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High reflector absorptance measurements by the surface thermal lensing technique

Description: Surface thermal lensing is an alternate configuration of a photothermal deflection system that was used to measure low levels of optical absorption. The thermal lensing configuration facilitated the alignment of the pump and probe laser beams by using a larger diameter probe beam. This technique was applied to high performance optical coatings, specifically high reflectors at 511 nm, zero degrees angle of incidence. The absorptance of these coatings was previously measured using a high power copper vapor laser system. A high power copper laser beam is focused onto a -2 mm diameter spot. A thermal camera senses the temperature rise with respect to the rest of the coating. The temperature change, power density and beam diameter were used with an empirical formula that yields optical absorption. The surface thermal lensing technique was able to resolve absorption levels lower than that achieved with the copper laser method.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Krupka, R. & Yang, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature photoluminescence of detector-grade JgO/sub 2/

Description: The low-temperature photoluminescence of HgI/sub 2/ is reported. Three main luminescence bands are observed, with peaks at approx. 2.30, 2.20, and 2.00 eV at 77K. At 4.2K, the highest energy peak shows considerable structure. The temperature dependence of these lines indicates both free and bound exciton recombination, and very small exciton binding energies (approx. 3 to 4 meV) have been estimated. A comparison of the results of sublimation and doping experiments suggests that the lowest energy band may be related to impurities, whereas the middle-energy band is related to I content. The two strongest bound exciton lines comprising the high-energy band show systematic correlations with the middle-energy, I- related band. Further correlations between these spectral features and the performance of nuclear radiation detectors fabricated from these samples are also noted. The temperature coefficient of the band gap is estimated from the spectral shift of luminescence lines to be approximately -1.13 x 10/sup -4/ eV/K between 32K and 45K.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Wu, Z.L.; Merz, J.L.; van den Berg, L. & Schnepple, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3(omega) Damage: Growth Mitigation

Description: The design of high power UV laser systems is limited to a large extent by the laser-initiated damage performance of transmissive fused silica optical components. The 3{omega} (i.e., the third harmonic of the primary laser frequency) damage growth mitigation LDRD effort focused on understanding and reducing the rapid growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics. Laser-initiated damage can be discussed in terms of two key issues: damage initiated at some type of precursor and rapid damage growth of the damage due to subsequent laser pulses. The objective of the LDRD effort has been the elucidation of laser-induced damage processes in order to quantify and potentially reduce the risk of damage to fused silica surfaces. The emphasis of the first two years of this effort was the characterization and reduction of damage initiation. In spite of significant reductions in the density of damage sites on polished surfaces, statistically some amount of damage initiation should always be expected. The early effort therefore emphasized the development of testing techniques that quantified the statistical nature of damage initiation on optical surfaces. This work led to the development of an optics lifetime modeling strategy that has been adopted by the NIF project to address damage-risk issues. During FY99 interest shifted to the damage growth issue which was the focus of the final year of this project. The impact of the remaining damage sites on laser performance can be minimized if the damage sites did not continue to grow following subsequent illumination. The objectives of the final year of the LDRD effort were to apply a suite of state-of-the-art characterization tools to elucidate the nature of the initiated damage sites, and to identify a method that effectively mitigates further damage growth. Our specific goal is to understand the cause for the rapid growth of ...
Date: February 22, 2001
Creator: Kozlowski, M; Demos, S; Wu, Z-L; Wong, J; Penetrante, B & Hrubesh, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature photoluminescence of detector-grade HgI/sub 2/

Description: The low-temperature photoluminescence of HgI/sub 2/ is reported. Three main luminescence bands are observed, with peaks at approx. 2.30, 2.20, and 2.00 eV at 77 K. At 4.2 K, the highest energy peak shows considerable structure. The temperature dependence of these lines indicates both free and bound exciton recombination, and very small exciton binding energies (approx. 3 to 5 MeV) have been estimated. A comparison of the results of sublimation and doping experiments suggests that the lowest energy band may be related to impurities, whereas the middle-energy band is related to I content. The two strongest bound exciton lines comprising the high-energy band show systematic correlations with the middle-energy, I-related band. Further correlations between these spectral features and the performance of nuclear radiation detectors fabricated from these samples are also noted. The temperature coefficient of the band gap is estimated from the spectral shift of luminescence lines to be approximately -1.13 x 10/sup -4/ eV/K between 32 K and 45 K.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Merz, J.L.; Wu, Z.L.; van den Berg, L. & Schnepple, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low level absorptance measurements and scans of high performance optical coatings for atomic vapor laser isotope separation applications

Description: A surface thermal lensing and a radiometric technique was used to characterize the absorptance dependence on time, power, site, and technique of low absorptance optical multilayered coatings.
Date: January 24, 1998
Creator: Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Krupka, R. & Yang, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absorptance measurements of transmissive optical components by the surface thermal lensing technique

Description: The surface thermal lensing technique (STL) successfully resolved and measured the absorptance of transmissive optical components: near- normal angle-of-incidence anti-reflectors and beam splatters. The STL system uses an Ar ion laser to pump the components at 514.5 mn. The absorptance-induced surface deformation diffracts the HeNe probe beam into a photo-detector. The signal intensity was calibrated with a sample of known absorptance. The optical components were designed to function in a copper vapor laser (CVL) transport system, and were previously tested for absorptance with a high power CVL system at 511 rtm. To assure proper absorptance data from the STL system, the pump laser power densities were set at the operational level of the coatings, absorptance time trends were monitored, and absorptance area scans were made. Both types of transmissive optics are more stable than the CVL high reflectors that were measured in another study. Parameter studies based on Fresnel diffraction theory were also performed to optimize experimental condition. The STL system was assessed to have 10 ppb sensitivity for absorption measurement given 2 W of pump power.
Date: September 24, 1997
Creator: Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Han, Y. & Tian, L.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coatings using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy

Description: Multilayer coatings manufactured from metallic hafnium and silica sources by reactive electron beam deposition, are being developed for high fluence optics in a fusion laser with a wavelength of 1053 nm and a 3 ns pulse length. Damage threshold studies have revealed a correlation between laser damage and nodular defects, but interestingly laser damage is also present in nodule-free regions. Photothermal studies of optical coatings reveal the existence of defects with strong optical absorption in nodule-free regions of the coating. A variety of microscopic techniques were employed to characterize the effects for a better understanding of the thermal properties of nodular defects and role of thermal defects in laser damage. Photothermal microscopy, utilizing the surface thermal lensing technique, was used to map the thermal characteristics of 3 mm x 3 mm areas of the coatings. High resolution subaperture scans, with a 1 pm step size and a 3 um pump beam diameter, W= conducted on the defects to characterize their photothermal properties. Optical and atomic force microscopy was used to visually identify defects and characterize their topography. The defects were then irradiated to determine the role of nodular and thermal defects in limiting the damage threshold of the multilayer.
Date: December 24, 1997
Creator: Stolz, C.J.; Yoshiyama, J.M.; Salleo, A.; Wu, Z.L.; Green, J. & Krupka, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser conditioning characterization and damage threshold prediction of hafnia/silica multilayer mirrors by photothermal microscopy

Description: Laser conditioning has been shown to improve the laser damage threshold of some optical coatings by greater than 2x. Debate continues within the damage community regarding laser-conditioning mechanisms, but it is clear that nodular ejection is one of the byproducts of the laser conditioning process. To better understand why laser conditioning is so effective, photothermal microscopy was used to measure absorption of coating defects before and after laser exposure. Although a modest absorption reduction was expected due to the lower electric field peaks within a pit and the absence of potentially absorbing nodular seeds, surprisingly, absorption reductions up to 150x were observed. Photothermal microscopy has also been successfully used to correlate laser-induced damage threshold and absorption of defects in hafnia/silica multilayer optical coatings. Defects with high absorption, as indicated by high photothermal signal, have low damage thresholds. Previously a linear correlation of damage threshold and defect photothermal signal was established with films designed and damage tested at 1{omega} (1053 nm) and Brewster's angle (56.4{sup o}), but characterized by photothermal microscopy at 514.5 nm and near-normal angle of incidence (10{sup o}). In this study coatings designed, characterized by photothermal microscopy, and damage tested at the same wavelength, incident angle, and polarization did not have a correlation between defect photothermal signal and absorption.
Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Papandrew, A B; Stolz, C J; Wu, Z L; Loomis, G E & Falabella, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings

Description: Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) coatings were developed for the laser gyro industry to meet significantly different requirements than those of fusion lasers. Laser gyro mirrors are small (< 25 mm) and require low losses (< 30 ppm typical) and high stability with long exposures to low power laser energy. In contrast, fusion laser optics are large (< 1 meter), have significantly reduced loss requirements (< 5,000 ppm) and high damage thresholds (> 26 J/cm{sup 2} at 1,064 nm with 3-ns pulses). As part of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) coating development effort, IBS coatings are being studied to explore the possible benefits of this technology to NIF optics. As an initial step to achieving the NIF size and damage threshold requirements, the coating process is being scaled to uniformly coat a 20 x 40 cm{sup 2} area with reduced spectral, reflected wavefront, and laser damage threshold requirements. Here, multilayer coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering with amorphous layers were found to have lower damage thresholds at 1,064 nm than similar coatings with crystalline layers. Interestingly, at higher fluences the damage was less severe for the amorphous coatings. The magnitude of the difference in damage thresholds between the two different microstructures was strongly influenced by the size of the tested area. To better understand the microstructure effects, single layers of HfO{sub 2} with different microstructures were studied using transmission electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and a photothermal deflection technique. Since the laser damage initiated at defects, the influence of thermal diffusivity on thermal gradients in nodular defects is also presented.
Date: January 5, 1996
Creator: Stolz, C.J.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Long, D.; Lalazari, R.; Wu, Z.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser modulated scattering as a nondestructive evaluation tool for optical surfaces and thin film coatings

Description: Laser modulated scattering (LMS) is introduced as a non-destructive evaluation tool for defect inspection and characterization of optical surfaces and thin film coatings. This technique is a scatter sensitive version of the well-known photothermal microscopy (PTM) technique. It allows simultaneous measurement of the DC and AC scattering signals of a probe laser beam from an optical surface. By comparison between the DC and AC scattering signals, one can differentiate absorptive defects from non-absorptive ones. This paper describes the principle of the LMS technique and the experimental setup, and illustrates examples on using LMS as a tool for nondestructive evaluation of high quality optics.
Date: December 22, 1999
Creator: Feit, M D; Kozlowski, M R; Rubenchik, A M; Sheehan, L & Wu, Z L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single-beam photothermal microscopy - a new diagnostic tool for optical materials

Description: A novel photothermal microscopy (PTM) is developed which uses only one laser beam, working as both the pump and the probe. The principle of this single-beam PTM is based on the detection of the second harmonic component of the laser modulated scattering (LMS) signal. This component has a linear dependence on the optical absorptance of the tested area and a quadratic dependence on the pump laser power. Using a pump laser at the wavelengths of 514.5- and 532-nm high-resolution photothermal scans are performed for polished fused silica surfaces and a HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer coatings. The results are compared with those from the traditional two-beam PTM mapping. It is demonstrated that the single-beam PTM is more user-friendly (i.e. no alignment is needed) than conventional two-beam PTM and, offers a higher spatial resolution for defect detection.
Date: December 22, 1998
Creator: Feit, M. D.; Kozlowski, M.; Natoli, J. Y.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Sheehan, L.; Wu, Z. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absorptance Measurements of Optical Coatings - A Round Robin

Description: An international round robin study was conducted on the absorption measurement of laser-quality coatings. Sets of optically coated samples were made by a ''reactive DC magnetron'' sputtering and an ion beam sputtering deposition process. The sample set included a high reflector at 514 nm and a high reflector for the near infrared (1030 to 1318 nm), single layers of silicon dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, and hafnium dioxide. For calibration purposes, a sample metalized with hafnium and an uncoated, superpolished fused silica substrate were also included. The set was sent to laboratory groups for absorptance measurement of these coatings. Whenever possible, each group was to measure a common, central area and another area specifically assigned to the respective group. Specific test protocols were also suggested in regards to the laser exposure time, power density, and surface preparation.
Date: October 26, 2000
Creator: Chow, R; Taylor, J R; Wu, Z L; Boccara, C A; Broulik, U; Commandre, M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department