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Impurity penetration and transport during VH-mode on DIII-D

Description: A new modeling effort is made in order to understand the observed relatively low levels of impurity contamination during the VH-mode phase on DIII-D, as compared to those observed during the H-mode phase of selected discharges. The key element is the inclusion of the real 2-D flux surface geometry in the prediction of impurity penetration of sputtered atoms through the scrape-off layer into the core plasma. Of the elements which determine the impurity content in the plasma: sputtering yield, penetration, and core transport, the penetration through the scrape-off layer is found to be the most determinative factor. The low impurity content in VH-mode is attributed to the development of a scrape-off layer with higher density and temperature properties than those normally obtained in H-mode.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Lippmann, S.I.; Evans, T.E.; Jackson, G.L. & West, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Divertor plasma studies on DIII-D: Experiment and modeling

Description: In a magnetically diverted tokamak, the scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor plasma provides separation between the first wall and the core plasma, intercepting impurities generated at the wall before they reach the core plasma. The divertor plasma can also serve to spread the heat and particle flux over a large area of divertor structure wall using impurity radiation and neutral charge exchange, thus reducing peak heat and particle fluxes at the divertor strike plate. Such a reduction will be required in the next generation of tokamaks, for without it, the divertor engineering requirements are very demanding. To successfully demonstrate a radiative divertor, a highly radiative condition with significant volume recombination must be achieved in the divertor, while maintaining a low impurity content in the core plasma. Divertor plasma properties are determined by a complex interaction of classical parallel transport, anomalous perpendicular transport, impurity transport and radiation, and plasma wall interaction. In this paper the authors describe a set of experiments on DIII-D designed to provide detailed two dimensional documentation of the divertor and SOL plasma. Measurements have been made in operating modes where the plasma is attached to the divertor strike plate and in highly radiating cases where the plasma is detached from the divertor strike plate. They also discuss the results of experiments designed to influence the distribution of impurities in the plasma using enhanced SOL plasma flow. Extensive modeling efforts will be described which are successfully reproducing attached plasma conditions and are helping to elucidate the important plasma and atomic physics involved in the detachment process.
Date: September 1996
Creator: West, W. P.; Brooks, N. H. & Allen, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of impurity spectroscopy in the divertor and SOL of DIII-D using the 1D multifluid model NEWT1D

Description: NEWT1D, a one dimensional multifluid model of the scrape-off layer and divertor plasma, has been used to model the plasma including the distribution of carbon ionization states in the SOL and divertor of ELMing H-mode at two injected power levels in DIII-D. Comparison of the code predictions to the measured divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma density and temperature shows good agreement. Comparison of the predicted line emissions to the spectroscopic data suggests that physically sputtered carbon from the strike point is not transported up the flux tube; a distributed source of carbon a few centimeters up the flux tube is required to achieve reasonable agreement.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: West, W.P.; Evans, T.E. & Brooks, N.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impurity enrichment and radiative enhancement using induced SOL flow in DIII-D

Description: Experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated the efficacy of using induced scrap-off-layer (SOL) flow to preferentially enrich impurities in the divertor plasma. This SOL floe is produced through simultaneous deuterium gas injection at the midplane and divertor exhaust. Using this SOL flow, an improvement in enrichment (defined as the ratio of impurity fraction in the divertor to that in the plasma core) has been observed for all impurities in trace-level experiments (i.e., impurity level is non-perturbative), with the degree of improvement increasing with impurity atomic number. In the case of argon, exhaust gas enrichment using modest SOL flow is as high as 17. Using this induced SOL flow technique and argon injection, radiative plasmas have been produced that combine high radiation losses (P{sub rad}/P{sub input} > 70%), low core fuel dilution (Z{sub eff} < 1.9), and good core confinement ({tau}{sub E} > 1.0 {tau}{sub E,ITER93H}).
Date: July 1998
Creator: Wade, M.R.; West, W.P. & Wood, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon influx in He and D plasmas in DIII-D

Description: Differences in the carbon behavior between He and D plasmas during VH-mode, L-mode and L-mode with excess gas puffing are reported and inferences on the importance of the various carbon sources during these modes of operation are discussed. During a VH-mode phase, VUV and visible charge exchange spectroscopy indicates that for both He and D operation the carbon behavior is very similar. In the edge plasma, carbon build up is quite rapid, and the carbon influx represents a large fraction of the total plasma density increase until the termination of the VH phase. During cold divertor operation induced by puffing the primary fueling gas, D and He discharges show a difference in the carbon behavior. The core carbon density is seen to be approximately constant during a D discharge as it transitions from an attached to a cold divertor. However in a He discharge, the core carbon density disappears soon after the cold divertor transition. Arguments are made that the primary carbon source in the ELM free H-mode period is physical sputtering by ion impact at the divertor strike point. In L-mode, both attached and cold divertor, the primary source is from the divertor region and two possibilities for this source are chemical sputtering or charge neutral sputtering. Existing data supports charge exchange neutrals as dominant.
Date: July 1998
Creator: West, W.P.; Brooks, N.H. & Fenstermacher, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS

Description: The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the ...
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E. & OLSON, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic pitch angle measurements on text using laser-enhanced attenuation of a Li beam

Description: The polarization of the {pi} component of the Zeeman split Li2P-2S transition allows a direct spectroscopic measurement of the local magnetic pitch angle. Li atoms are injected radially into TEXT as a 95 keV beam, and the intensity of the transmitted beam is detected. A polarization-modulated, cavity-dumped dye laser, tuned into resonance with the {pi} line, is injected collinearly with the beam. Laser excitation of the beam results in an enhanced beam attenuation. Time-resolved detection of the transmitted Li beam allows determination of the local magnetic pitch angle. Details of the system and results of recent measurements will be discussed. (3 refs.)
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: West, W.P.; McChesney, J.; Thomas, M.K. & Yang, X.Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of core impurity transport and accumulation in various operating regimes in DIII-D

Description: Impurity contaminants in the core plasma of future burning devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are inevitable and will undoubtedly have a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Unfortunately, because of the limited amount of information available, the models presently being used to predict ITER performance simply assume a flat concentration profile for all impurities with an ad hoc concentration chosen for each impurity. In an attempt to start closing the gap between present experimental data and these models, experiments have been conducted on DIII-D with particular emphasis placed on (1) characterizing the buildup of intrinsic impurities in the plasma core in various confinement and divertor regimes; (2) measuring the steady-state impurity density profiles in various operating regimes; and (3) determining whether impurity transport properties are dependent on the charge of the impurity. The primary focus of these studies has been on characterizing impurity buildup in a wide variety of operating conditions in ELMing H-mode plasmas. However, enhanced confinement regimes such as ELM-free H-mode, VH-mode, and the negative central shear (NCS) regime offer the potential of a more attractive reactor scenario. Since the degree of impurity accumulation will have a significant impact on the attractiveness of these regimes, studies have also been conducted to characterize impurity buildup in these regimes. In the present configuration of DIII-D in which graphite tiles cover {approximately} 90% of the plasma facing surface, spectroscopic surveys show carbon to be the dominant impurity with the core carbon concentration typically between 1--3% of the electron density.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Wade, M.R.; Whyte, D.G.; Wood, R.D. & West, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suppression of erosion in the DIII-D divertor with detached plasmas

Description: The ability to withstand disruptions makes carbon-based materials attractive for use as plasma-facing components in divertors. However, such materials suffer high erosion rates during attached plasma operation which, in high power long pulse machines, would give short component lifetimes and high tritium inventories. The authors present results from recent experiments in DIII-D, in which the Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES) was used to examine erosion and deposition during short exposures to well defined plasma conditions. These studies show that during operation with detached plasmas, produced by gas injection, net erosion is suppressed everywhere in the divertor. Net deposition of carbon with deuterium was observed at the inner and outer strikepoints and in the private-flux region between strikepoints. For these low temperature plasmas (T{sub e} &lt; 2eV), physical sputtering is eliminated. These results show that with detached plasmas, the location of carbon net erosion and the carbon impurity source, probably lies outside the divertor. Physical or chemical sputtering by charge-exchange neutrals or ions in the main plasma chamber is a probable source of carbon under these plasma conditions.
Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: Wampler, William R.; Bastasz, Robert J.; Whyte, D. G.; Wong, C. P. C. & West, W. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen isotope retention in B{sub 4}C coating on RGT graphite under high heat fluxes of DIII-D divertor plasma

Description: The results of the investigation of retention and thermal desorption of hydrogen isotopes of B{sub 4}C coated RGT (a recrystallized graphite with high thermal conductivity, 600 W/mK) after the exposure to high heat flux in the divertor strike point region of DIII-D using the DiMES sample exchange system are reported. It is shown that the material is very promising for plasma facing elements of tokamaks.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Opimach, I.V.; Buzhinskij, O.I.; West, W.P. & Wampler, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Performance Plasma Operation on DIII-D During Extended Periods Without Boronization

Description: High performance plasmas, including both hybrid and advanced tokamak (AT) bench-mark discharges, were shown to be highly repeatable in DIII-D over 6000 plasma-seconds of operation during the 2006 campaign with no intervening boron depositions or high temperature bakes. Hybrid and AT discharges with identical control targets were repeated after the initial boronization at the beginning of the 2006 campaign, and again just before and after a second boronization near the end of the 2006 campaign. After a long entry vent between the 2006 and 2007 campaigns, similar discharges were again repeated after the standard high temperature baking and plasma cleanup, but prior to a boronization. Performance metrics, such as {beta}, confinement quality, and density control, were extremely well repeated. A low performance daily reference shot (DRS) was also established as a routine monitor of impurity influx. Over the 2006 campaign, the DRS database indicated little to no secular increase in impurity content. Oxygen content and Ni line emission were higher after the intervening vent, but were still minor contributors to plasma contamination. This indicates that erosion of boron films used for wall conditioning will not be a limitation to establishing long pulse high performance discharges in the new generation of superconducting tokamaks if graphite is used as the primary plasma facing material. These results contrast with recent work in devices using high-Z metallic plasma facing materials, where very frequent refreshing of boron films is required for high performance plasma operation.
Date: June 27, 2007
Creator: West, W P; Groth, M; Hyatt, A W; Jackson, G L; Wade, M R; Greenfield, C M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct measurement of divertor exhaust neo enrichment in DIII-D

Description: We report first direct measurements of divertor exhaust gas impurity enrichment, {eta}{sub exh}=(exhaust impurity concentration){divided_by}(core impurity concentration), for both unpumped and D{sub 2} puff-with-divertor-pump conditions. The experiment was performed with neutral beam heated, ELMing H-mode, single-null diverted deuterium plasmas with matched core and exhaust parameters in the DIII-D tokamak. Neon gas impurity was puffed into the divertor. Neon density was measured in the exhaust by a specially modified Penning gauge and in the core by absolute charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. Neon particle accounting indicates that much of the puffed neon entered a temporary unmeasured reservoir, inferred to be the graphite divertor target, which makes direct measurements necessary to calculate divertor enrichments. D{sub 2} puff into the SOL (scrape-off layer) with pumping increased {eta}{sub exh} threefold over either unpumped conditions or D{sub 2} puff directly into the divertor with pumping. These results show that SOL flow plays an important role in divertor exhaust impurity enrichment.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Schaffer, M.J.; Wade, M.R.; Maingi, R.; Monier-Garbet, P.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

METHANE PENTRATION IN DIII-D ELMing H-MODE PLASMAS

Description: Carbon penetration into the core plasma during midplane and divertor methane puffing has been measured for DIII-D ELMing H-mode plasmas. The methane puffs are adjusted to a measurable signal, but global plasma parameters are only weakly affected (line average density, &lt;n{sub e}&gt; increases by &lt; 10%, energy confinement time, {tau}{sub E} drops by &lt; 10%). The total carbon content is derived from C{sup +6} density profiles in the core measured as a function of time using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The methane penetration factor is defined as the difference in the core content with the puff on and puff off, divided by the carbon confinement time and the methane puffing rate. In ELMing H-mode discharges with ion {del}B drift direction into the X-point, increasing the line averaged density from 5 to 8 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} dropped the penetration factor from 6.6% to 4.6% for main chamber puffing. The penetration factor for divertor puffing was below the detection limit (&lt;1%). Changing the ion {del}B drift direction to away from the X-point decreased the penetration factor by more than a factor of five for main chamber puffing.
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: WEST, W.P.; LASNIER, C.J.; WHYTE, D.G.; ISLER, R.C.; EVANS, T.E.; JACKSON, G.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of divertor impurity concentrations on DIII-D

Description: Carbon emissions in the DIII-D divertor during partial detachment have been measured, and the deduced radiated power and the temporal behavior of the impurity emissions from spectroscopy are in good agreement with bolometer measurements. Effective electron temperatures from line ratios for CIV (9-11 eV) and CIII (6-8 eV) are correlated with DTS measured electron temperatures to determine the spatial location of the carbon radiation zone. During PDD operation, the bulk of the divertor radiation is emitted from CIV near the X- point while deuterium radiation is strongest near the outer strikepoint. The carbon ion concentrations are in the range of 1% - 4% of the electron density.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Wood, R.; Isler, R. C.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of wall conditions in DIII-D

Description: Wall conditioning in DIII-D is one of the most important factors in achieving reproducible high confinement discharges. For example, the very high confinement mode (VH-mode) was only discovered after boronization, a CVD technique to deposit a thin boron film over the entire surface of the tokamak. In order to evaluate wall conditions and provide a data base to correlate these wall conditions with tokamak discharge performance, a series of nominally identical reference VH-mode discharges (1.6 MA, 2.1 T, double-null diverted) were taken at various times during a series of experimental campaigns with evolving wall conditions. These reference discharges have allowed a quantitative determination of how the wall conditions have evolved. For instance, core carbon and oxygen levels in the VH-mode phase remains at historically low levels during the 1995 run year and there was also a steady decrease in the oxygen levels at plasma initiation during this period. The authors discuss the long term changes in low Z impurities and the effect of wall conditioning techniques such as boronization and baking on these impurities. In addition, the evolution of the deuterium recycling rates will be discussed.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Holtrop, K.L.; Jackson, G.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Lee, R.L.; West, W.P.; Wood, R.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First measurements of the ion energy distribution at the divertor strike point during DIII-D disruptions

Description: Plasma/wall interaction studies are being carried out using the Divertor Materials Exposure System (DiMES) on DIII-D. The objective of the experiment is to determine the kinetic energy and flux of deuterium ions reaching the divertor target during argon-induced radiative disruptions. The experiment utilizes a special slotted ion analyzer mounted over a Si sample to collect the fast charge-exchange (CX) deuterium neutrals emitted within the recycled cold neutral layer (CNL) which serves as a CX target for the incident ions. A theoretical interpretation of the experiment reveals a strong forward pitch-angle dependence in the approaching ion distribution function. The depth distribution of the trapped D in the Si sample was measured using low-energy direct recoil spectroscopy. Comparison with the TRIM code using monoenergetic ions indicated that the best fit to the data was obtained for an ion energy of 100 eV.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Parks, P.B.; Brooks, N.H.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First measurements of the ion energy distribution at the divertor strike point during DIII-D disruptions

Description: Plasma disruptions are a serious concern in tokamak design because of the high impulsive heat loads which can cause strong erosion of divertor materials due to enhanced sputtering, or melting/ablation in the most severe cases. Predictions of net erosion rates and hence component lifetimes are very difficult and are highly dependent on the plasma conditions over the divertor target. It is therefore necessary to characterize the properties of the scrape-off plasma near the divertor target plate under these special conditions. Here, plasma/wall interaction studies are being carried out using the Divertor Materials Exposure System (DiMES) on DIII-D. The objective of the experiment is to determine the kinetic energy and flux of deuterium ions reaching the divertor target during argon-induced radiative disruptions. The experiment utilizes a special slotted ion analyzer mounted over a Si sample to collect the fast charge-exchange (CX) deuterium neutrals emitted within the recycled cold neutral layer (CNL) which serves as a CX target for the incident ions. A theoretical interpretation of the experiment reveals a strong forward pitch-angle dependence in the approaching ion distribution function. The depth distribution of the trapped D in the Si sample was measured using low-energy direct recoil spectroscopy. Comparison with the TRIM code using monoenergetic ions indicated that the best fit to the data was obtained for an ion energy of 100 eV. An estimate of the CNL thickness {integral}nd{ell} indicates that during disruptions the CNL cushion is thick enough to reduce the local ion heat load by {approximately}30% due to CX refluxing.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Parks, P. B.; Brooks, N. H.; West, W. P.; Wong, C. P. C.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of particle fueling and plasma wall interactions on DIII-D discharges

Description: DIII-D has successfully operated with an all-graphite first wall, including the first observations of VH-mode without boronization. A major goal of this, and other recent upgrades, was to control impurity influxes and hydrogenic fueling. Graphite tiles were carefully pre-conditioned, first by ex situ preparation and then by baking and helium glow conditioning. No deuterium or hydrogen was used until tokamak operation commenced. With the all graphite wall, both impurity and deuterium influxes during tokamak discharges were lower than previous boronized discharges; central nickel impurity line radiation, NiXXV and NiXXVI, was an order of magnitude lower than previous discharges during the ELM free beam heated phase. The effect of reduced particle fueling on plasma performance, particularly H- and VH-mode discharges, will be presented.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Jackson, G.L.; Baker, D.R.; Holtrop, K.L.; Staebler, G.M.; West, W.P.; Maingi, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of a radiative mantle in ITER

Description: We report results of a study to evaluate the efficacy of various impurities for heat dispersal by a radiative mantle and radiative divertor(including SOL). We have derived a stability criterion for the mantle radiation which favors low Z impurities and low ratios of edge to core thermal conductivities. Since on the other hand the relative strength of boundary line radiation to core bremsstrahlung favors high Z impurities, we find that for the ITER physics phase argon is the best gaseous impurity for mantle radiation. For the engineering phase of ITER, more detailed analysis is needed to select between krypton and argon.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Mahdavi, M.A.; Staebler, G.M.; Wood, R.D.; Whyte, D.G. & West, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Erosion results from DiMES and design implications to ITER and Starlite

Description: Using the DiMES mechanism at DIII-D, erosion rates of graphite, and metallic coatings of Be, V, Mo, and W have been measured under different plasma operating conditions. The measured net erosion rate for C is substantial (16 nm/s) during ELMing H-mode at a heat flux of 2 MW/m{sup 2}. Measured gross erosion rates of the metals are lower than expected from sputtering yields, most likely due to heavy surface contamination by carbon. The measured erosion of W is substantially lower than the other materials, and when account is taken for redeposition, it is shown to be a viable candidate for the Starlite reactor`s divertor.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Wong, C. P. C.; West, W. P.; Bastaz, R. J.; Whyte, D. G. & Wampler, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic measurements of impurity temperatures and parallel ion flows in the DIII-D divertor

Description: Impurity ion temperatures and parallel flow velocities in the DIII-D divertor have been measured from the shapes and shifts of visible spectral lines of C II, C III, and B II. Spectral multiplet patterns are analyzed by fitting them to theoretical profiles that incorporate exact calculations for the Zeeman/Paschen-Back effect. Ion temperatures range from 4--20 eV. Both normal flows toward the target plate and reversed flows away from the target plate are observed in the outer divertor leg; only flows toward the plate are detected in the inner leg.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Isler, R.C.; Brooks, N.H.; West, W.P.; Leonard, A.W.; McKee, G.R. & Porter, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Divertor materials evaluation system (DiMES)

Description: The mission of the Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES) in DIII-D is to establish an integrated data base from measurements in the divertor of a tokamak in order to address some of the ITER and fusion power reactor plasma material interaction issues. Carbon and metal coatings of Be, W, V, and Mo were exposed to the steady-state outer strike point on DIII-D for 4--18 s. These short exposure times ensure controlled exposure conditions, and the extensive arrays of DIII-D divertor diagnostics provide a well-characterized plasma for modeling efforts. Post-exposure analysis provides a direct measure of surface material erosion rates and the amount of retained deuterium. For carbon, these results match closely with the results of accumulated carbon deposition and erosion, and the corresponding deuterium retention of long term exposure tiles in DIII-D. Under the carbon-contaminated background plasma of DIII-D, metal coatings of Be, V, Mo, and W were exposed to the steady-state outer strike point under ELMing and ELM-free H-mode discharges. The rate of material erosion and deuterium retention were measured. As expected, W shows the lowest erosion rate at 0.1 mm/s and the lowest deuterium uptake of 2 {times} 10{sup 20}/m{sup 2}.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Wong, C. P. C.; West, W. P.; Whyte, D. G.; Bastasz, R. J.; Brooks, J. & Wampler, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative comparisons between experimentally measured 2-D carbon radiation and Monte Carlo impurity (MCI) code simulations

Description: Experimentally measured carbon line emissions and total radiated power distributions from the DIII-D divertor and Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) are compared to those calculated with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) model. A UEDGE background plasma is used in MCI with the Roth and Garcia-Rosales (RG-R) chemical sputtering model and/or one of six physical sputtering models. While results from these simulations do not reproduce all of the features seen in the experimentally measured radiation patterns, the total radiated power calculated in MCI is in relatively good agreement with that measured by the DIII-D bolometric system when the Smith78 physical sputtering model is coupled to RG-R chemical sputtering in an unaltered UEDGE plasma. Alternatively, MCI simulations done with UEDGE background ion temperatures along the divertor target plates adjusted to better match those measured in the experiment resulted in three physical sputtering models which when coupled to the RG-R model gave a total radiated power that was within 10% of measured value.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; West, W.P.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E. & Porter, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES)

Description: The mission of the Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES) in DIII-D is to establish an integrated data base from measurements in the divertor of a tokamak in order to address some of the ITER and fusion power reactor plasma material interaction issues. Carbon and metal coatings of Be, W, V, and Mo were exposed to the steady-state outer strike point on DIII-D for 4-18 s. These short exposure times ensure controlled exposure conditions, and the extensive arrays of DIII-D divertor diagnostics provide a well-characterized plasma for modeling efforts. Postexposure analysis provides a direct measure of surface material erosion rates and the amount of retained deuterium. For carbon, these results match closely with the results of accumulated carbon deposition and erosion, and the corresponding deuterium retention of long term exposure tiles in DIII-D. Deuterium retention of different materials was measured using the {sup 3}He(d,p) {sup 4}He nuclear reaction. For carbon, these measurements showed peak deuterium areal density of about 8 {times} 10 {sup 18} D/cm{sup 2} in a co-deposited layer about 6 {micro}m deep, mainly at the usually detached inboard divertor leg. That layer of carbon near the inner divertor strike point has an atomic saturation concentration of D/C {approx} 0.25, which is not significantly lower than the laboratory-measured saturation retention of 0.4. Under the carbon contaminated background plasma of DIII-D, metal coatings of Be, V, Mo, and W were exposed to the steady state outer strike point under ELMing and ELM-free H-mode discharges. The rate of material erosion and tritium retention were measured. As expected, W shows the lowest erosion rate at 0.1 nm/s and the lowest deuterium uptake.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Wong, C. P.; West, W. P.; Whyte, D. G.; Bastasz, R. J.; Brooks, J. & Wampler, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department