks). Longterm (13 months) exposure of marine animals in a sediment/seawater system resulted in /sup 60/Co bioaccumulation. The specific activity of /sup 60/Co in the organisms was as much as one million times less than that initially present in the radioactive stainless steel. This was due to the dilution of /sup 60/Co by stable cobalt in the seawater, sediments and organisms. As expected the /sup 60/Co specific activity of the organisms never increased above that of the radioactive source. This is because /sup 60/Co is chemicaly indistinguishable from stable Co. Increasing /sup 60/Co concentration factors with decreasing /sup 60/Co concentrations in the seawater and sediment media coupled with relatively constant /sup 60/Co specific activities suggest a possible homeostatic control of cobalt concentrations in certain marine organisms. The evidence indicates that the marine animals derived more of the accumulated /sup 60/Co from the sediments and interstitial water than from seawater. Cobalt-60 concentration factors were generally found to be lower than published cobalt concentration factors due to the predominantly insoluble nature of the corrosion products. Baseline information is provided on trace element concentrations in deep-sea organisms. Stable Co and twenty other elements were measured in abyssal invertebrates and a fish.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Young, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Resonance ionization spectroscopy)

Description: J. P. Young attended the Fifth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy and presented an invited oral presentation on research he and coworkers had carried out in applying diode lasers to resonance ionization mass spectrometry. A summary of the conference is given along with an assessment of some of the presentations that the author found of interest. Young also visited Professor Marassi at the University of Camerino to present a seminar and discuss mutual interests in a new molten salt research project of the author. Some of the studies at Camerino are described. Ideas concerning the author's research that came from private discussions are also presented here.
Date: October 11, 1990
Creator: Young, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of fission products in an LMFBR: summary

Description: The overall distribution of fission products released from experimental subassemblies containing breached fuel elements has been determined in the fuel and throughout the EBR-II primary and secondary reactor systems. Identification of the fission products released to the primary sodium and location of areas of concentration was important in anticipating radioactive species and levels of deposited fission and activation products on components removed from the primary tank for maintenance and repair. The results of extensive radioanalytical measurements on the fuel, fuel cladding, primary sodium and cover gas system, secondary sodium and cover gas system and steam system are summarized.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Villarreal, R. & Young, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of chlorinated solvents in high VOC wastewaters

Description: Gas chromatography - Mass Spectrometry using mass spectrometer source programming and a selected ion monitoring method has been applied to the analysis of trace levels of trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene in process waste waters that contain up to 20 wt percent volatile organic compounds. The method provides selectivity for the target compounds and freedom from interference from the other volatile compounds in the sample. Initial attempts at meeting customer required detection limits were unsuccessful using full-scan GC-MS, and electrolytic conductivity.
Date: July 1997
Creator: Young, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reconnaissance of intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

Description: A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Southeast Alaska, was performed May 20-22, 1986. The specific objectives were to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and plant resources, and to identify potential herring spawning sites. This effort was designed to supplement the existing ecological data base for Back Island that would be used during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation process. A NEPA document will be prepared that describes the site environment and assesses impacts from the proposed construction and operation of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). Nine diver transects were established around Back Island. Particular attention was devoted to proposed locations for the pier and float facilities and range-operations and shore-power cable run-ups.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Strand, J.A. & Young, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-line sensors for electrolytic magnesium cells

Description: This report includes: MgCl{sub 2} purification and molten salt preparation facilities have been completed at both the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purification of MgCl{sub 2} is being studied. Initial Raman spectral results have been obtained at both facilities. Two analytical spectral techniques involving near-infrared (NIR) and IR reflectance spectral measurements show promise for identifying and quantifying OH species in solid salts of interest. A sealed IR reflectance cell has been developed for use in the project. An electrochemical cell for use in voltammetric studies concerned with the project has been designed and fabricated. 5 refs., 2 figs.
Date: November 12, 1990
Creator: Young, J.P. & Mamantov, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies on production of metastable core-excited atoms by laser-produced x-rays. Final report, 1 October 1984-30 September 1985

Description: The overall objective of the work on this program was to study methods for production of core-excited metastable atoms by laser-generated x-rays. We are interested in the spectroscopy of these levels, their autoionizing and radiative rates, and their metastability in the presence of hot electrons and ions. The concept of using x-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma to excite large densities of energetic excited levels in atoms and ions has been thoroughly experimentally investigated using modest, 100 mJ, plasma-producing lasers. One of the objectives of this work was to verify that these techniques could be scaled up to higher energies, such as 20 J. Thus a major effort this year has been devoted to the design and construction of the high energy (20 J) 1064 nm plasma-forming laser system and the tunable probe/transfer laser.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Harris, S.E. & Young, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developments in computation, modeling and experimentation: Impacts on R D

Description: The original objective was to document the feasibility of the coordinated research program sponsored by ECUT called Materials-by-Design (MBD).'' The MBD program funds research to develop hierarchical models to predict materials' performance based on microstructural information. This paper was specifically prepared for this meeting to help technical staff and their managers justify and plan for an advanced computer infrastructure within their companies. In order to do this, several additional objectives for this paper are (1) to foster an appreciation of the dramatic increase in computational power that have occurred over the last forty years, (2) to encourage better utilization of supercomputing in current scientific research by identifying current issues and opportunities, and (3) to promote anticipation and enthusiasm for the dramatic changes supercomputers currently being developed will offer scientists in the near future.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Young, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ECUT energy data reference series: ammonia synthesis energy-use and capital stock information

Description: Energy requirements for ammonia synthesis totaled 0.55 quadrillion Btu of natural gas in 1980 and 28,500 MMBtu (8.3 x 10/sup 6/ kWh) of electricity. Efficiencies ranged from 0.72 to 0.8 for natural gas and 0.65 for electricity. Ammonia production in 1980 is estimated at 21 million tones. In the year 2000, U.S. ammonia production is estimated to be between 27 to 34 million tones with 19 to 31 million tons being produced using natural gas. A most likely value of 25 million tons of ammonia from natural gas feedstock is projected. As much as 20% of the energy from natural gas fuel could be saved if a more active catalyst could be developed that would reduce the operating pressure of ammonia synthesis to 1 atm.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Young, J.K. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In reference 1 the authors described {gamma}-ray holdup assay of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument where they utilized two axial symmetric cylindrical shell acquisitions and two disk source acquisitions to determine Am-241 and Np-237 contamination. The measured contents of the two species were determined using a general detector efficiency calibration taken from a 12-inch point source.2 The authors corrected the raw spectra for container absorption as well as for geometry corrections to transform the calibration curve to the applicable axial symmetric cylindrical source - and disk source - of contamination. The authors derived the geometry corrections with exact calculus that are shown in equations (1) and (2) of our Experimental section. A cylindrical shell (oven source) acquisition configuration is described in reference 3, where the authors disclosed this configuration to gain improved sensitivity for holdup measure of U-235 in a ten-chamber oven. The oven was a piece of process equipment used in the Savannah River Plant M-Area Uranium Fuel Fabrication plant for which a U-235 holdup measurement was necessary for its decontamination and decommissioning in 2003.4 In reference 4 the authors calibrated a bare NaI detector for these U-235 holdup measurements. In references 5 and 6 the authors calibrated a bare HpGe detector in a cylindrical shell configuration for improved sensitivity measurements of U-235 in other M-Area process equipment. Sensitivity was vastly improved compared to a close field view of the sample, with detection efficiency of greater than 1% for the 185.7-keV {gamma}-ray from U-235. In none of references 3 - 7 did the authors resolve the exact calculus descriptions of the acquisition configurations. Only the empirical efficiency for detection of the 185.7-keV photon from U-235 decay was obtained. Not until the 2010 paper of reference 1 did the authors derive a good theoretical description of the flux of photons onto ...
Date: April 29, 2011
Creator: Dewberry, R. & Young, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department