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Discovery of Apparent Inconsistency Between Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria and the Saltstone Performance Assessment

Description: The intent of this document is to provide an evaluation to determine if the discovered condition (apparent inconsistency between the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Saltstone PA) is within the assumptions, parameters, and bases of the approved PA and CA. If it is, then this document serves as the technical basis for authorizing the condition. If not, then, in order to authorize the activity, the PA and CA would need to be updated as appropriate and DOE approval sought of the update (special analysis or revision of the PA or CA).
Date: June 3, 2002
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Performance Assessment for Disposal of APT and CLWR/TEF Wastes at SRS

Description: This section provides the descriptive information for understanding the analyses presented in this preliminary performance assessment. This section addresses the approach taken in the PA, provides a general description of the Savannah River Site E-Area low-level waste facility, and discusses the performance criteria used for evaluating performance.
Date: October 26, 1998
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

E-Area Performance Assessment Interim Measures Assessment FY2003

Description: Projected impacts on disposal limits of various studies have been estimated. Interim measures to compensate for the impacts are needed for the Engineered Trench and the Intermediate Level Vault. Interim measures are due to projected decreases in the radionuclide disposal limits derived from the groundwater pathway as a result of the Aquifer Source Node study and consideration of potential artificial dilution caused by the large size of the grid elements in the Intermediate Level Vault groundwater model. Recently, it became evident that, in the development of the groundwater model for the Slit Trenches, the selection of aquifer source nodes (i.e., the spatial elements of the saturated zone model into which the flux of radionuclides from the unsaturated zone model is introduced) was not optimum6. Optimizing the source nodes would likely result in increases in the resulting groundwater concentrations, which would suggest that the radionuclide disposal limits should be reduced. However, other studies may result in increases in disposal limits 7. Therefore, a decision was made to develop and implement an annual summary of the potential impact of technical studies and other information on radionuclide disposal limits and whether mitigating measures should be imposed pending completion and implementation of the studies. This report is the first such summary.
Date: October 15, 2003
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

Description: Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect.
Date: October 15, 1999
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reevaluation of the Inadvertent Intruder, Groundwater, Air, and Radon Analyses for the Saltsone Disposal Facility

Description: The Special Analysis updates the inadvertent intruder analysis conducted in 1992 in support of the SDF RPA, extends the groundwater analysis to consider additional radionuclides, and provides an assessment of the air and radon emanation pathways.
Date: January 15, 2003
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Disposal of Lead in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

Description: Savannah River Site has received approval from SCDHEC for disposal of radioactively contaminated equipment with lead shielding or counterweights. The objective of this analysis was to document the technical basis for the administrative limit of 100,000 pounds approved by SCDHEC under alternative disposal strategies.
Date: May 10, 2002
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential Enhancement of the Saltstone Inadvertent Intruder Analysis

Description: In 2002, a Special Analysis (SA) was conducted to develop radionuclide disposal limits for low curie salt and other salt wastes in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). This Special Analysis was done to update the Saltstone Performance Assessment (PA), which had assumed that only waste from the In-Tank Precipitation process and the Effluent Treatment Facility would be disposed in Saltstone and to address requirements of the new DOE Waste Management Order.
Date: May 14, 2003
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Assessment Position Paper: Time for Compliance

Description: This study lays out the historical development of the time frame for a low-level waste disposal facility to demonstrate compliance with the DOE performance objectives and requirements. The study recommends that 1,000 years should be used as the time for compliance for all of the performance objectives and requirements (i.e., for the all-pathways, air pathway, radon emanation, water resource protection and inadvertent intruder analyses) for all low-level waste disposal facility performance assessments at the Savannah River Site.
Date: December 15, 2003
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Migration of transuranic nuclides in earthen burial trenches at the Savannah River Plant

Description: The objectives, incentives and benefits derived from the data collected at the Savannah River Laboratory on waste migration were discussed, and encapsulated transmission waste burial data were presented. Factors influencing radionuclide migration were characterized. A map of the burial ground was included. The trench sampling strategy was summarized. A description of the coring samples was included. Actual soil recovery results were tabulated, and a specific problem which reduced recoveries even when using a Shelby tube core was discussed. Data on waste strike distribution and activity as a function of depth were tabulated. The composition of recovered waste was tabulated. Wood and paper were well preserved in spite of long burial. Radiation of core samples was measured. The distribution of plutonium among soil particle sizes was determined.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Johnson, D.R. & Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of off-gases from a small-scale, joule-heated ceramic melter for nuclear waste vitrification. [Ru, Cl, F, /sup 137/Cs]

Description: This paper confirmed with actual nuclear waste the thermodynamic predictions of the fate of some of the semivolatiles in off-gas. Ruthenium behaves erratically and it is postulated that it migrates as a finely divided solid, rather than as a volatile oxide. Provisions for handling these waste off-gasses will be incorporated in the design of facilities for vitrifying SRP waste.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Woolsey, G.B. & Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance assessment review for Department of Energy

Description: The United State Department of Energy (US DOE) disposes of low-level radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities. Safety of the disposal operations is evaluated for operational safety as well as long-term safety. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation and may vary from a simple safety assessment to a safety analysis report. Long-term safety of all low-level waste disposal systems is evaluated through the conduct of a radiological performance assessment. The US DOE has established radiological performance objectives for disposal of low-level waste. They are to protect a member of the general public from receiving over 25 mrem/y, and an inadvertent intruder into the waste from receiving over 100 mrem/y continuous exposure or 400 mrem from a single exposure. For a disposal system to be acceptable, a performance assessment (PA) must be prepared which must be technically accurate and provide reasonable assurance that these performance objectives are met. Technical quality of the performance assessments is reviewed by a panel of experts. A number of lessons have been learned from conducting several preliminary reviews of performance assessments. These lessons are shared among the various US DOE sites to improve the process of evaluating low-level waste disposal sites for long-term performance.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance assessment review for Department of Energy

Description: The United State Department of Energy (US DOE) disposes of low-level radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities. Safety of the disposal operations is evaluated for operational safety as well as long-term safety. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation and may vary from a simple safety assessment to a safety analysis report. Long-term safety of all low-level waste disposal systems is evaluated through the conduct of a radiological performance assessment. The US DOE has established radiological performance objectives for disposal of low-level waste. They are to protect a member of the general public from receiving over 25 mrem/y, and an inadvertent intruder into the waste from receiving over 100 mrem/y continuous exposure or 400 mrem from a single exposure. For a disposal system to be acceptable, a performance assessment (PA) must be prepared which must be technically accurate and provide reasonable assurance that these performance objectives are met. Technical quality of the performance assessments is reviewed by a panel of experts. A number of lessons have been learned from conducting several preliminary reviews of performance assessments. These lessons are shared among the various US DOE sites to improve the process of evaluating low-level waste disposal sites for long-term performance.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Wilhite, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental effects of a tritium release from the Savannah River Plant

Description: On March 27, 1981, a small amount of tritiated water was inadvertently released from the tritium-processing facility during a routine maintenance operation. This report describes the environmental effects of this release both on the SRP site and offsite. Also, the operation of the WIND (Wind Information and Display) emergency response system during the incident is discussed, and the predicted and diagnosed behavior of the tritium plume is compared with tritium concentrations deduced from air, vegetation, soil, and bioassay samples.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Garrett, A.J.; Wilhite, E.L. & Buckner, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

Description: Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Clark, S.B. & Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

Description: Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Clark, S. B. & Wilhite, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste management and disposal at DOE facilities: Requirements, review process, and lessons learned

Description: Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, located at sites across the nation, generate large quantities and a wide variety of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from nuclear defense production and research and development activities. All DOE-generated LLRW is disposed of at DOE disposal sites. Most DOE waste generating sites do not have disposal facilities on site and so must ship their LLRW to one of six currently active DOE disposal locations. Four disposal sites are located in generally arid regions: the Hanford Reservation (HANF) in the state of Washington, the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. The other two disposal sites are located in the humid southeast: The Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Neuder, S. M. & Wilhite, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues in performance assessments for disposal of US Department of Energy low-level waste

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have long been pioneers in the field of radiological performance assessment (PA). Much effort has been expended in developing technology and acquiring data to facilitate the assessment process. This is reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management Chapter III of the Order lists policy and requirements to manage the DOEs low-level waste; performance objectives for low-level waste management are stated to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. A radiological PA is also required to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. DOE Order 5820.2A further requires that an Oversight and Peer Review Panel be established to ensure consistency and technical quality around the DOE complex in the development and application of PA models that include site-specific geohydrology and waste composition. The DOE has also established a Performance Assessment Task Team (PATT) to integrate the activities of sites that are preparing PAs. The PATT`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to DOE on issues that impact PAs so that the approaches taken are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Wood, D.E.; Wilhite, E.L. & Duggan, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Evolution of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Practices at the Savannah River Site Coupled with Vigorous Stakeholder Interaction

Description: Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal practices at SRS evolved from trench disposal with little long-term performance basis to disposal in robust concrete vaults, again without modeling long-term performance. Now, based on an assessment of long-term performance of various waste forms and methods of disposal, the LLW disposal program allows for a ''smorgasbord'' of various disposal techniques and waste forms, all modeled to ensure long-term performance is understood. New disposal techniques include components-in-grout, compaction/volume reduction prior to disposal, and trench disposal of extremely low activity waste. Additionally, factoring partition coefficient (Kd) measurements based on waste forms has been factored into performance models. This paper will trace the development of the different disposal methods, and the extensive public communications effort that resulted in endorsement of the changes by the SRS Citizens Advisory Board.
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Goldston, W. T.; Wilhite, E. L.; Cook, J. R. & Sauls, V. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Waste Processing Facility

Description: The information contained in this report is intended to supplement the original Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Since the original EIS in 1982, alterations have been made to he conceptual process that reduce the impact to the groundwater. This reduced impact is documented in this report along with an update of the understanding of seismology and geology of the Savannah River Site. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Haselow, J.S.; Wilhite, E.L. & Stieve, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant

Description: High-level nuclear wastes will be processed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to separate the high-level fraction from the low-level fraction. The separation will be accomplished in existing waste tanks by a process combining precipitation, adsorption, and filtration. The high-level fraction will be vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for disposal in a Federal repository. The low-level fraction, called decontaminated salt solution, will be mixed with a cement-fly ash blend. The resulting product, called saltstone, will be disposed onsite in an engineered disposal area. Laboratory testing of saltstone has shown the predominant mechanism for release of contaminants to the environment to be diffusion. The diffusion coefficient for nitrate has been determined to be 1.04 {plus minus} 0.09 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec. Field-testing of three 30-ton blocks of saltstone has been underweight since January 1984. Mathematical models, both analytical and numerical, have been applied to predict the impact of saltstone disposal on groundwater quality. Based on model predictions, the saltstone disposal area is designed to meet or exceed groundwater standards for all potential contaminants. Results of laboratory and field-testing and model results will be discussed. 2 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote experimental facility to solidify SRP high-level waste

Description: Small-scale equipment has been developed and installed in a remotely operated experimental facility at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to study immobilization of radioactive waste in glass. The facility has been in operation for nine months. During this period, two 25-liter batches of high-level waste from different SRP waste storage tanks were processed. The waste was boiled in sodium hydroxide to dissolve alumina trihydrate, washed with water to remove soluble salts, dried in a fluid-bed dryer, and vitrified in a joule-heated melter. Off-gases from the melter were collected for characterization.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Galloway, R.M.; Plodinec, M.J.; Wilhite, E.L. & Chismar, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

Description: A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B & B, Ferguson R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

Description: The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R. & Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department