53 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

The Use of Systematic Desensitization in the Prevention of Pervasive Anxiety

Description: This investigation was concerned with the potential effectiveness of systematic desensitization as a technique in the prevention of pervasive anxiety. It was hypothesized for investigatory purposes, that if two specific, potentially anxiety-evoking stimuli could be pre-desensitized, this would be strongly suggestive that pre-desensitization programs might also prove successful in the prevention of pervasive anxiety.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Jaremko, Matthew E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of a Program of Operant Conditioning of Autonomically Mediated Behavior on Manifest Anxiety

Description: The purpose of this experiment was to initiate research into the use of operant conditioning of autonomically mediated behavior (OCAM) in the modification of maladaptive behavior. Anxiety was chosen as a target behavior because of its apparent pervasiveness among many different maladaptive behaviors.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Noblitt, James R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness of Secondary Reinforcement on the Behavior of a Hyperactive Child

Description: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various secondary reinforcers on the behavior of a hyperactive child. A base rate of appropriate behavior was obtained in a first-grade classroom. The operant techniques employed were secondary reinforcers consisting of monetary reinforcement; monetary paired with peer reinforcement; monetary, peer, and verbal reinforcement combined; and verbal reinforcement only.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Payton, Tommy I.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Free Time as a Positive Reinforcer in the Management of Study Behavior in an Aversive Educational Environment

Description: The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the use of free time as a positive reinforcer in the management of study behavior in an aversive educational environment. It was hypothesized that the presentation of free time contingent upon completion of the study assignment would result in maintained study behavior and reduced student absenteeism.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Morriss, Stephen H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment of Overweight by Avoidance Conditioning

Description: This study investigated the effectiveness of aversion therapy to help subjects achieve and maintain a weight loss. The aversion therapy made use of an avoidance conditioning procedure. Slides of fattening foods were paired with the possibility of receiving an electric shock in an attempt to induce anxiety. Slides of non-fattening foods were paired with shock avoidance and consequent anxiety relief.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Petty, Gary L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Elimination of Stereotyped Behavior, Employing Contingent Withdrawal and Representation of a Positively Reinforcing Stimulus

Description: An attempt was made in this study to eliminate the body rocking behavior of a twenty-three-year-old totally blind male, individual, presently classified as moderately retarded. Consequences were placed upon, rocking behavior in seven experimental phases, employing time-out from a positively reinforcing stimulus as a punisher. More specifically, apparatus were designed in such a manner that rocking would result in elimination of the auditory and visual portion of a television, and in a later phase, the auditory portion of a transistor radio.
Date: December 1972
Creator: DeFoore, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Shaping Appropriate Verbal Responses in a Social Situation With a Withdrawn Retarded Adolescent

Description: "Shaping" or "method of successive approximation" is a procedure which may be applied to increase the frequency of a response which has a low operant level, or it may also be used to bring about responses which have not been previously emitted. In "shaping," the experimenter initially reinforces a response which is within the behavorial repertoire of the subject. Then, the experimenter reinforces only responses which approximate the behavior which is desired. The final behavior is then directly reinforced.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Thompson, James N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Anxiety Relief Conditioning: a Critical Review and Supportive Experiment

Description: An experiment was conducted to separate the effects of anxiety relief conditioning from other variables which may be operative within that paradigm. A review of the literature revealed that no definitive investigations had been conducted, and critiques of these investigations were offered. Also, the distinction between aversion relief and anxiety relief conditioning procedures was detailed.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Turnage, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Allergen Research and Its Implications for Psychology: History, Current Status, and Prospectus

Description: The purpose of this manuscript was to present a brief history, the current status, and a prospectus of allergen and allergic reactions. Research on allergic reactions, particularly as viewed from the psychogenic position, was presented. The review strongly suggests that the psychogenic orientation has been frought with contradictions, unnecessarily complex interpretations, and an over-abundance of subjective, dynamic, and analytic redundancies which have done little more than perpetuate the stagnation of a rather important subdomain of the "mental" health professions.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Arnold, J. Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries

Behavior Rehearsal Combined with Anxiety Relief Conditioning : A New Assertion Training Paradigm and Its Relative Efficacy

Description: An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative effectiveness of a combined behavior rehearsal anxiety relief conditioning paradigm with a more conventional behavioral rehearsal program in the treatment of deficient assertive behavior.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Arnold, Bill R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relative Efficacy of Positive Expectancy Versus No Expectancy in the Use of Anxiety-Relief Conditioning

Description: An experiment was conducted to study the role of "positive expectancy" when utilizing anxiety-relief conditioning. Fourteen male and female undergraduate psychology students were selected as subjects (Ss), based on pre-test scores obtained on the "Snake Intimacy Test" (SIT). Ss were matched according to pre-SIT scores and randomly assigned to the "positive expectancy" or "no expectancy" groups. Anxiety relief conditioning was administered without variation. Only the rationale given each group describing what was transpiring was different. The statistical results revealed significant improvement by both groups. Also, the "positive expectancy" group improved significantly over the "no expectancy" group. Therefore, "positive expectancy" is apparently a sufficient, but not necessary, variable of anxiety-relief conditioning.
Date: December 1973
Creator: McKown, Stanley Earl
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Application of Auditory Stimuli as Fading Prompts in Discrimination Training

Description: An experiment was conducted to examine the functionality of using auditory stimuli in isolation as fading stimuli. A review of the literature revealed very few reports regarding the usage of the auditory modality for fading purposes. The study employed auditory prompts as fading stimuli in the transfer of stimulus control across stimulus modalities, specifically, the transfer of stimulus control from auditory to visual stimulus properties. A single subject was employed for the experiment. The results were that the intensity of the auditory stimulus was an ineffective dimension to use for fading operations in the transfer of stimulus control across stimulus modalities, Further investigation is needed regarding the conditions that limit the transfer of stimulus control when auditory prompts are employed as fading stimuli.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Perlman, Neal S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Religiosity Upon Anxiety

Description: A problem that has interested the writer is the effect of religion upon mental health. Are very religious people more or less healthy than not-so religious people? Could there be no relationship between degree of religiosity and mental well-being? Some of the reviewed literature seemed to show that religion may reduce anxiety (Cole & Spurgeon, 1960, Cooley & Hutton, 1965), other studies showed no relationship between them (Bradbury, 1967, Glass, 1955), while some experiments indicated that religious individuals showed poor mental health (Dunn, 1965, Rokeach, 1960). The study presented herein is an attempt to further delineate the effect of religion upon mental stability or, more specifically, anxiety. Religion may involve many dimensions rather than just one specific aspect. For the aforementioned reason, the present study considered the ideological, intellectual, experiential, ritualistic, and consequential aspects of religion. The relationship of anxiety to these variables was studied. Finally, the writer attempted to observe the effect of religious affiliation upon anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to (1) consider the empirical relationship of religiosity to anxiety among the low, medium, and high religious groups, and to (2) determine if different religious affiliations have a significant or non-significant relationship to anxiety scores. A questionnaire developed by Falkner and Jong (1963) was employed to measure religiosity. The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale was used to gauge anxiety.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Golden, Kenneth Herbert
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Experimental Analysis of the Efficacy of Anxiety-Relief Conditioning

Description: One of the newer techniques to be utilized in the treatment of a variety of behavioral disorders is anxiety-relief conditioning (Thorpe, Schmidt, Brown, and Castell, 1964; Solyom and Miller, 1967; Wolpe and Lazarus, 1966). In its theoretical formulation, reciprocal inhibition by anxiety-relief is similar to Wolpe's reciprocal inhibition by progressive relaxation (Solyom and Miller, 1967). Whereas Wolpe's method utilizes Jacobsonian relaxation principles to provide the medium through which anxiety is reciprocally inhibited, the procedure employed in anxiety-relief conditioning utilizes the relief following termination of an aversive stimulus to set an occasion which will permit reciprocal inhibition to take place. Many of the problems encountered in relaxation induction and control are thus avoided (Wolpe, 1958; Thorpe et al., 1964). Anxiety-relief conditioning appears to have been successful in patients that previously had been unsuccessfully treated by psychotherapy and chemotherapy for as long as 20 years (Myers, 1957; Thorpe et al., 1964; Solyom and Miller, 1967). Solyom and Miller reported successfully treating six of seven phobic patients who complained of severe depression, difficulty in interpersonal relationships and anxiety attacks when meeting people, as well as excessive fear of crowded places. These patients had an average length of illness of 11.1 years, ranging from 2 to 20 years. Patients were treated for a mean of 19.5 sessions with no evidence of symptom substitution or reappearance of the phobic fear upon follow-up (Solyom and Miller, 1967). Although the authors cited above have all reported case studies of successful therapeutic applications of anxiety-relief conditioning techniques, there have been few experimental studies of the efficacy of this technique. A recent experiment failed to refute the hypothesis that noxious stimulation and/or habituation, rather than aversion-relief, contribute to the beneficial therapeutic effects noted. This study left unanswered the question of which variables contribute to aversion-relief conditioning (Solyom, L., McClure, ...
Date: December 1973
Creator: Vance, Ivan Noel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Partial Reinforcement in Frontalis Electromyographic Training

Description: This study investigated the role of reinforcement schedule and instructional set in frontalis EMG training. The experiment consisted of four groups participating in 30 minute sessions on three consecutive days. Group conditions were intermittent feedback (alternating 100 second trials), continuous feedback, motivated control and no-treatment control. Excepting the no-treatment controls, each subject was instructed that extra credit points were available contingent on the number of seconds in criterion. An individual criterion based on each subject's initial baseline microvolt level was utilized.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Capriotti, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Massed Group Desensitization in the Reduction of Anxiety

Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the effectiveness of massed group desensitization in the reduction of anxiety. Thirty test-anxious nursing students who scored in the upper quartile on the Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ) served as the subjects. The subjects were assigned by the use of a randomized block procedure to one of the following three groups matched on the basis of their pre-test TAQ scores: (1) desensitization, (2) placebo, and (3) control.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Dawley, Harold H., 1940-
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of Trends in Higher Education and Their Perceived Probability and Desirability by Leaders in Higher Education in Texas

Description: This study is an analysis of trends in public higher education and their probability and desirability for the 1970's as perceived by persons in positions of leadership in public higher education. The purposes of this study were (1) to identify the major trends in public higher education in the United States, (2) to assess the opinions of persons in positions of leadership in the public four-year colleges and universities in Texas, (3) to determine if there were significant differences in opinions of the probability and desirability of trends for the 1970's, and (4) to develop projections of the most probable and the most desirable trends for the 1970's.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Brake, Walter L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Temporally Versus Non-Temporally Contiguous Administration of the Tellegen Absorption Scale and Assessment of Hypnotic Susceptibility

Description: The present study tested the hypothesis that contiguity, regarding time of administration of the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), differentially influences hypnotic susceptibility. Forty-eight subjects were administered the TAS immediately prior to assessment of hypnotic susceptibility versus 43 subjects who received the TAS one to three days before assessment of hypnotic susceptibility. Absorption, when measured in the temporally versus nontemporally contiguous context did not appear to affect hypnotic susceptibility. Absorption did, however, correlate significantly with hypnotic susceptibility in the temporally contiguous group as compared to a non-significant correlation in the nontemporally contiguous group. This finding suggests is a relationship between differential administration of the TAS with regard to time of administration and hypnotic susceptibility.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Cawood, Glenn N. (Glenn Nicolson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biofeedback Training: Avoidance Conditioning of Frontal EMG

Description: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of utilizing an avoidance conditioning paradigm in EMG biofeedback training and to compare this method to the standard biofeedback training paradigm. Frontalis EMG levels of 20 college students were monitored during non-stress and stress conditions. Half then received standard EMG biofeedback training. The other half received biofeedback with contingent aversive stimulation. Both groups received training to a relaxation criterion of 3 microvolts for 100 seconds or, for a maximum of two 20 minute sessions. Subjects were then monitored again during non-stress and stress conditions. Both groups obtained significant EMG reductions due to training with no significant differences between them. Standard biofeedback training required less time for subjects to achieve the relaxation criterion than did biofeedback with a shock-avoidance contingency. Possible applications of avoidance contingent biofeedback were suggested.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Catalanello, Michael S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of PPVT and PPVT-R Scores of Mentally Retarded Adults

Description: The comparability of PPVT and PPVT-R scores among retarded adults were examined. The sample consisted of 96 clients, who had been previously diagnosed as mildly, moderately, or severely retarded. The PPVT (Form A) and PPVT-R (Form L) were administered to all participants in counter balanced order. Significant correlations were found between the two tests for the total sample as well as for females and males. Additionally, the PPVT-R was found to be capable of discriminating differing levels or retardation. However, with the exception of the severely retarded group, mean PPVT-R Standard Score Equivalent (SSE) scores tended to be approximately 20 points lower than PPVT IQ scores. Some clinical implications of these results were discussed.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Kapp, Georia Gail
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Evaluation Theory Applied to Nonhuman Subjects

Description: The Cognitive Evaluation Theory explains the outcomes of studies employing Deci's paradigm, but only when used post hoc. A basic assumption is that extrinsic rewards always increase intrinsic motivation for nonhuman subjects. Deci's paradigm was modified for use with 22 rats to test this assumption. Running in an exercise wheel was the intrinsically motivated activity studied. ANCOVA revealed that external rewards increased intrinsic interest on the first day following the cessation of reinforcement (F = 8.32), but on two subsequent days and again a week later, no significant differences between the reward and control groups were evident (F = .29; F = .33; F = 3.70). The assumption was not supported. It was demonstrated that repeated posttest measures are necessary to avoid basing conclusions upon one point along the extinction continuum.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Hafer, Donald G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cue-Controlled Relaxation: Saving Time Versus Efficacy

Description: Cue-controlled relaxation is looked at to determine whether a component is efficacious as the entire procedure. Subjects were 40 male and 40 female undergraduates. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: cue-controlled relaxation, progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises with a paired. cue word, on a presentation of the cue word without being paired. It was hypothesized that cue-controlled relaxation would be superior to a component of cue-controlled relaxation. It was determined that cue-controlled relaxation is not more efficacious than a particular component. Data suggests the majority of anxiety reduction takes place when the treatment focuses on the same modality from which the subject receives the most information about their anxiety. Implications and suggestions for further research are presented.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Todd, John Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries