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Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was immensely successful. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced domestically will probably be about 80 to 100 million bbls.
Date: January 29, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

Description: This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).
Date: April 30, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee formation using horizontal drains. Second quarterly report, [January--March 1995]

Description: Well data, including drillers` logs, wireline logs, and seismic data, from the Crystal and 3 0 other Dundee oil fields in the Michigan basin have been acquired. Digitized logs of 336 wells that currently produce or have produced from the Dundee Formation in the seven-county study area have been purchased from Maness Petroleum Company. The data-gathering phase of the well-log program is now complete. Well-log analysis using TerraSciences TerraStation software has begun. Detailed analyses of wells with modem logs are being made using density/porosity and Pickett crossplots. Water saturations were calculated for several wells in the past month. Production data have been added to the well-file database. We now have the capability of mapping production as well as geology. Well-location basemaps with permit numbers were constructed for all 30 fields. Contour maps were completed for all 30 fields during the last quarter, including maps: on the top of the Dundee Formation, the top of the Dundee porosity zone (which is well below the top of the Dundee and varies in stratigraphic position throughout most fields), Dundee to Traverse isopachs, and initial production values before and after well treatment. At least two simple computer-generated cross sections were constructed for each field.
Date: April 15, 1995
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Annual report, May 1, 1995--April 30, 1996

Description: The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economics success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. The project is a cooperative venture between Michigan Technological University (MTU), Western Michigan University (WMU), and Terra Energy (now Cronus Development Co.). During the fall of 1995, the demonstration well for this project, the TOW No. 1-3 well in Crystal Field, Montcalm County, Michigan, was completed in the Dundee Formation and for the first three months of operation produced 50 bbl/day oil with no water cut. Because surface facilities were inadequate to handle full production, the well was produced for 12 hrs/day and shut in for 12 hrs/day. In January, 1996, new surface Facilities were completed and production was raised to 100 bbl/day. Daily production has varied from about 75 to 100 BOPD since that time. To date, the well has produced over 10, 000 bbls. The water cut remains at 0% and pressure has been maintained at 1445 psi by an active water drive. If expectations are met, the well will pay out in less than 1 year and continue on production for at least 5 years. Cronus Development Co. is tentatively planning to drill three more horizontal wells in the Dundee in Crystal Field. Thus, the play concept we chose to test, that bypassed attic oil remained in the Dundee reservoir between wells that had been produced at excessively high flow rates and had coned water during primary production, appears to be correct, and the TOW No. 1-3 HD-1 well is now a scientific, and appears soon to become an economic, success.
Date: April 30, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

Description: This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in an older field which has under gone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data, (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration, and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques are being demonstrated through a field trial on a reservoir, Pioneer Field, a field that produces from the Monterey Formation, which is a candidate for thermal EOR. Technical progress is summarized for the following tasks: (1) project administration and management; (2) data collection; (3) data analysis and measurement; (4) modeling; and (5) technology transfer.
Date: January 27, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee formation using horizontal drains

Description: The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was immensely successful. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. `The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. Additional project work comprises characterization of 30 Dundee fields in Michigan to aid in determining appropriate candidates for development through horizontal drilling. Further quantification of reservoir parameters such as importance of fracturing, fracture density, and irregularity of the dolomitized surface at the top of the reservoir will help in designing the optimal strategy for horizontal drilling. Technical progress is presented for the following tasks: project management; reservoir characterization; data measurement and analysis; database management; geochemical and basin modeling; and technology transfer.
Date: April 30, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

Description: The purpose of this project is to provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations utilizing data typically available in a field that has undergone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. For example, the GeoGraphix Exploration System software package was acquired, installed on a PC in the Subsurface Laboratory at Michigan Technological University, and is currently in use. The USGS Digital Land Grid and National Geophysical Data Center`s Gravity Data CDROM were acquired and installed on GeoGraphix. Microsoft Access databases are being developed to archive analytical data and digitized log traces. Data tables for geochemical and petrographic data, well logs, well header information, well production data, formation tops, and fault trace data have been completed. A new effort was initiated during the last quarter of 1995. The surface geological maps of the southern San Joaquin Valley were digitized and loaded into the computer drafting program Canvas where they were edited combined into one large map and colored. When completed, the integrated map will be printed in large format on the HP650C color plotter.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, July 1995--September 1995

Description: Research continued on reservoir characterization. An atlas of thin section petrology of reservoir samples from the Southern San Joaquin Basin was acquired. One-dimensional modeling activities were initiated. Results of a modeling study of Elk Hills is described.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995. 2nd Quarter, FY 1995

Description: This report describes the development of a Spatial Database Manager (SDBM) shell/interface which will provide information to users on how to collect, store, analyze, interpret, visualize and present data in an integrated reservoir characterization study. SDBM will provide access to various geologic, reservoir visual data via a well log interpretation program (Crocker Petrolog), mapping and cross section software ( the GeoGraphix Exploration System Workbench) and a volume visualization application. Data tables for geochemical and petrographic data, well logs, well header information, well production data, formation tops, and fault trace data have been completed. Spectral mineral data are currently being collected which will ultimately be used for identification of mineral assemblages. The geochemical program CHILLER is being used to model fluid-rock interactions and possibly porosity predictions.
Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Third quarterly report, [April 1995--June 1995]

Description: This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations utilizing data typically available in a filed that has undergone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. The GeoGraphix Exploration System (GES) software package was acquired this quarter and installed. Well logging, formation tops and other data are being loaded into the program. We also acquired and installed GeoGraphix`s well-log evaluation package, QLA2. Miocene tops for the entire Pioneer Anticline were loaded into the GES system and contour maps and 3D surface visualizations were constructed. Fault data have been digitized and will soon be loaded into the GeoGraphix mapping module and combined with formation-top data to produce structure maps which will display all fault traces. The versatile program MatLab can be used to perform time series analysis and to produce spatial displays of data. MatLab now has a 3D volume visualization package. In the coming quarter we will test MatLab using Pioneer data set.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly report

Description: The objective of this project is to consider the enhanced recovery of petroleum from the Dundee Formation using horizontal wells. This report contains summaries of the following tasks: project management; reservoir characterization; database management; drilling; and technology transfer. Some of the highlights are: well and log data sets and production data sets for all 30 fields are now complete and are stored in the TerraSciences` database at WMU; tops have been picked on all formations in all wells; well location and formation tops data sets are also now complete; The GeoGraphix Exploration System (GES) software package was acquired this quarter and installed on a PC in the Subsurface Laboratory at MTU.
Date: July 17, 1995
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. FY 1994 annual report

Description: Evaluation of oil and gas properties for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves a high degree of risk, especially when the fields are old and well past their prime. The purpose of this project is to provide the small-to-medium size oil field operator with the tools necessary to do an EOR evaluation of the same quality and sophistication that only large international oil companies have been able to afford to date. This approach utilizes readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in a field which has undergone primary development. After reviewing PC-based software from most major vendors, the authors decided that the most effective way to provide a user-friendly, state-of-the-art package to the independent producers who are primary clients is to link the best modules from four different systems: a commercial database, a wireline log analysis program, a mapping program, and a 2D and 3D visualization program, into a flexible, user-friendly unit. This would result in a product that could be used by small oil and gas companies to perform computerized reservoir studies. Progress to date is described.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

Description: The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was immensely successful. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 Trillion barrels. Horizontal drilling will likely revolutionize the development of old carbonate fields such as those in the Dundee of Michigan.
Date: October 31, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping,e valuation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings, and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. This project provides a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in older fields which have undergone primary development. The approach utilizes readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data; (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration; and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques are being demonstrated through a field trial in Pioneer Field, that produces from the Monterey Formation, a reservoir which is a candidate for thermal EOR.
Date: July 31, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

Description: The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was successful. It has produced over 37,000 bbls of oil as of December 31, 1996 at sustained rate of {approximately}100 bbls/day. At a nominal wellhead price of $20/bbl, this well has made about $750,000 and is still going strong. Two additional horizontal wells have just been completed and are on test. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 million barrels. Horizontal drilling will likely revolutionize the development of old carbonate fields such as those in the Dundee of Michigan.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

Description: This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data were used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, were used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets were used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. This project provides a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in older fields which have undergone primary development. The approach utilizes readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study illustrates the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data; (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration, and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques were demonstrated through a field trial in Pioneer Field, that produces from the Monterey Formation, a reservoir which is a candidate for thermal EOR.
Date: July 31, 1996
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1996

Description: The Pioneer Anticline, 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, California, which has yielded oil since 1926, was the subject of a three-year study aimed at recovering more oil. A team from Michigan Technological University of Houghton, Michigan (MTU), and Digital Petrophysics, Inc. of Bakersfield, California (DPI), undertook the study as part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Extraction and Process Technology Program. The program provides support for projects which cross-cut geoscience and engineering research in order to develop innovative technologies for increasing the recovery of some of the estimated 340 billion barrels of in-place oil remaining in U.S. reservoirs. In recent years, low prices and declining production have increased the likelihood that oil fields will be prematurely abandoned, locking away large volumes of unrecovered oil. The major companies have sold many of their fields to smaller operators in an attempt to concentrate their efforts on fewer {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} properties and on overseas exploration. As a result, small companies with fewer resources at their disposal are becoming responsible for an ever-increasing share of U.S. production. The goal of the MTU-DPI project was to make small independent producers who are inheriting old fields from the majors aware that high technology computer software is now available at relatively low cost. In this project, a suite of relatively inexpensive, PC-based software packages, including a commercial database, a multimedia presentation manager, several well-log analysis program, a mapping and cross-section program, and 2-D and 3-D visualization programs, were tested and evaluated on Pioneer Anticline in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. These relatively inexpensive, commercially available PC-based programs can be assembled into a compatible package for a fraction of the cost of a workstation program with similar capabilities.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

Description: The Multimedia Database Management System (MDMS) has been developed in the commercial software package Toolbook. Design and implementation, which was carried out by C. Asiala, is now essentially complete. Regional location maps of southern San Joaquin Valley oil fields, structure contour maps of the Pioneer area, core photos, core data, thin-section and SEM photomicrographs of core materials, structural cross sections through Pioneer Anticline, an atlas of photomicrographs; illustrating typical diagenetic features observed in San Joaquin Valley petroleum reservoirs, elemental and spectral data collected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) standards, and all quarterly and annual reports submitted to DOE for this project were scanned into the MDMS. All data and information are accessible through dropdown menus and hotlinks in a Table of Contents. A tutorial is presented up front to guide users through the MDMS and instruct them on the various ways in which data can be viewed and retrieved. Version 1.0 of the MDMS was written to CD ROM and distributed to participants in a Technology Transfer Workshop in Bakersfield, CA, in September, 1996. Version 1.1, which contains additional information and has been reorganized for easier use, is nearing completion. All measured and computed log curves (computed curves represent parameters such as porosity, water saturation, and clay content, which were calculated from the measured log traces using specially developed algorithms) for the 45+ project wells on Pioneer Anticline are now in the MDMS in LAS (log ASCII) format, and can be exported to any commercial log evaluation program for manipulation and analysis. All log curves were written to the CD ROM in digital format.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Wood, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation (Devonian) of the Michigan Basin using horizontal drains. Final report, April 28, 1994--December 31, 1997

Description: Total hydrocarbon production in the Michigan Basin has surpassed 1 billion barrels (Bbbls) and total unrecovered reserves are estimated at 1--2 BBbls. However, hydrocarbon production in Michigan has fallen from 35 MMbbls/yr in 1979 to about 10 MMbbls/yr in 1996. In an effort to slow this decline, a field demonstration project designed around using a horizontal well to recover bypassed oil was designed and carried out at Crystal Field in Montcalm County, MI. The project had two goals: to test the viability of using horizontal wells to recover bypassed oil from the Dundee Formation, and to characterize additional Dundee reservoirs (29) that are look alikes to the Crystal Field. As much as 85 percent of the oil known to exist in the Dundee Formation in the Michigan Basin remains in the ground as bypassed oil. Early production techniques in the 137 fields were poor, and the Dundee was at risk of being abandoned, leaving millions of barrels of oil behind. Crystal Field in Montcalm County, Michigan is a good example of a worn out field. Crystal Field was once a prolific producer which had been reduced to a handful of wells, the best of which produced only 5 barrels per day. The demonstration well drilled as a result of this project, however, has brought new life to the Crystal Field. Horizontal drilling is one of the most promising technologies available for oil production. The new well was completed successfully in October of 1995 and has been producing 100 barrels of oil per day, 20 times better than the best conventional well in the field.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Wood, J.R. & Pennington, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

Description: The main objective of this project is for a university-industry consortium to develop a comprehensive model for fracture carbonate reservoirs based on the ''data cube'' concept using the Michigan Basin as a prototype. This project combined traditional historical data with 2D and 3D seismic data as well as data from modern logging tools in a novel way to produce a new methodology for characterizing fractured reservoirs in carbonate rocks. Advanced visualization software was used to fuse the data and to image it on a variety of scales, ranging from basin-scale to well-scales.
Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: Wood, J.R. & Harrison, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department