33 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Cassette blanket and vacuum building: key elements in fusion reactor maintenance

Description: The integration of two concepts important to fusion power reactors is discussed. The first concept is the vacuum building which improves upon the current fusion reactor designs. The second concept, the use of the cassette blanket within the vacuum building environment, introduces four major improvements in blanket design: cassette blanket module, zoning concept, rectangular blanket concept, and internal tritium recovery. (MHR)
Date: October 3, 1977
Creator: Werner, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic significance of Q for mirror reactors: combinations of Q and M which look promising

Description: This term Q is the ratio of the fusion powder produced to the power input. It is a driven device. Q is truly the success parameter for mirrors--widely discussed but not succinctly specified as to required value. The problem is that Q can be treated as a subjective parameter--there are many milestone Qs; for scientific demonstration, for breakeven power, etc. Yet for a successful reactor, there is only one Q and that is the Q which produces mirror fusion power at the busbar that is less than the cost of delivered power in mills/kwhr by other means. We call this Q/sub PRACTICAL/ and believe there is a convincing argument that says this Q/sub PRACTICAL/ can be about 5.0 even assuming modest efficiencies for system components. A direct convertor is necessary. If the direct convertor were deleted, a Q/sub PRACTICAL/ of approximately 7.5 would be required. If we wish to soften the value of Q further, then the technical logic for the fusion fission hybrid is very powerful. With the hybrid a Q/sub PRACTICAL/ of 1.5 to 2.0 appears to be a very reasonable value. The key in being able to specify values of Q/sub PRACTICAL/ lies in economically comparing the capital cost of fusion power to the sum of the capital cost and the present value of all the fuel costs for the competitive fuel intensive plants.
Date: September 11, 1978
Creator: Werner, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

Description: This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. (MOW)
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Werner, R.W. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cumulative fuel commitment for light water reactors: is there a uranium crunch. The fusion-fission fuel factory can help

Description: It can cautiously be stated that there is not an imminent U.S. uranium crunch, because the installed capacity of fission reactors to 1990 is less than was anticipated. We have time for careful judgment and deliberation. We probably have until at least the year 2000 before beginning the phasing-in of a new technology to augment or replace the light water reactor. Consequently the fusion-fission hybrid appears to have strong potential as a fuel factory supplying fuel to the LWR industry. The hybrid relaxes some of the physics and engineering constraints on pure fusion and should be available somewhat sooner. The hybrid also integrates into the energy plan by supporting fission rather than replacing it. The hybrid seems like a good interface between the eventual pure fusion reactor and fission. The easing of the fission fuel demand under that which was anticipated, coupled with the high probability that available uranium resources are proportional to the price paid per pound (within limits) are likely, more than currently stated, serving to fusion's advantage by buying time for development.
Date: September 11, 1978
Creator: Werner, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blanket maintenance by remote means using the cassette blanket approach

Description: Induced radioactivity in the blanket and other parts of a fusion reactor close to the plasma zone will dictate remote assembly, disassembly, and maintenance procedures. Time will be of the essence in these procedures. They must be practicable and certain. This paper discusses the reduction of a complicated Tokamak reactor to a simpler assembly via the use of a vacuum building in which to house the reactor and the introduction in this new model of cassette blanket modules. The cassettes significantly simplify remote handling.
Date: May 18, 1978
Creator: Werner, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORNL fusion power demonstration study: the concept of the cassette blanket

Description: The cassette blanket introduces four major improvements in fusion reactor blanket design. These are: (1) the cassette itself which by design furnishes the key unit for simplification of blanket replacement and maintenance and also isolates the lithium moderator from the plasma by enveloping it in the coolant; (2) the concept of blanket zoning, which uses to advantage the fact that radiation damage to structure decreases exponentially with distance. With the use of cassettes in series, only the front fraction of the blanket, the first cassette, need be changed due to damage over the life of the plant; (3) the rectangular blanket concept, which recognizes that blankets must envelop the plasma but need not conform to plasma shape. With this rectangular geometry, cassettes may be installed or removed by simple linear motion between magnet coils; (4) internal tritium recovery, which uses a favorable temperature gradient and ''MHD-frozen'' lithium to diffuse tritium out of the cassette. Supporting calculations and illustrative cases are provided for these four areas using two coolants: helium and HITEC, a eutectic mixture of inorganic salts (potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, and sodium nitrite).
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Werner, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat pipes for use in a magnetic field

Description: A heat pipe configuration is described for use in a magnetic field environment of a fusion reactor. Heat pipes for operation in a magnetic field when liquid metal working fluids are used are optimized by flattening of the heat pipes having an unobstructed annulus which significantly reduces the adverse side region effect of the prior known cylindrically configured heat pipes. The flattened heat pipes operating in a magnetic field can remove 2 to 3 times the heat as a cylindrical heat pipe of the same cross sectional area.
Date: April 29, 1981
Creator: Werner, R.W. & Hoffman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-cooled, Li/sub 2/O moderator/breeder canister blanket for fusion-synfuels

Description: A new integrated power and breeding blanket is described. The blanket incorporates features that make it suitable for synthetic fuel production. It is matched to the thermal and electrical requirements of the General atomic water-splitting process for producing hydrogen. The fusion reaction is the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR) using Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) physics. The canister blanket is a high temperature, pressure balanced, cross-flow heat exchanger contained within a low activity, independently cooled, moderate temperature, first wall structural envelope. The canister uses Li/sub 2/O as the moderator/breeder and helium as the coolant. In situ tritium control, combined with slip stream processing and self-healing permeation barriers, assures a hydrogen product essentially free of tritium. The blanket is particularly adapted to synfuels production but is equally useful for electricity production or co-generation.
Date: March 24, 1983
Creator: Werner, R.W. & Hoffman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Producing thermochemical hydrogen with the tandem-mirror reactor

Description: Fusion power holds the promise to supply not only electricity but also fuels to meet the balance of our energy needs. A new integrated power and breeding blanket design is described for tandem mirror reactors. The blanket incorporates features that make it suitable for synthetic fuel production. In particular, it is matched to the thermal and electrical power requirements of the General Atomic water-splitting process for production of hydrogen. Some improvements to the high temperature chemical process steps are described. These improvements are expected to allow production of hydrogen at about $13/GJ wholesale, including financing costs, capital amortization, and profit.
Date: May 7, 1982
Creator: Werner, R.W. & Hickman, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimizing the heat pipe for operation in a magnetic field when liquid-metal working fluids are used

Description: A novel method for reducing the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drops in the liquid metal flow in a heat pipe wick is described. By flattening the heat pipe, the eddy current return path in the metallic heat pipe wall is inreased significantly, thereby increasing the effective wall resistance. This, in turn, reduces the magnitude of the MHD pressure drop. The same principle can also be applied to flows of liquid metal coolants in a magnetic field.
Date: May 18, 1981
Creator: Werner, R.W. & Hoffman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the tandem mirror reactor and thermochemical cycles

Description: This report examines, for technical merit, the combination of a fusion reactor driver and a thermochemical plant as a means for producing synthetic fuel in the basic form of hydrogen. We studied: (1) one reactor type - the Tandem Mirror Reactor - wishing to use to advantage its simple central cell geometry and its direct electrical output; (2) two reactor blanket module types - a liquid metal cauldron design and a flowing Li/sub 2/O solid microsphere pellet design so as to compare the technology, the thermal-hydraulics, neutronics and tritium control in a high-temperature operating mode (approx. 1200 K); (3) three thermochemical cycles - processes in which water is used as a feedstock along with a high-temperature heat source to produce H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/.
Date: January 21, 1981
Creator: Ribe, F.L. & Werner, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the Tandem Mirror Reactor and thermochemical cycles

Description: This volume contains the following sections: (1) the Tandem Mirror fusion driver, (2) the Cauldron blanket module, (3) the flowing microsphere, (4) coupling the reactor to the process, (5) the thermochemical cycles, and (6) chemical reactors and process units. (MOW)
Date: January 21, 1981
Creator: Werner, R.W. & Ribe, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor

Description: The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO/sub 3/ Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Galloway, T.R. & Werner, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal analysis of a helium-cooled, tube-bank blanket module for a tandem-mirror fusion reactor

Description: A blanket module concept for the central cell of a tandem mirror reactor is described which takes advantage of the excellent heat transfer and low pressure drop characteristics of tube banks in cross-flow. The blanket employs solid Li/sub 2/O as the tritium breeding material and helium as the coolant. The lithium oxide is contained in tubes arranged within the submodules as a two-pass, cross-flow heat exchanger. Primarily, the heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic aspects of the blanket design study are described in this paper. In particular, the analytical model used for selection of the best tube-bank design parameters is discussed in some detail.
Date: January 10, 1983
Creator: Werner, R.W.; Hoffman, M.A. & Johnson, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-pipe liquid-pool-blanket concept for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

Description: The blanket concept for the tandem mirror reactor described in this paper was developed to produce the medium temperature heat (approx. 850 to 950 K) for the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical process for producing hydrogen. This medium temperature heat from the blanket constitutes about 81% of the total power output of the fusion reactor.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W. & Johnson, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department