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Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of the Beta and Delta Polymorphs of HMX

Description: Dimensional changes related to temperature cycling of the {beta} and {delta} polymorphs of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are important for a variety of applications. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the {beta} and {delta} phases are measured over a temperature range of -20 C to 215 C by thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA). Dimensional changes associated with the phase transition were also measured, and the time-temperature dependence of the dimensional change is consistent with phase transition kinetics measured earlier by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). One HMX sample measured by TMA during its initial heating and again three days later during a second heating showed the {beta}-to-{delta} phase transition a second time, thereby indicating back conversion from {delta}-to-{beta} phase HMX during those three days. DSC was used to measure kinetics of the {delta}-to-{beta} back conversion. The most successful approach was to first heat the material to create the {delta} phase, then after a given period at room temperature, measure the heat absorbed during a second pass through the {beta}-to-{delta} phase transition. Back conversion at room temperature follows nucleation-growth kinetics.
Date: January 11, 2005
Creator: Weese, R K & Burnham, A K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

Description: The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear and isothermal heating, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to monitor CP decomposition at linear heating rates of 1-7 C min{sup -1} in perforated pans and of 0.1-1.0 C min{sup -1} in sealed pans. The kinetic triplet was calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05, and predictions for 210 and 240 C are compared to isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.
Date: September 28, 2005
Creator: Weese, R K & Burnham, A K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of HMX

Description: Nucleation-growth kinetic expressions are derived for thermal decomposition of HMX from a variety of thermal analysis data types, including mass loss for isothermal and constant rate heating in an open pan and heat flow for isothermal and constant rate heating in open and closed pans. Conditions are identified in which thermal runaway is small to nonexistent, which typically means temperatures less than 255 C and heating rates less than 1 C/min. Activation energies are typically in the 140 to 165 kJ/mol range for open pan experiments and about 150 to 165 kJ/mol for sealed pan experiments. Our activation energies tend to be slightly lower than those derived from data supplied by the University of Utah, which we consider the best previous thermal analysis work. The reaction clearly displays more than one process, and most likely three processes, which are most clearly evident in open pan experiments. The reaction is accelerated in closed pan experiments, and one global reaction appears to fit the data well. Comparison of our rate measurements with additional literature sources for open and closed low temperature pyrolysis from Sandia gives a likely activation energy of 165 kJ/mol at 10% conversion.
Date: November 18, 2004
Creator: Burnham, A K & Weese, R K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of HMX

Description: Nucleation-growth kinetic expressions are derived for thermal decomposition of HMX from a variety of types of data, including mass loss for isothermal and constant rate heating in an open pan, and heat flow for isothermal and constant rate heating in open and closed pans. Conditions are identified in which thermal runaway is small to nonexistent, which typically means temperatures less than 255 C and heating rates less than 1 C/min. Activation energies are typically in the 140 to 165 kJ/mol regime for open pan experiments and about 150-165 kJ/mol for sealed-pan experiments. The reaction clearly displays more than one process, and most likely three processes, which are most clearly evident in open pan experiments. The reaction is accelerated for closed pan experiments, and one global reaction fits the data fairly well. Our A-E values lie in the middle of the values given in a compensation-law plot by Brill et al. (1994). Comparison with additional open and closed low temperature pyrolysis experiments support an activation energy of 165 kJ/mol at 10% conversion.
Date: March 17, 2005
Creator: Burnham, A K & Weese, R K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring the Physical, Chemical and Thermal Characteristics of a New Potentially Insensitive High Explosive: RX-55-AE-5

Description: Current work at the Energetic Materials Center, EMC, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) includes both understanding properties of old explosives and measuring properties of new ones [1]. The necessity to know and understand the properties of energetic materials is driven by the need to improve performance and enhance stability to various stimuli, such as thermal, friction and impact insult. This review will concentrate on the physical properties of RX-55-AE-5, which is formulated from heterocyclic explosive, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide, LLM-105, and 2.5% Viton A. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure a specific heat capacity, C{sub p}, of {approx} 0.950 J/g{center_dot} C and a thermal conductivity, {kappa}, of {approx} 0.475 W/m{center_dot} C. The LLNL kinetics modeling code Kinetics05 and the Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions (AKTS) code Thermokinetics were both used to calculate Arrhenius kinetics for decomposition of LLM-105. Both obtained an activation energy barrier E {approx} 180 kJ mol{sup -1} for mass loss in an open pan. Thermal mechanical analysis, TMA, was used to measure the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The CTE for this formulation was calculated to be {approx} 61 {micro}m/m{center_dot} C. Impact, spark, friction are also reported.
Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Turner, H C & Tran, T D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Historical and Current Perspective on Predicting Thermal Cookoff Behavior

Description: Prediction of thermal explosions using chemical kinetic models dates back nearly a century. However, it has only been within the past 25 years that kinetic models and digital computers made reliable predictions possible. Two basic approaches have been used to derive chemical kinetic models for high explosives: [1] measurement of the reaction rate of small samples by mass loss (thermogravimetric analysis, TGA), heat release (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC), or evolved gas analysis (mass spectrometry, infrared spectrometry, etc.) or [2] inference from larger-scale experiments measuring the critical temperature (T{sub m}, lowest T for self-initiation), the time to explosion as a function of temperature, and sometimes a few other results, such as temperature profiles. Some of the basic principles of chemical kinetics involved are outlined, and major advances in these two approaches through the years are reviewed.
Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: Burnham, A K; Weese, R K; Wemhoff, A P & Maienschein, J L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of HMX and CP Decomposition and Their Extrapolation for Lifetime Assessment

Description: Accelerated aging tests play an important role in assessing the lifetime of manufactured products. There are two basic approaches to lifetime qualification. One tests a product to failure over range of accelerated conditions to calibrate a model, which is then used to calculate the failure time for conditions of use. A second approach is to test a component to a lifetime-equivalent dose (thermal or radiation) to see if it still functions to specification. Both methods have their advantages and limitations. A disadvantage of the 2nd method is that one does not know how close one is to incipient failure. This limitation can be mitigated by testing to some higher level of dose as a safety margin, but having a predictive model of failure via the 1st approach provides an additional measure of confidence. Even so, proper calibration of a failure model is non-trivial, and the extrapolated failure predictions are only as good as the model and the quality of the calibration. This paper outlines results for predicting the potential failure point of a system involving a mixture of two energetic materials, HMX (nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) and CP (2-(5-cyanotetrazalato) pentaammine cobalt (III) perchlorate). Global chemical kinetic models for the two materials individually and as a mixture are developed and calibrated from a variety of experiments. These include traditional thermal analysis experiments run on time scales from hours to a couple days, detonator aging experiments with exposures up to 50 months, and sealed-tube aging experiments for up to 5 years. Decomposition kinetics are determined for HMX (nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) and CP (2-(5-cyanotetrazalato) pentaammine cobalt (III) perchlorate) separately and together. For high levels of thermal stress, the two materials decompose faster as a mixture than individually. This effect is observed both in high-temperature thermal analysis experiments and in long-term thermal aging experiments. An Arrhenius plot ...
Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Burnham, A K; Weese, R K & Adrzejewski, W J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical Characterization of RX-55-AE-5 a Formulation of 97.5 % 2,6-Diamino-3,5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide (LLM-105) and 2.5% Viton A

Description: With the use of modern tools such as molecular modeling on increasingly powerful computers, new materials can be evaluated by their structural activity relationships, SAR, and their approximate physical and chemical properties can be calculated in some cases with surprising accuracy. These new capabilities enable streamlined synthetic routes based on safety, performance and processing requirements, to name a few [1]. Current work includes both understanding properties of old explosives and measuring properties of new ones. The necessity to know and understand the properties of energetic materials is driven by the need to improve performance and enhance stability to various stimuli, such as thermal, friction and impact insult. This review will concentrate on the physical properties of RX-55-AE-5, which is formulated from heterocyclic explosive, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide, LLM-105, and 2.5% Viton A. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to measure a specific heat capacity, C{sub p}, of {approx} 0.950 J/g {center_dot} C, and a thermal conductivity, {kappa}, of {approx} 0.160 W/m {center_dot} C. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) code Kinetics05 and the Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions (AKTS) code Thermokinetics were both used to calculate Arrhenius kinetics for decomposition of LLM-105. Both obtained an activation energy barrier E {approx} 180 kJ mol{sup -1} for mass loss in an open pan. Thermal mechanical analysis, TMA, was used to measure the coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE. The CTE for this formulation was calculated to be {approx} 61 {micro}m/m {center_dot} C. Impact, spark, friction and evolved gases are also reported.
Date: July 28, 2005
Creator: Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Turner, H C & Tran, T D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical Characterization of RX-55-AE-5 A formulation of 97.5 % 2, 6-diamino-3, 5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM 105) and 2.5 % Viton A

Description: With the use of modern tools such as molecular modeling on increasingly powerful computers, new materials can be evaluated by their structural activity relationships, SAR, and their approximate physical and chemical properties can be calculated in some cases with surprising accuracy. These new capabilities enable streamlined synthetic routes based on safety, performance and processing requirements, to name a few [1]. Current work includes both understanding properties of old explosives and measuring properties of new ones. The necessity to know and understand the properties of energetic materials is driven by the need to improve performance and enhance stability to various stimuli, such as thermal, friction and impact insult. This review will concentrate on the physical properties of RX-55-AE-5, which is formulated from heterocyclic explosive, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide, LLM-105, and 2.5% Viton A. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to measure a specific heat capacity, C{sub p}, of {approx} 0.950 J/g{center_dot} C, and a thermal conductivity, {kappa}, of {approx} 0.160 W/m{center_dot} C. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) code ''Kinetics05'' and the Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions (AKTS) code ''Thermokinetics'' were both used to calculate Arrhenius kinetics for decomposition of LLM-105. Both obtained an activation energy barrier E {approx} 180 kJ mol{sup -1} for mass loss in an open pan. Thermal mechanical analysis, TMA, was used to measure the coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE. The CTE for this formulation was calculated to be {approx} 61 {micro}m/m{center_dot} C. Impact, spark, friction and evolved gases are also reported.
Date: June 8, 2005
Creator: Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Turner, H C & Tran, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

Description: The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.
Date: March 30, 2005
Creator: Weese, R K; Burnham, A K & Fontes, A T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CP: AN INVESTIGATION OF COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO VARIOUS STIMULI

Description: The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.
Date: March 23, 2005
Creator: Weese, R. K.; Burnham, A. K. & Fontes, A. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of HMX and CP Decomposition and Their Extrapolation for Lifetime Assessment

Description: Decomposition kinetics are determined for HMX (nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) and CP (2-(5-cyanotetrazalato) pentaammine cobalt (III) perchlorate) separately and together. For high levels of thermal stress, the two materials decompose faster as a mixture than individually. This effect is observed both in high-temperature thermal analysis experiments and in long-term thermal aging experiments. An Arrhenius plot of the 10% level of HMX decomposition by itself from a diverse set of experiments is linear from 120 to 260 C, with an apparent activation energy of 165 kJ/mol. Similar but less extensive thermal analysis data for the mixture suggests a slightly lower activation energy for the mixture, and an analogous extrapolation is consistent with the amount of gas observed in the long-term detonator aging experiments, which is about 30 times greater than expected from HMX by itself for 50 months at 100 C. Even with this acceleration, however, it would take {approx}10,000 years to achieve 10% decomposition at {approx}30 C. Correspondingly, negligible decomposition is predicted by this kinetic model for a few decades aging at temperatures slightly above ambient. This prediction is consistent with additional sealed-tube aging experiments at 100-120 C, which are estimated to have an effective thermal dose greater than that from decades of exposure to temperatures slightly above ambient.
Date: March 10, 2005
Creator: Burnham, A K; Weese, R K & Andrzejewski, W J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid-Solid Phase Transition Kinetics of FOX-7

Description: Since it was developed in the late 1990s, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7), with lower sensitivity and comparable performance to RDX, has received increasing interest. This paper will present our results for the phase changes of FOX-7 using DSC and HFC (Heat Flow Calorimetry). DSC thermal curves recorded at linear heating rates of 0.10, 0.35 and 1.0 C min{sup -1} show two endothermic peaks and two exothermic peaks. The two endothermic peaks represent solid-solid phase transitions, which have been observed in the literature at 114 C ({beta}-{gamma}) and 159 C ({gamma}-{delta}) by both DSC and XPD (X-ray powder diffraction) measurements. The first transition shifts from 114.5 to 115.8 C as the heating rate increases from 0.10 to 1.0 C min{sup -1}, while the second transition shifts from 158.5 to 160.4 C. Cyclical heating experiments show the endotherms and exotherms for a first heating through the {gamma} phase to the {delta} phase, a cooling and reversion to the {alpha} or {beta} phase, and a second heating to the {gamma} and {delta} phases. The data are interpreted using kinetic models with thermodynamic constraints.
Date: July 12, 2005
Creator: Burnham, A K; Weese, R K; Wang, R; Kwok, Q M & Jones, D G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Properties of FOX-7

Description: Much effort has been devoted to an ongoing search for more powerful, safer and environmentally friendly explosives. Since it was developed in the late 1990s, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7), with lower sensitivity and comparable performance to RDX, has received increasing interest. Preliminary results on the physical and chemical characterization of FOX-7 have shown that it possesses good thermal and chemical stability. It is expected that FOX-7 will be a new important explosive ingredient in high performance, insensitive munition (IM) explosives. One of the major focuses in research on this novel energetic material is a study of its thermal properties. Oestmark et al have reported that DSC curves exhibit two minor endothermic peaks as well as two major exothermic peaks. Two endothermic peaks at {approx}116 and {approx}158 C suggest the presence of two solid-solid phase transitions. A third phase change below 100 C has also been reported based on a X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) study. The shapes, areas and observed temperatures of the two decomposition peaks at {approx}235 C and {approx}280 C vary with different batches and sources of the sample, and occasionally these two peaks are merged into one. The factors leading to this variation and a more complete investigation are in progress. Our laboratories have been interested in the thermal properties of energetic materials characterized by means of various thermal analysis techniques. This paper will present our results for the thermal behavior of FOX-7 including the phase changes, decomposition, kinetic analysis and the decomposition products using DSC, TG, ARC (Accelerating Rate Calorimetry), HFC (Heat Flow Calorimetry) and simultaneous TGDTA-FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) Spectroscopy-MS (Mass) measurements.
Date: March 30, 2005
Creator: Burnham, A K; Weese, R K; Wang, R; Kwok, Q M & Jones, D G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energetic Materials and Atomic Force Microscopy: Structure and Kinetics

Description: Understanding the structure and composition of energetic materials at the sub-micron level is imperative for the fundamental studies of hot-spot formation and structural composition of energetic materials. Using in situ high-temperature AFM we have observed the solid-solid phase transition of Octahydro-1,3,5,7,-tetrazocine, HMX, in real time. Massive surface reconstruction occurs during the 1st-order transition. The temperature induced increase in void space and surface roughness observed in the delta phase polymorph of HMX serve to increase the growth rate and volume of shock initiated hot spots and possibly reaction sensitivity. HMX exists in four solid phase polymorphs, labeled {alpha}, {beta}, {chi}, and {delta}. The phase conversion of the {beta} phase to the {delta} phase involves a major disruption of the crystal lattice. The energy required to bring about this change is a measurable quantity. Multiple thermal analysis techniques carried out simultaneously are preferable because the results are directly comparable. Thermal methods are dynamic techniques, where heating or cooling is applied to a sample, unless isothermal conditions are employed. Thermogravimetic Analysis, TGA, can be used to quantify decomposition components in a substance while Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, can be used to measure the heat flow or the specific heat capacity, with respect to time and temperature. The advantage of TGA/DTA analysis is that the measurement of weight loss and heat flow are taken simultaneously and the observed events are directly related with respect to time and temperature. TGA/DTA experiments were performed to help us take a different look at the chemical nature of HMX and aid us in understanding the void formation process.
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Weeks, B.L.; Weese, R.K. & Zaug, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What Have We Learned From Decades of CRT, And Where Do We Go From Here?

Description: The Chemical Reactivity Test, or CRT, has been the workhorse for determining short-to-medium term compatibility and thermal stability for energetic materials since the mid 1960s. The concept behind the CRT is quite simple. 0.25 g of material is heated in a 17 cm{sup 3} vessel for 22 hours at 80, 100, or 120 C, and the yield of gaseous products are analyzed by gas chromatography to determine its thermal stability. The instrumentation is shown in Figure 1, and the vessel configuration is shown in Figure 2. For compatibility purposes, two materials, normally 0.25 g of each, are analyzed as a mixture. Recently, data from the past 4 decades have been compiled in an Excel spreadsheet and inspected for reliability and internal consistency. The resulting processed data will be added this year to the LLNL HE Reference Guide. Also recently, we have begun to assess the suitability of the CRT to answer new compatibility issues, especially in view of more modern instrumentation now available commercially. One issue that needs to be addressed is the definition of thermal stability and compatibility from the CRT. Prokosch and Garcia (and the associated MIL-STD-1751A) state that the criterion for thermal stability is a gas yield of less than 4 cm{sup 3}/g for a single material for 22 hours at 120 C. The gases from energetic materials of interest ordinarily have an average molecular weight of about 36 g/mol, so this represents decomposition of 0.5-1.0% of the sample. This is a reasonable value, and a relatively unstable energetic material such as PETN has no problem passing. PBX 9404, which yields 1.5 to 2.0 cm{sup 3}/g historically, is used as a periodic check standard. This is interesting in itself, since the nitrocellulose in the 9404 is unstable and probably has partially decomposed over the decades. However, it ...
Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Burnham, A K; Souers, P C; Gagliardi, F J; Weese, R K; DePiero, S C; Tran, T et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department