9 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

A HUMAN RELIABILITY-CENTERED APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF JOB AIDS FOR REVIEWERS OF MEDICAL DEVICES THAT USE RADIOLOGICAL BYPRODUCT MATERIALS.

Description: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is engaged in an initiative to risk-inform the regulation of byproduct materials. Operating experience indicates that human actions play a dominant role in most of the activities involving byproduct materials, which are radioactive materials other than those used in nuclear power plants or in weapons production, primarily for medical or industrial purposes. The overall risk of these activities is strongly influenced by human performance. Hence, an improved understanding of human error, its causes and contexts, and human reliability analysis (HRA) is important in risk-informing the regulation of these activities. The development of the human performance job aids was undertaken by stages, with frequent interaction with the prospective users. First, potentially risk significant human actions were identified based on reviews of available risk studies for byproduct material applications and of descriptions of events for byproduct materials applications that involved potentially significant human actions. Applications from the medical and the industrial domains were sampled. Next, the specific needs of the expected users of the human performance-related capabilities were determined. To do this, NRC headquarters and region staff were interviewed to identify the types of activities (e.g., license reviews, inspections, event assessments) that need HRA support and the form in which such support might best be offered. Because the range of byproduct uses regulated by NRC is so broad, it was decided that initial development of knowledge and tools would be undertaken in the context of a specific use of byproduct material, which was selected in consultation with NRC staff. Based on needs of NRC staff and the human performance related characteristics of the context chosen, knowledge resources were then compiled to support consideration of human performance issues related to the regulation of byproduct materials. Finally, with information sources and an application context identified, a set of ...
Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: COOPER, S.E.; BROWN, W.S. & WREATHALL, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Knowledge-base for the new human reliability analysis method, A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

Description: This paper describes the knowledge base for the application of the new human reliability analysis (HRA) method, a ``A Technique for Human Error Analysis`` (ATHEANA). Since application of ATHEANA requires the identification of previously unmodeled human failure events, especially errors of commission, and associated error-forcing contexts (i.e., combinations of plant conditions and performance shaping factors), this knowledge base is an essential aid for the HRA analyst.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Cooper, S.E.; Wreathall, J.; Thompson, C.M., Drouin, M. & Bley, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

Description: Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Cooper, S. E.; Ramey-Smith, A. M.; Wreathall, J. & Parry, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators associated with maintenance at nuclear power plants

Description: This report summarizes the development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators of maintenance. These indicators were selected by: (1) creating a formal framework of plant processes; (2) identifying features of plant behavior considered important to safety; (3) evaluating existing indicators against these features; and (4) performing statistical analyses for the selected indicators. The report recommends additional testing. This document provides the appendices to the report. These appendices are: synopsis of process model; detailed results of statistical analysis; and signal processing analysis of daily power loss indicator.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Wreathall, J.; Fragola, J.; Appignani, P.; Burlile, G. & Shen, Y. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators associated with maintenance at nuclear power plants

Description: This report summarizes the development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators of maintenance. These indicators were selected by: (1) creating a formal framework of plant processes; (2) identifying features of plant behavior considered important to safety; (3) evaluating existing indicators against these features; and (4) performing statistical analyses for the selected indicators. The report recommends additional testing. 32 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Wreathall, J.; Fragola, J.; Appignani, P.; Burlile, G. & Shen, Y. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Philosophy of ATHEANA

Description: ATHEANA, a second-generation Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) method integrates advances in psychology with engineering, human factors, and Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) disciplines to provide an HRA quantification process and PRA modeling interface that can accommodate and represent human performance in real nuclear power plant events. The method uses the characteristics of serious accidents identified through retrospective analysis of serious operational events to set priorities in a search process for significant human failure events, unsafe acts, and error-forcing context (unfavorable plant conditions combined with negative performance-shaping factors). ATHEANA has been tested in a demonstration project at an operating pressurized water reactor.
Date: March 24, 1999
Creator: Bley, D.C.; Cooper, S.E.; Forester, J.A.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Ramey-Smith, A.; Thompson, C.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discussion of comments from a peer review of a technique for human event analysis (ATHEANA)

Description: In May of 1998, a technical basis and implementation guidelines document for A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA) was issued as a draft report for public comment (NUREG-1624). In conjunction with the release of the draft NUREG, a paper review of the method, its documentation, and the results of an initial test of the method was held over a two-day period in Seattle, Washington, in June of 1998. Four internationally-known and respected experts in human reliability analysis (HRA) were selected to serve as the peer reviewers and were paid for their services. In addition, approximately 20 other individuals with an interest in HRA and ATHEANA also attended the peer review meeting and were invited to provide comments. The peer review team was asked to comment on any aspect of the method or the report in which improvements could be made and to discuss its strengths and weaknesses. All of the reviewers thought the ATEANA method had made significant contributions to the field of PRA/HRA, in particular by addressing the most important open questions and issues in HRA, by attempting to develop an integrated approach, and by developing a framework capable of identifying types of unsafe actions that generally have not been considered using existing methods. The reviewers had many concerns about specific aspects of the methodology and made many recommendations for ways to improve and extend the method, and to make its application more cost effective and useful to PRA in general. Details of the reviewers` comments and the ATHEANA team`s responses to specific criticisms will be discussed.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Forester, J.A.; Ramey-Smith, A.; Bley, D.C.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cooper, S.E. & Wreathall, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multidisciplinary framework for human reliability analysis with an application to errors of commission and dependencies

Description: Since the early 1970s, human reliability analysis (HRA) has been considered to be an integral part of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Nuclear power plant (NPP) events, from Three Mile Island through the mid-1980s, showed the importance of human performance to NPP risk. Recent events demonstrate that human performance continues to be a dominant source of risk. In light of these observations, the current limitations of existing HRA approaches become apparent when the role of humans is examined explicitly in the context of real NPP events. The development of new or improved HRA methodologies to more realistically represent human performance is recognized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a necessary means to increase the utility of PRAS. To accomplish this objective, an Improved HRA Project, sponsored by the NRC`s Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), was initiated in late February, 1992, at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop an improved method for HRA that more realistically assesses the human contribution to plant risk and can be fully integrated with PRA. This report describes the research efforts including the development of a multidisciplinary HRA framework, the characterization and representation of errors of commission, and an approach for addressing human dependencies. The implications of the research and necessary requirements for further development also are discussed.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Barriere, M. T.; Luckas, W. J.; Wreathall, J.; Cooper, S. E.; Bley, D. C. & Ramey-Smith, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of the Oconee-3 probabilistic risk assessment: external events, core damage frequency. Volume 2

Description: A review of the Oconee-3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (OPRA) was conducted with the broad objective of evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively (as much as possible) the OPRA assessment of the important sequences that are ''externally'' generated and lead to core damage. The review included a technical assessment of the assumptions and methods used in the OPRA within its stated objective and with the limited information available. Within this scope, BNL performed a detailed reevaluation of the accident sequences generated by internal floods and earthquakes and a less detailed review (in some cases a scoping review) for the accident sequences generated by fires, tornadoes, external floods, and aircraft impact. 12 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Hanan, N.A.; Ilberg, D.; Xue, D.; Youngblood, R.; Reed, J.W.; McCann, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department