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Glass formulation development and testing for the vitrification of Oak Ridge tank waste

Description: As part of joint project between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), radioactive waste from four different ORNL tank farms will be immobilized. This work, which is funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology, is designed to create a direct comparison between grouting and vitrification technologies. SRTC efforts have been focused on developing and testing glass formulations for the vitrification of the tank wastes. The radioactive waste is from four different ORNL tank farms: Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT), and Old Hydrafracture Tanks (OHF). The sludges in these tanks contain transuranic radionuclides at levels which will make the final waste form (at reasonable waste loadings) TRU. Glass is an acceptable waste form because of its ability to accept a wide variety of components into its network structure. This is important since the waste varies significantly from tank to tank and from tank farm to tank farm. Therefore, glass formulation efforts have centered on developing a formulation that is robust enough to handle large fluctuations in waste composition. Crucible studies have been performed with simulated GAAT, MVST and BVEST sludges. The results of these tests indicate that high waste loadings can be obtained in the glass to significantly reduce the waste volume. This paper will present the results of the glass formulation efforts
Date: June 17, 1997
Creator: Andrews, M.K. & Workman, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass formulation development and testing for the vitrification of DWPF HLW sludge coupled with crystalline silicotitanate (CST)

Description: An alternative to the In Tank Precipitation and sodium titanate processes at the Savannah River Site is the removal of cesium, strontium, and plutonium from the tank supernate by ion exchange using crystalline silicotitanate (CST). This inorganic material has been shown to effectively and selectively sorb these elements from supernate. The loaded CST could then be immobilized with High-Level Waste (HLW) sludge during vitrification. Initial efforts on the development of a glass formulation for a coupled waste stream indicate that reasonable loadings of both sludge and CST can be achieved in glass.
Date: September 30, 1997
Creator: Andrews, M.K. & Workman, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass Formulation Development for the Vitrification of Oak Ridge Tank Waste

Description: Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is a highly specific ion exchange material for cesium. In particular, CST has been successfully demonstrated with both simulants and actual supernates from Savannah River and Hanford tank wastes. As a disposal option, vitrification of the cesium-loaded CST coupled with High-Level Waste (HLW) has been proposed. However, the CST sorbent contains significant quantities of titanium which historically have been difficult to incorporate into the glass structure. Therefore, nonradioactive tests using CST coupled with simulated HLW were performed to develop a glass formulation that would be both processable and durable. The results of the simulated crucible melts were verified using radioactive waste and cesium-loaded CST. This paper will detail the results of the formulation efforts.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Andrews, M.K. & Workman, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

Description: Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D. & Harden, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass Waste Forms for Oak Ridge Tank Wastes: Fiscal Year 1997 Report for Task Plan SR-16WT-31, Task A

Description: Through the Tanks Focus Area, the Office of Science and Technology has funded the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop formulations which can incorporate sludges from Oak Ridge (OR) Tank Farms into an immobilized waste form. SRTC has been developing a glass waste form, while ORNL has been developing a grout waste form for the tank farms sludges. The four tank farms included in this task are: Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT)and Old Hydrofracture Tanks (OHF). The first element of the SRTC task for FY97 was to develop a glass formulation to immobilize a blended sludge from the MVST and the BVEST. ORNL had previously developed a soda-lime-silicate (SLS) glass for the MVST sludge. SRTC has reproduced this work and expanded on it for the blended MVST/BVEST sludge. SRTC also performed a durability test on the resultant glasses. The normalized sodium and silicon leachate concentrations for the soda lime silica glasses readily met the Environmental Assessment glass (a borosilicate glass) benchmark limits for these two elements. Additional efforts at the SRTC included the verification of the glass formulation prior to the ORNL radioactive demonstration and technical consultations during the radioactive demonstration. However, the major emphasis for SRTC in FY97 was on the second element of this task, the overall blended average of the tank farms. The second element focused on developing a glass formulation which would immobilize a sludge with a composition obtained from averaging the contents of all four tank farms (composite composition). Although blending the contents of all four tank farms is not feasible, this average composition provides a basis from which to develop a glass formulation. Once a frit formulation was developed which produced a durable glass waste ...
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Andrews, M.K.; Harbour, J.R.; Edwards, T.B. & Workman, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 510 TO SUPPORT A SECOND TANK 40 DECANT

Description: Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is currently being processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using Frit 510. The slurry pumps in Tank 40 are experiencing in-leakage of bearing water, which is causing the sludge slurry in Tank 40 to become dilute at a rapid rate. Currently, the DWPF is removing this dilution water by performing caustic boiling during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle. In order to alleviate prolonged SRAT cycle times, which may eventually impact canister production rates, the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) performed a 100K gallon supernate decant of Tank 40 in April 2008. SRNL performed a supplemental glass variability study to support the April 2008 100K gallon decant incorporating the impact of coupled operations (addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream). Recently LWO requested that SRNL assess the impact of a second decant (up to 100K gallon) to the Frit 510-SB4 system. This second decant occurred in June 2008. LWO provided nominal compositions on May 6, 2008 representing Tank 40 prior to the second decant, following the second decant, and the SB4 Heel prior to blending with Tank 51 to constitute SB5. Paper study assessments were performed for these options based on sludge-only and coupled operations processing (ARP addition), as well as possible Na{sub 2}O additions (via NaOH additions) to both flowsheets. A review of the ComProTM database relative to the compositional region defined by the projections after the second decant coupled with Frit 510 identified only a few glasses with similar glass compositions. These glasses were acceptable from a durability perspective, but did not sufficiently cover the new glass compositional region. Therefore, SRNL recommended that a supplemental variability study be performed to support the June 2008 Tank 40 decant. Glasses were selected for the variability study based on three sludge compositional projections ...
Date: July 29, 2008
Creator: Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I & Phyllis Workman, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DATA PACKET FOR THE FRIT 202-A11 SB3 GLASS SYSTEM A CANDIDATE FOR THE COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEMONSTRATION

Description: A demonstration of the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology is currently planned for the fall of 2007 to assess the potential for attaining higher waste throughputs as compared to joule heated melter technology. The CCIM demonstrations will be based on a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste slurry feed surrogate with a nominal operating temperature of approximately 1250 C (higher temperatures may be used). The waste slurry feed (nominally 45-50 weight percent solids) surrogate will be representative of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) in order to allow a direct comparison to the DWPF joule heated melter performance during processing of this sludge waste. This pilot scale demonstration is being conducted to evaluate performance and to identify potential processing issues with the existing CCIM technology, and it will include characterization of the resultant glass product to ensure current product performance (durability) specifications are met. The information presented in this data packet provides a technical basis from which decisions regarding the melter demonstration can be made. More specifically, the results presented in this report provide technical data on the impact of waste loading (WL) on critical properties of interest--in particular, durability, liquidus temperature, and viscosity. All of the glasses of this study, regardless of heat treatment, were acceptable when their durabilities were compared to those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. In general, as WL increases, the durabilities for the quenched versions of the glasses tend to decrease due to the changing composition of the glass. For the glasses subjected to the canister centerline cooling (ccc) regime, the durability response appears to be more non-linear as WL increases. At WLs less than 50%, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the potential for the presence of aegirine and/or nepheline crystalline phases, and when these phases are present, there is a decrease in the durability ...
Date: June 13, 2007
Creator: Peeler, D; Kevin Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I & Phyllis Workman, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) SLUDGE BATCH 4 (SB4) WITH FRIT 418: RESULTS OF A PHASE II VARIABILITY STUDY

Description: In early October 2006, the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) began to consider decanting Tank 40 at the end of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) processing and transferring the aqueous phase from the decant to Tank 51. This transfer would be done to remove water added to Tank 40 by a slurry pump bearing water leak. Tank 40 decant water would be used to decrease Tank 51 yield stress and facilitate a transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. The projected composition of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) was adjusted by LWO to reflect the impact of the Tank 40 decant leading to new projected compositions for SB4, designated as the 10-04-06 and the 10-10-06 compositions. A comparison between these SB4 compositions and those provided in June 2006 indicated that the new compositions are slightly higher in Al2O3, Fe2O3, and U3O8 and slightly lower in SiO2. The most dramatic change, however, is the new projection's Na2O concentration, which is more than 4.5 wt% lower than the June 2006 projection. This is a significant change due to the frit development team's approach of aligning the Na2O concentration in a candidate frit to the Na2O content of the sludge. Questions surfaced regarding the applicability of Frit 503 to these revised compositions since the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended Frit 503 for use with SB4 based on the June 2006 compositional projection without the Tank 40 decant. Based on paper study assessments, the change in SB4's expected Na2O content had a significant, negative impact on the projected operating window for the Frit 503/SB4 glass system. Frit 418 had a slightly larger operating window for the 10-04-06 projection (as compared to a lower Na2O frit, Frit 503) and the Frit 418/10-04-06 glass system was no longer nepheline limited. Thus, strictly from the perspective of this paper ...
Date: January 29, 2007
Creator: Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I & Phyllis Workman, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY

Description: The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.
Date: October 2, 2006
Creator: Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I & Phyllis Workman, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SLUDGE BATCH 5 (SB5): SELECTION OF CANDIDATE FRITS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PRELIMINARY GLASS SYSTEMS

Description: Six potential frits were identified as candidates for processing the February 2007 projected SB5 composition (i.e., no implementation of aluminum dissolution) from an array of frit formulations based upon composition-property model predictions. Test glasses were fabricated in the laboratory to verify the applicability of the product performance models to glasses produced with these frits. Characterization of the glasses fabricated with the selected frits showed that all of the glasses had durability responses that are considered very acceptable at a waste loading of 36%. The durability responses were predictable by the free energy of hydration models. No crystallization was identified in the quenched glasses. Samples of the glasses that were slowly cooled following the canister centerline cooled (ccc) thermal profile were found to contain small amounts of magnetite. This crystalline phase had little impact on the durability of the glasses, and therefore is not an issue for concern based on the February 2007 projections. Note that revised versions of the SB5 flowsheet, including those incorporating aluminum dissolution, are expected, which will require additional frit development work when received. Initial melt rate testing results showed that the previously identified trend of increasing melt rate with increasing concentration of B2O3 for SB4 may be extended to this SB5 system. A complete report on melt rate testing with these frits will be issued at a later date.
Date: October 8, 2007
Creator: Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I & Phyllis Workman, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INITIAL SLUDGE BATCH 4 TANK 40 DECANT VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 510

Description: Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is currently being processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using Frit 510. The slurry pumps in Tank 40 are experiencing in-leakage of bearing water, which is causing the sludge slurry feed in Tank 40 to become dilute at a rapid rate. Currently, the DWPF is removing this dilution water by performing caustic boiling during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle. In order to alleviate prolonged SRAT cycle times that may eventually impact canister production rates, decant scenarios of 100, 150, and 200 kilogallons of supernate were proposed for Tank 40 during the DWPF March outage. Based on the results of the preliminary assessment issued by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) for SRNL to (1) perform a more detailed evaluation using updated SB4 compositional information and (2) assess the viability of Frit 510 and determine any potential impacts on the SB4 system. As defined in the TTR, LWO requested that SRNL validate the sludge--only SB4 flowsheet and the coupled operations flowsheet using the 100K gallon decant volume as well as the addition of 3 wt% sodium on a calcined oxide basis. Approximately 12 historical glasses were identified during a search of the ComProTM database that are located within at least one of the five glass regions defined by the proposed SB4 flowsheet options. While these glasses meet the requirements of a variability study there was some concern that the compositional coverage did not adequately bound all cases. Therefore, SRNL recommended that a supplemental experimental variability study be performed to support the various SB4 flowsheet options that may be implemented for future SB4 operations in DWPF. Eighteen glasses were selected based on nominal sludge projections representing the current as well as the ...
Date: May 27, 2008
Creator: Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I & Phyllis Workman, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DURABILITY AND NEPHELINE CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) SLUDGE BATCH 4 (SB4) GLASSES FORMULATED WITH FRIT 503

Description: The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is about to process High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). This sludge batch is high in alumina and nepheline can crystallize readily depending on the glass composition. Large concentrations of crystallized nepheline can have an adverse effect on HLW glass durability. Several studies have been performed to study the potential for nepheline formation in SB4. The Phase 3 Nepheline Formation study of SB4 glasses examined sixteen different glasses made with four different frits. Melt rate experiments were performed by the Process Science and Engineering Section (PS&E) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using the four frits from the Phase 3 work, plus additional high B2O3/high Fe2O3 frits. Preliminary results from these tests showed the potential for significant improvements in melt rate for SB4 glasses using a higher B2O3-containing frit, particularly Frit 503. The main objective of this study was to investigate the durability of SB4 glasses produced with a high B2O3 frit likely to be recommended for SB4 processing. In addition, a range of waste loadings (WLs) was selected to continue to assess the effectiveness of a nepheline discriminator in predicting concentrations of nepheline crystallization that would be sufficient to influence the durability response of the glass. Five glasses were selected for this study, covering a WL range of 30 to 50 wt% in 5 wt% increments. The Frit 503 glasses were batched and melted. Specimens of each glass were heat-treated to simulate cooling along the centerline of a DWPF-type canister (ccc) to gauge the effects of thermal history on product performance. Visual observations on both quenched and ccc glasses were documented. A representative sample from each glass was submitted to the SRNL Process Science Analytical Laboratory (PSAL) for chemical analysis to confirm that the as-fabricated glasses corresponded to the defined ...
Date: June 6, 2006
Creator: Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I & Phyllis Workman, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE I STUDY

Description: The performance of a glass used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is generally quantified by its resistance to chemical degradation, or durability. The durability of a HLW glass is dependent on its composition. If crystalline phases form within a glass during cooling, the composition of the residual glass network is altered, therefore affecting the durability of the glass. Crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) has been shown to adversely impact the durability of HLW glasses since it removes glass forming species (in this case, Al and Si) from the glass network. The propensity for nepheline crystallization in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O in the glass. Nepheline crystallization is therefore of concern for processing of HLW at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since the sludge waste streams at the Savannah River Site (SRS) can contain high concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O. Currently, a 'nepheline discriminator' is included as a process control constraint at the DWPF. The nepheline discriminator relates the concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as weight percentages in glass) to a critical value of 0.62. The discriminator defines a boundary line on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary diagram above which (or toward the SiO{sub 2} corner of the ternary) nepheline is not predicted to crystallize in the glass upon quenching or slow cooling. The current equation uses only the concentrations of the SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} components in the glass in predicting whether or not nepheline is likely to crystallize. However, several other components have been shown to impact the propensity for nepheline crystallization, including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO among others. Therefore, the potential exists to further refine the nepheline discriminator to include these ...
Date: February 13, 2008
Creator: Fox, K; James Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I & Phyllis Workman, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF SLUDGE VARIATION ON THE FRIT 202-A11 - SB3 GLASS SYSTEM

Description: Twenty-seven glasses were designed to assess the impacts of both sludge variation ({+-}5 or {+-}10% for the major sludge components) and waste loading (WL) (50 or 52%) on the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response after two thermal histories (quenching and a modified ccc schedule) within the Frit 202-A11-Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) system. The PCT results of the quenched glasses (regardless of compositional view) indicate that all Frit 202-A11-Sludge SB3 (referred to as HTLG) variability study glasses are very acceptable relative to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass benchmark. More specifically, the normalized boron releases (NL [B] in g/L) range from 0.8 g/L (for HTLG-60VS based on the measured composition) to 1.384 g/L (HTLG-79VS based on the measured bias-corrected (bc) composition). These results can be compared to the NL [B] for the EA benchmark of 16.695 g/L. The PCT results of the quenched glasses are consistent with previous data in the Frit 202-A11-SB3 system. The PCT results for the ccc glasses are not as straight forward. The NL [B]s for the slow cooled glasses range from 0.607 g/L (for HTLG-57ccc based on the measured composition) to 9.42 g/L (for HTLG-67ccc based on the measured bc compositional view). Although these glasses would be classified as acceptable relative to the EA glass benchmark, the relatively high release of the slow cooled glasses would be of concern if this system were to be implemented into the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The PCT responses for those glasses in which either nepheline or both nepheline and aegirine formed upon slow cooling lead to a significant reduction in PCT response. Although the formation of aegirine has (in general) a slightly negative impact on the PCT response, the formation of nepheline and aegirine is a combination that has a high probability of leading to a significant reduction in ...
Date: October 31, 2007
Creator: Peeler, D; Kevin Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; Michael Smith, M; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS

Description: The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted following an analytical plan. A review of the individual oxides for each glass ...
Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass Formulation Development for the Vitrification of Oak Ridge Tank Waste

Description: Radioactive waste from four different Oak Ridge tank farms will be immobilized. The sludges in these tanks contain transuranic radionuclides and RCRA metals at levels which will make the final waste from both TRU and mixed. The final waste form in the immobilization of these sludges may be glass because of its ability to accept a wide variety of components into its network structure. The results of these tests indicate that sufficient waste loadings can be obtained in the glass to significantly reduce the waste volume. This paper will present the results of the glass formulation efforts.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Andrews, M.K.; Workman, P.J.; Harbour, J.R. & Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fiscal year 1997 final report for task plan SR-16WT-31 task B, vitrification of ion exchange material

Description: In Fiscal Year 1997, the Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area (TFA) funded the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to develop and demonstrate the vitrification of a CST ion exchange material loaded with radioactive cesium from one of the Melton Valley Storage Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SRTC developed a patent-pending glass formulation that can be used to vitrify CST sorbent producing a quality borosilicate glass waste form. SRTC demonstrated this formulation by vitrifying the radioactive CST in the SRTC shielded cells melter.In addition to the formulation developed for vitrification of the `CST-only` glass waste form, SRTC also developed formulations for vitrification of CST coupled with High-Level Waste (HLW) sludges. A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) coupled feed formulation has been developed with up to 10 weight percent CST and 28 weight percent DWPF sludge oxides. A coupled Hanford formulation has also been developed for producing quality glass waste forms with up to 10 weight percent CST and 45 weight percent Hanford sludge oxides. The significant accomplishments of this project were then development of CST-only glass formulations incorporating up to 65 weight-percent CST, development of techniques for delivering a slurry or dry feed to a joule-heated melter, demonstration of a CST-only glass formulation in a continuous melter operation, demonstration of compliance with the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), development of CST-sludge glass formulations incorporating up to 10 weight percent CST and 28 weight percent DWPF sludges oxides, demonstration of CST-sludge glass formulations using radioactive sludge and radioactive CST, development of CST-sludge glass formulations incorporating up to 10 weight percent CST and 45 weight percent. All commitments made to the TFA have been met as indicated by the associated milestones. Milestones and the month in which they were completed: Initiate Immobilization of CST in Glass ...
Date: September 30, 1997
Creator: Ferrara, D.; Andrews, M.K.; Harbour, J.R.; Fellinger, T.L.; Herman, D.T.; Marshall, K.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department