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High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

Description: This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Williams, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized bed waste heat recovery system. Annual report, 1 October 1981-31 March 1983

Description: An agreement was reached in July 1982 with the Aluminum Company of America regarding the Massena operations in New York. Since that agreement, a specification has been published which characterizes the waste stream and includes ALCOA, DOE and Aerojet design requirements. Installation of the test unit has been engineered in preliminary form by ALCOA in close liaison with Aerojet and details are being established. A subcontract has been awarded for the design and fabrication of the fluid bed heat exchanger. Initial thermal analyses are complete and a preliminary arrangement layout has been started. Materials corrosion tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory on samples of fluid bed heat exchanger materials under the range of temperatures expected. Samples included carbon steel, stainless steels and Incoloy. Test atmospheres included hydrogen chloride and chlorine corrosive species. A study was completed of the research and development which would be necessary to raise the gas inlet temperature rating of the heat exchanger above 1100/sup 0/F. This study has been formalized and submitted in a topical report and discussions are ongoing regarding an activity (Task VI) added to the present contract to conduct high temperature R and D work.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Williams, H. W. & Unmack, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detector development summary

Description: Work on several detectors useful at ISABELLE included the following: drift and proportional chambers (chamber lifetime, position resolution, dE/dx measurements and particle identification), Cherenkov counters, calorimetry, and hodoscopes and microchannel plate detectors. Other work examined the problems of event selection in the high-rate environment expected at ISABELLE. The comments are rather general, with little hard design information. 1 table. (RWR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Platner, E.D. & Williams, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing the standard model

Description: We summarize here the results of the standard model group which has studied the ways in which different facilities may be used to test in detail what we now call the standard model, that is SU/sub c/(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The topics considered are: W/sup + -/, Z/sup 0/ mass, width; sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ and neutral current couplings; W/sup +/W/sup -/, W..gamma..; Higgs; QCD; toponium and naked quarks; glueballs; mixing angles; and heavy ions.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Gordon, H.; Marciano, W. & Williams, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Top quark kinematics and mass determination

Description: An analysis is presented of 10 W + {ge} 3 jet events, each with evidence for the presence of a b quark, that were recently observed by the CDF collaboration. Seven of these events include a fourth jet and can be explicitly reconstructed as t{bar t} production. The best estimate of the top quark mass is M{sub t} = 174 {+-} 10{sub {minus}12}{sup +13} GeV/c{sup 2}. A study has also been performed to see if the kinematical properties of events with W + {ge} 3 jets gives evidence for top production. An excess of events with large jet energies, compared to that expected from direct production of W + {ge} 3 jets, is observed. A large fraction of these events also contain a b-quark and a fourth jet.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Williams, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smokeless Gasoline Fire Test

Description: As a result of the recent concern by environmentalists, the hypothetical accident thermal test can no longer be performed by simply burning gasoline in an open pit. The uncontrolled open pit technique creates thick, dense, black clouds of smoke which are not permitted by local authorities. This paper deals with the design of the fire test facility and the techniques used to eliminate the smoke plume. The techniques include the addition of excess air to the fire in combination with a spray of water mist near the fuel surface. The excess air technique has been used successfully in an experimental setup; it was found that the temperature could be controlled in the neighborhood of the required 1475 degrees F environment and the smoke could be reduced to very low levels. The water spray technique has been successfully used by others in similar applications and, on completion of a permanent fire test facility at Mound Laboratory (anticipated July, 1974), test results will be available. The water is believed to interact with the combustion reaction to provide more complete combustion. The permanent facility will be a 10 x 10 ft cement block enclosure lined with firebrick. It will be 8 ft high on three sides and 4 ft high on one side to provide for observation of the test. A 5000 gal underground tank provides storage for the aviation gasoline which is gravity fed to the fire.
Date: April 1, 1974
Creator: Williams, H. & Griffin, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Los Alamos Omega West Reactor

Description: A description is given of the Omega West Reactor and associated experimental facilities, followed by a brief discussion of recent usage, new experiments, and future prospects.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Lyle, A.R.; Williams, H.T. & Bunker, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing a 500-eV proton beam

Description: Tests have been carried out which indicate that H- intensity limitations in lamb-shift polarized ion sources result from large diveregence in the 500-eV H+ ion beam. Intensity limitations due to other effects are not yet measurable.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Chamberlin, E.P.; Benage, J.F. Jr. & Williams, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconductor supercollider front end development: Ring imaging Cerenkov studies; and warm liquid calorimetry. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

Description: The work on developing electronics for the straw tracking system for the SDC detector made very considerable progress during the last year. The primary tasks were in the areas of system design, integrated circuits, substrates, cables, and system tests.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Williams, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of cogeneration with thermal energy storage technologies

Description: The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the U.S. Department of Energy`s Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Program. The program focuses on developing TES for daily cycling (diurnal storage), annual cycling (seasonal storage), and utility-scale applications [utility thermal energy storage (UTES)]. Several of these storage technologies can be used in a new or an existing power generation facility to increase its efficiency and promote the use of the TES technology within the utility and the industrial sectors. The UTES project has included a study of both heat storage and cool storage systems for different utility-scale applications. The study reported here has shown that an oil/rock diurnal TES system, when integrated with a simple gas turbine cogeneration system, can produce on-peak power for $0.045 to $0.06 /kWh, while supplying a 24-hour process steam load. The molten salt storage system was found to be less suitable for simple as well as combined-cycle cogeneration applications. However, certain advanced TES concepts and storage media could substantially improve the performance and economic benefits. In related study of a chill TES system was evaluated for precooling gas turbine inlet air, which showed that an ice storage system could be used to effectively increase the peak generating capacity of gas turbines when operating in hot ambient conditions.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S. & Williams, H.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent operating experience with the H{sup {minus}} ion injector at LAMPF/LANSCE

Description: A cusp-field cesium conversion ion source has provided H{sup -} beams at LAMPF/LANSCE since 1984. three interchangeable sources are now used during beam production cycles to minimize down time during scheduled source change-outs. Ion source change-outs are scheduled to prevent unscheduled loss of beam time due to finite filament lifetime. Ion source operating parameters and filament lifetime data are presented.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Ingalls, W.B.; Stelzer, J.E. & Williams, H.E. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assay of potentially contaminated propellant

Description: One of the decontamination and decommissioning projects within DOD is demilitarization of an aging stockpile of munitions. A large portion of the stockpile contains depleted uranium (DU) as an armor piercing core and so these munitions must be assayed for the presence of uranium in other components. The assay method must be fast and preferably easy to implement. Presence of DU is indicated by its alpha decay. The alpha particles in turn produce ions in the ambient air. If a significant fraction of these ions can escape the quantity of propellant, the ions can be detected instead of the alpha particles. As a test of the feasibility of detecting alpha emissions from DU somewhere within a cartridge of propellant, the transmission of ions through layers of real propellant was measured. The propellant is in the form of graphite-coated cylindrical pellets. A 105nun cartridge was modified for use as a pellet chamber. A check source served as an ion source. The ion detector consisted of a grid held at 300V coupled to an ammeter. Results confirm that this is a promising technique for testing the propellant for the presence of DU quickly yet with sensitivity.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Koster, J.E.; Williams, H.E. III & Scott, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filament heater current modulation for increased filament lifetime

Description: The surface conversion H-minus ion source employs two 60 mil tungsten filaments which are approximately 17 centimeters in length. These filaments are heated to approximately 2,800 degrees centigrade by 95--100 amperes of DC heater current. The arc is struck at a 120 hertz rate, for 800 microseconds and is generally run at 30 amperes peak current. Although sputtering is considered a contributing factor in the demise of the filament, evaporation is of greater concern. If the peak arc current can be maintained with less average heater current, the filament evaporation rate for this arc current will diminish. In the vacuum of an ion source, the authors expect the filaments to retain much of their heat throughout a 1 millisecond (12% duty) loss of heater current. A circuit to eliminate 100 ampere heater currents from filaments during the arc pulse was developed. The magnetic field due to the 100 ampere current tends to hold electrons to the filament, decreasing the arc current. By eliminating this magnetic field, the arc should be more efficient, allowing the filaments to run at a lower average heater current. This should extend the filament lifetime. The circuit development and preliminary filament results are discussed.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Paul, J.D. & Williams, H.E. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bulk Biological Shielding Aspects of the Yankee Core

Description: The analysis of the radiation sources within the primary concrete shielding of the Yankee Atomic Electric Plant is summarized The dose due to these sources at a point on a transverse centerline and outside the plant container was calculated. The dose at two points on the axial centerline was found as well as the extent to which the water is actiwated during its passage through the pressure vessel. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Graves, H. W., Jr.; Eich, W. J. & Williams, H. T., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Weak neutral current: a determination of its structure and an analysis of the error due to theoretical and experimental uncertainties

Description: The most recently available neutral current data, together with previous measurements, was used to determine in a model independent way the structure of the hadronic and leptonic neutral currents. In the theoretical treatment of ..nu.. deep inelastic scattering, the effects of quantum chromodynamics, including the contribution of s and c quarks were evaluated. 64 references. (JFP)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Langacker, P.; Kim, J.E.; Levine, M.; Williams, H.H. & Sidhu, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated Angular Momentum Recoupling Algebra

Description: We describe a code, RACAH, for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem is to find an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). RACAH is implemented on a MS-DOS microcomputer, using the SCHEME dialect of LISP. 6 refs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Williams, H. T. & Silbar, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

Description: This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system, and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S. & Williams, H. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of. nu. p. --> nu. p and anti. nu. p. -->. anti. nu. p elastic scattering. [Differential cross sections, systematic errors, coupling-constant constraints, form factors]

Description: There were 217 (66) events of the process ..nu..p..--> nu..p (anti ..nu..p..-->..anti..nu..p) with an estimated background of 82 (28). The neutral to charged current ratios are sigma(..nu..p..--> nu..p)/sigma(..nu..n..--> mu../sup -/p) = 0.11 +- 0.02 and sigma(anti ..nu..p ..-->.. anti ..nu..p)/sigma (anti ..nu..p ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/n) = 0.19 +- 0.05 for 0.40 < q/sup 2/ < 0.90 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ where -q/sup 2/ is the square of the four momentum transfer to the proton. These yield sigma(anti ..nu..p ..-->.. anti ..nu..p)(..nu..p..--> nu..p) = 0.53 +- 0.17. The errors quoted are statistical; systematic uncertainties are less than 20%. This value of the cross section ratio establishes at a level of approximately 2 1/2 standard deviations that the neutral current is neither pure V, A, T or any mixture of S and P. The present measurements place significant restrictions on the neutral current coupling constants, element of/sub L/(u), element of/sub L/(d), element of/sub R/(u), element of/sub R/(d). The allowed domains are presented including a discussion of the effect of systematic errors. 27 references
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Williams, H.H.; Entenberg, A.; Kozanecki, W.; Horstkotte, J.; Mann, A.K.; Rubbia, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selective Photothermolysis to target Sebaceous Glands: Theoretical Estimation of Parameters and Preliminary Results Using a Free Electron Laser

Description: The success of permanent laser hair removal suggests that selective photothermolysis (SP) of sebaceous glands, another part of hair follicles, may also have merit. About 30% of sebum consists of fats with copious CH2 bond content. SP was studied in vitro, using free electron laser (FEL) pulses at an infrared CH2 vibrational absorption wavelength band. Absorption spectra of natural and artificially prepared sebum were measured from 200 nm to 3000 nm, to determine wavelengths potentially able to target sebaceous glands. The Jefferson National Accelerator superconducting FEL was used to measure photothermal excitation of aqueous gels, artificial sebum, pig skin, human scalp and forehead skin (sebaceous sites). In vitro skin samples were exposed to FEL pulses from 1620 to 1720 nm, spot diameter 7-9.5 mm with exposure through a cold 4C sapphire window in contact with the skin. Exposed and control tissue samples were stained using H and E, and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride staining (NBTC) was used to detect thermal denaturation. Natural and artificial sebum both had absorption peaks near 1210, 1728, 1760, 2306 and 2346 nm. Laser-induced heating of artificial sebum was approximately twice that of water at 1710 and 1720 nm, and about 1.5x higher in human sebaceous glands than in water. Thermal camera imaging showed transient focal heating near sebaceous hair follicles. Histologically, skin samples exposed to {approx}1700 nm, {approx}100-125 ms pulses showed evidence of selective thermal damage to sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands were positive for NBTC staining, without evidence of selective loss in samples exposed to the laser. Epidermis was undamaged in all samples. Conclusions: SP of sebaceous glands appears to be feasible. Potentially, optical pulses at {approx}1720 nm or {approx}1210 nm delivered with large beam diameter and appropriate skin cooling in approximately 0.1 s may provide an alternative treatment for acne.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Fernanda Sakamoto, Apostolos Doukas, William Farinelli, Zeina Tannous, Michelle D. Shinn, Stephen Benson, Gwyn P. Williams, H. Dylla, Richard Anderson
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent results from the Brookhaven National Laboratory 7' bubble chamber

Description: In this presentation the equipment is briefly described and the method of analysis used for all events is reviewed. New results are then presented on the ratio of neutrino cross sections on neutrons to that on protons. One is reminded of the published event indicating an apparent $delta$S = -$delta$Q current. Finally, the parameters of all the other charged current events containing at least one strange particle are presented. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Cazzoli, E.G.; Cnops, A.M.; Connolly, P.L.; Murtagh, M.J.; Palmer, R.B.; Samios, N.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department