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Investigation of several techniques for improving altitude starting limits of turbojet engines

Description: Report presenting a study of the altitude-starting limits of a production turbojet engine with an axial-flow compressor and a multiple through-flow combustor. The ignition limits, flame-propagation limits, and acceleration limits of the engine were improved to increase the starting limits to relatively high altitude.
Date: October 29, 1952
Creator: Armstrong, John C. & Wilsted, H. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude performance investigation of two flame-holder and fuel-system configurations in short afterburner

Description: From Introduction: "The results of this complete evaluation of the altitude performance and operational characteristics of the two types of flame-holder and fuel-system configurations are reported herein.The starting limits of both configurations at a flight Mach number of 0.6 are also discussed."
Date: May 6, 1952
Creator: Huntley, S. C. & Wilsted, H. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-chamber performance of British Rolls-Royce Nene II engine 1: standard 18.75-inch-diameter jet nozzle

Description: Report presenting an altitude-chamber investigation to determine the altitude performance characteristics of the British Rolls-Royce Nene II turbojet engine with a standard 18.75-inch-diameter jet nozzle. Results regarding the simulated flight performance and generalized performance across other altitude and pressure characteristics are provided.
Date: September 23, 1949
Creator: Barson, Zelmar & Wilsted, H. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results of British Nene II Engine Altitude-Chamber Performance Investigation. I - Altitude Performance Using Standard 18.75-Inch-Diameter Jet Nozzle, 1, Altitude Performance Using Standard 18.75-Inch-Diameter Jet Nozzle

Description: An investigation is being conducted to determine the altitude performance characteristics of the British Nene II engine and its components. The present paper presents the preliminary results obtained using a standard jet nozzle. The test results presented are for conditions simulating altitudes from sea level to 60,000 feet and ram pressure ratios from 1.0 to 2.3. These ram pressure ratios correspond to flight Mach numbers between zero and 1.16 assuming a 100 percent ram recovery.
Date: May 24, 1948
Creator: Barson, Zelmar & Wilsted, H. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of fuel volatility on altitude starting limits of a turbojet engine

Description: The effect of fuel volatility on altitude starting limits of an axial-flow-compressor-type turbojet engine was investigated using fuels with Reid vapor pressures of 1.1 and 5.4 pounds per square inch. At flight Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.85, the AN-F-58 fuel allowed consistent windmilling at altitudes 2000 to 8000 feet higher than was obtained with the 1.1-pound Reid vapor pressure fuel. At a flight Mach number of 0.25, ignition could not be established at any altitude with the lower-volatility fuel.
Date: September 11, 1950
Creator: Wilsted, H. D. & Armstrong, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of performance of AN-F-58 and AN-F-32 fuels in J33-A-23 turbojet engine

Description: Report presenting an investigation using a 4600 pound-thrust turbojet engine as part of a program to determine the comparative performance of fuels conforming to specifications AN-F-58 and AN-F-32. Results regarding the altitude performance, altitude low-speed blow-out limits, idling limits of fuel-metering control, altitude windmilling starts, carbon-deposition rates, and iron oxide contamination are provided.
Date: June 2, 1949
Creator: Wilsted, H. D. & Armstrong, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary results of turbojet-engine altitude-starting investigation

Description: A spark energy of 2.13 joules per spark at 1 spark per second produced ignition to an altitude of 50,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.6. The minimum power requirements for ignition were obtained from a combination of low spark repetition rates and high spark energy. The altitude-ignition limit was also increased by increasing spark-gap immersion, fuel temperature, inlet-air temperature, and fuel volatility, and by decreasing flight Mach number. The maximum altitude at which flame propagation was accomplished from combusters with spark plugs to combusters without spark plugs to combustors without spark plugs was increased about 5000 feet by increasing fuel volatility.
Date: November 5, 1951
Creator: Wilsted, H. D. & Armstrong, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-performance and Reynolds number investigation of centrifugal-flow-compressor turbojet engine

Description: From Introduction: "Altitude-chamber and wind-tunnel investigations of the performance of turbojet engines such as those reported in references 1 to 4 have shown that the conventional correction factors fail to generalize the engine performance variables at high altitudes. An investigation was therefore made at the NACA Lewis laboratory to determine the altitude performance of the J33-A-23 turbojet engine and to demonstrate the magnitude of departure of actual altitude performance from that predicted from sea-level performance."
Date: May 15, 1951
Creator: Wilsted, H. D. & Grey, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary estimate of performance of a turbojet engine when inlet pressure is reduced below exhaust pressure

Description: Report presenting an investigation of a turbojet engine with compressor-inlet total pressure at various values below that of the exhaust pressure to determine engine performance under conditions simulating operation with inlet-duct losses. Results regarding general performance, application to inlet-duct losses, application to airplane boundary-layer control, and application to turbojet-engine thrust control are provided.
Date: February 18, 1948
Creator: Wilsted, H. D. & Stemples, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating temperatures of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve as measured by a thermocouple

Description: Report presents the results of a thermocouple installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 degrees F. was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 r.p.m. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear-spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.
Date: 1943
Creator: Sanders, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D. & Mulcahy, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple

Description: A thermocouple was installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was then tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 F was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 rpm. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.
Date: December 1, 1943
Creator: Sanders, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D. & Mulcahy, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating temperatures of I-40-5 turbojet engine burner liners and the effect of temperature variation on burner-liner service life

Description: Report presenting an investigation of burner liners in a turbojet engine to determine the principal factors limiting the burner-liner service life. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds and testing was conducted to determine whether bare, ceramic-coated, or shielded thermocouples would give the most correct temperature readings.
Date: August 23, 1948
Creator: Wilsted, H. D.; Duffy, Robert T. & Grey, Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of locked-rotor and windmilling drag characteristics of an axial-flow-compressor type turbojet engine

Description: The internal drag of an axial-flow turbojet engine with the rotor locked in place to prevent windmilling and with the engine windmilling was obtained over a range of simulated Mach numbers. The corrected internal drag of the engine with the locked rotor was 210 pounds or only 46 percent of the windmilling drag at a flight Mach number of 0.8.
Date: January 17, 1952
Creator: Vincent, K. R.; Huntley, S. C. & Wilsted, H. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of valve cooling upon maximum permissible engine output as limited by knock

Description: A Wright GR-1820-G200 cylinder was tested over a wide range of fuel-air ratios at maximum permissible power output as limited by knock with three different degrees of valve cooling. The valves used were stock valves (solid inlet valve and hollow sodium-cooled exhaust valve), hollow valves with no coolant, and hollow valves with flowing water as a coolant. Curves showing the variation in maximum permissible values of inlet-air pressure, indicated mean effective pressure, cylinder charge, and indicated specific fuel consumption with change in fuel-air ratio and valve cooling are shown. The use of valves cooled by a stream of water passing through their hollow interiors permitted indicated mean effective pressures 10 percent higher than the mean effective pressures permissible with stock valves when the engine was operated with fuel-air ratios from 0.055 to 0.065. Operation of the engine with lean mixtures with uncooled hollow valves resulted in power output below the output obtained with the stock valves. The data show an increase in maximum permissible indicated mean effective pressure due to cooling the valves, which averages only 2.1 percent with fuel-air ratios from 0.075 to 0.105.
Date: September 1942
Creator: Munger, Maurice; Wilsted, H. D. & Mulcahy, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-chamber performance of British Rolls-Royce Nene II engine II: 18.41-inch-diameter jet nozzle

Description: Report presenting an altitude-chamber investigation to determine the altitude performance characteristics of the British Rolls-Royce Nene II turbojet engine with an 18.41-inch-diameter jet nozzles. Testing occurred at a range of simulated altitudes and ram-pressure ratios. Results regarding the simulated flight performance, generalized performance, and effect of jet-nozzle area on performance are provided.
Date: October 26, 1949
Creator: Armstrong, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D. & Vincent, K. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling tests of an air-cooled engine cylinder with copper fins on the barrel

Description: Report presenting the results of comparative cooling tests run on two Wright C9GC (G-200) cylinders, one with the original steel fins and one with 1-inch spiral copper fins brazed on the barrel. Calculations were also performed using copper and aluminum fins with the same weight as the original steel fins, which showed positive results. Results regarding cylinder-temperature correlation, piston-temperature correlation, and comparative performance are also provided.
Date: July 1942
Creator: Sanders, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D. & Mulcahy, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of several air ejectors with conical mixing sections and small secondary flow rates

Description: An investigation of several ejector configurations to determine the ability to handle the air required for engine cooling. The results are limited to investigations of conical-type mixing-section ejectors at ratios of mixing-section minimum diameter to primary-jet-nozzle diameter using unheated air. Results regarding experimental data, generalization of experimental data, spacing for maximum weight-flow ratio, ejector thrust, ejector configurations for constant weight-flow ratio, and selection of ejector design are provided.
Date: July 19, 1948
Creator: Huddleston, S. C.; Wilsted, H. D. & Ellis, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of temperature on performance of several ejector configurations

Description: Report presenting an investigation to determine the effect of the primary-jet temperature on the performance of several ejector configurations. The performance of ejectors expressed in terms of the ratio of weight of secondary air flow to primary air flow was found to be affected by temperature in two ways.
Date: June 13, 1949
Creator: Wilsted, H. D.; Huddleston, S. C. & Ellis, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of performance of several double-shroud ejectors and effect of variable-area exhaust nozzle on single ejector performance

Description: Report presenting an investigation to determine the characteristics of a double-shroud cooling-air ejector. The performance of a single-shroud ejector with a clamshell-type variable-area actuating nozzle was compared with that of an ejector having a conical nozzle. Results regarding the mechanics of ejector flow systems, effect of variable-area primary nozzle on ejector performance, double-shroud-ejector performance, and application of data are provided.
Date: July 15, 1952
Creator: Ellis, C. W.; Hollister, D. P. & Wilsted, H. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department