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Can the Sun replace uranium

Description: Two asymptotic worlds, one based on solar energy, the other based on nuclear energy, are compared. The total energy demand in each case is 2,000 quads. Although the Sun can in principal supply this energy, it probably will be very expensive. If the energy were supplied entirely by breeders, the nuclear energy system would pose formidable systems problems--particularly safety and proliferation. It is suggested that in view of these possible difficulties, all options must be kept open.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear energy at the turning point

Description: In deciding the future course of nuclear energy, it is necessary to re-examine man's long-term energy options, in particular solar energy and the breeder reactor. Both systems pose difficultiies: energy from the sun is likely to be expensive as well as limited, whereas a massive world-wide deployment of nuclear breeders will create problems of safety and of proliferation. Nuclear energy's long-term success depends on resolving both of these problems. Collocation of nuclear facilities with a system of resident inspectors are measures that ought to help increase the proliferation-resistance as well as the safety of a large-scale, long-term nuclear system based on breeders. In such a long-term system a strengthened International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is viewed as playing a central role.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Are the alternative energy strategies achievable

Description: The constraints on penetration of energy technologies are time and information, net energy, and capital cost. As D. Spreng (ORAU/IEA-78-22(R)) has pointed out, time, energy, and information constitute a triad: energy can be substituted for time, information can be substituted for energy. That energy can save time follows from irreversible thermodynamics, but the principle can be extended to the social sphere. Related to the energy/time exchange is the economic cost of intermittency of energy supply. Renewable energy sources, particularly solar sources, are characteristically intermittent. To eliminate intermittency imposes a cost that must be considered in planning energy futures based on renewable sources. Two other constraints on penetration of energy technologies - net energy and capital cost - are briefly considered. As for net energy, estimates of energy paybacks for solar thermal electric converters differ by factors of three; this introduces large uncertainties in the energy subsidy required for this technology. As for capital cost, the Peterka theory of technological change is shown to place limits on the amount of subsidy required to introduce a new energy technology.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toward an acceptable nuclear future

Description: The nuclear option is in danger of being foreclosed. The trend toward antinuclearism may be reversed if concerns about low-level radiation insult can be shown ultimately to be without foundation; evidence for this speculation is presented. Nevertheless it is suggested that the nuclear enterprise itself must propose new initiatives to increase the acceptability of nuclear energy. A key element of an acceptable nuclear future is cluster siting of reactors. This siting plan might be achieved by confining new reactors essentially to existing sites.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some crucial issues in nuclear energy

Description: The future projected in the Project Independence Report calls heavily on nuclear energy. Validating the nuclear option will require technology improvement and implementation of new policy. But of all the issues that might compromise nuclear energy the most important now appears to be the public acceptability of this energy source.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beyond the technological fix. [Detrimental and unforeseen side effects]

Description: Both technological and social fixes are likely to bring with them deterimental and unforeseen side effects. Although the perceived side effects of nuclear energy can undoubtedly be ameliorated by improved technology, a permanent institutional infrastructure will probably also be required. It is pointed out that confinement of nuclear energy to relatively few large sites rather than many small sites may be a first step toward creating this permanent institutional infrastructure.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US energy R and D: policy and priorities

Description: The primary purpose of energy research is to help implement and advance energy policy. Energy research reveals new possibilities and new options that ought to influence energy policy. Project Independence, dominated by our commitment to energy self-sufficiency, is our shorter term energy policy, but is not the entire energy policy. Decisions are now being made concerning nuclear plant siting and conservation that go much beyond any immediate commitment to self-sufficiency. Both energy policy and energy research and development strategy are presently in transition, largely due to new governmental structures being created. Even when ERDA and FEA are in place, there will remain the matter of assuring that ERDA research policies are consistent with FEA energy policies and that FEA energy policies take adequate account of the new options created by ERDA's studies. Long-range modalities - solar, geothermal, fusion, fission breeders - are briefly discussed.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some long-range speculations about coal. [CO/sub 2/ problems of greatly expanded use]

Description: Should the world demand for energy increase sixfold within the next 50 years, largely because the underdeveloped countries industrialize, and if half this demand is met by coal, then the estimated world recoverable resource of coal of 4 x 10/sup 12/ metric tons would last at this asymptotic level about 140 years. The carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is then estimated to increase about threefold. These two eventualities may place limits on our ultimate use of coal. The risk of a CO/sub 2/ accumulation inherent in the widespread use of coal is in a sense analogous to the risk of nuclear proliferation: both problems are global, uncertain, and could pose profound challenges to man's future.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Weinberg, A.M. & Marland, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monthly Newsletter

Description: This is a personal letter to Kenneth Davis, AEC, concerning ORNL reactor activities. Topics covered include: HRP status; the gas-cooled system; molten fluorides; the ANP project; and maritime work.
Date: November 7, 1957
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN ESTIMATE OF THE NONLEAKAGE PROBABILITY FOR BARE AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS U$sup 235$ REACTORS

Description: The slowing-down distribution, to thermal energy, of neutrons from a U/ sup 235/ fission source in an infinite H/sub 2/O medium up to 160 cm was determined from experimental data. The Fourier transform of this distribution and the In resonance distribution, which are the nonleakage probabilities for bare reactors, were also determined. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1957
Creator: Trubey, D.K.; Moran, H.S. & Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural background approach to setting radiation standards. [Proposed standard for exposure of general population to anthropogenic radiation sources is within the standard deviation of the natural background]

Description: The suggestion has often been made that an additional radiation exposure imposed on humanity as a result of some important activity such as electricity generation would be acceptable if the exposure was small compared to the natural background. In order to make this concept quantitative and objective, we propose that small compared with the natural background be interpreted as the standard deviation (weighted with the exposed population) of the natural background. This use of the variation in natural background radiation is less arbitrary and requires fewer unfounded assumptions than some current approaches to standard-setting. The standard deviation is an easily calculated statistic that is small compared with the mean value for natural exposures of populations. It is an objectively determined quantity and its significance is generally understood. Its determination does not omit any of the pertinent data. When this method is applied to the population of the United States, it suggests that a dose of 20 mrem/year would be an acceptable standard. This is comparable to the 25 mrem/year suggested as the maximum allowable exposure to an individual from the complete uranium fuel cycle. (ERB)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Adler, H.I.; Federow, H. & Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Papers on the nuclear regulatory dilemma

Description: The four papers contained in this report are titled: (1) From Prescriptive to Performance-Based Regulation of Nuclear Power; (2) Nuclear Regulatory Reform: A Technology-Forcing Approach; (3) Improving the Regulation of Nuclear Power; and (4) Science and Its Limits: The Regulators' Dilemma. These four papers investigate issues relating to the long-term regulation of nuclear energy. They were prepared as part of the Institute for Energy Analysis' project on Nuclear Regulation funded by a grant from the Mellon Foundation and a smaller grant by the MacArthur Foundation. Originally this work was to be supplemented by contributions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and from the Department of Energy. These contributions were not forthcoming, and as a result the scope of our investigations was more restricted than we had originally planned.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Barkenbus, J.N.; Freeman, S.D. & Weinberg, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second Nuclear Era

Description: The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S. & Phung, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U. S. energy and economic growth, 1975--2010

Description: This study projects economic growth (GNP) and energy demand for the U.S. to the year 2010. The main finding is that both GNP and total energy demand are likely to grow significantly more slowly than has been assumed in most analyses of energy policy. Projections of energy, GNP, and electricity (total and per capita) are summarized, with electricity demand expected to grow more rapidly than total energy demand. Two scenarios designated ''high'' and ''low'' were developed in this study. However, even the ''high'' scenario, 126 quads (q; 1 q equals 10/sup 15/ Btu) in 2000, is much lower than most previous estimates. It is felt that this raises serious questions about fundamental energy and energy R and D policies which, generally, have been based on perceptions of more lavish energy futures. Although the aggregate demands and GNP are projected to increase rather modestly, the energy demands per capita and GNP per capita increase at rates comparable to or even higher than historic rates. The authors believe that the projections developed in this study represent a logical culmination of many trends toward lower growth. These trends have not yet been factored into the older energy projections upon which so much energy policy is based. 136 references.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Allen, E.L.; Cooper, C.L.; Edmonds, F.C.; Edmonds, J.A.; Reister, D.B.; Weinberg, A.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department