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A review of China`s energy policy

Description: In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Yang, F.; Duan, N. & Zhijie, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damage mechanics characterization on fatigue behavior of a solder joint material

Description: This paper presents the first part of a comprehensive mechanics approach capable of predicting the integrity and reliability of solder joint material under fatigue loading without viscoplastic damage considerations. A separate report will be made to present a comprehensive damage model describing life prediction of the solder material under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The method is based on a theory of damage mechanics which makes possible a macroscopic description of the successive material deterioration caused by the presence of microcracks/voids in engineering materials. A damage mechanics model based on the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes with internal state variables is proposed and used to provide a unified approach in characterizing the cyclic behavior of a typical solder material. With the introduction of a damage effect tensor, the constitutive equations are derived to enable the formulation of a fatigue damage dissipative potential function and a fatigue damage criterion. The fatigue evolution is subsequently developed based on the hypothesis that the overall damage is induced by the accumulation of fatigue and plastic damage. This damage mechanics approach offers a systematic and versatile means that is effective in modeling the entire process of material failure ranging from damage initiation and propagation leading eventually to macro-crack initiation and growth. As the model takes into account the load history effect and the interaction between plasticity damage and fatigue damage, with the aid of a modified general purpose finite element program, the method can readily be applied to estimate the fatigue life of solder joints under different loading conditions.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Chow, C.L.; Yang, F. & Fang, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration development and market potential in China

Description: China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. & Xin, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strain engineering to control the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films

Description: This work studies the control of the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} thin films through strain engineering. The strain state is characterized by the tetragonal distortion (c/a ratio), which can be varied continuously between a compressive strain of 1.005 to a tensile strain of 0.952 by changing the type of substrate, the growth rate, and the presence of an underlying La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}FeO{sub 3} buffer layer. Increasing tensile tetragonal distortion of the La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} thin film decreases the saturation magnetization, changes the temperature dependence of the resistivity and magnetoresistance, and increases the resistivity by several orders of magnitude.
Date: June 15, 2010
Creator: Yang, F.; Kemik, N.; Biegalski, M.D.; Christen, H.M.; Arenholz, E. & Takamura, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic structure of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/La0.7Sr0.3FeO3 superlattices

Description: Using x-ray magnetic dichroism we characterize the magnetic order in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO)/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} (LSFO) superlattices with 6 unit cell thick sublayers. The LSMO layers exhibit a reduced Curie temperature compared to the bulk while antiferromagnetic order in the LSFO layers persists up to the bulk Neel temperature. Moreover, we find that aligning the LSMO magnetization by a magnetic field within the (001) surface plane leads to a reorientation of the Fe moments as well maintaining a perpendicular orientation of Fe and Mn moments. This perpendicular alignment is due to the frustrated exchange coupling at the LSMO/LSFO interface.
Date: January 10, 2009
Creator: Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Yang, F.; Kemik, N.; Biegalski, M.D.; Christen, H.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China Energy Databook. Revision 4

Description: The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department