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Permeability of Selves and Compliance with Therapeutic Homework

Description: A model of the person as a "community of selves" was used to investigate how adopting the perspective of different selves influenced anticipated compliance with therapy homework designed to decrease academic procrastination. A model of resistance to change derived from personal construct theory was used to predict which selves subjects would tend to see as more likely to take on the role of carrying out the homework. Focusing on different selves was found to influence anticipated compliance, and the model of resistance to change was partially successful in predicting which selves would be seen as more likely to carry out the homework. Implications for therapy and research are discussed within the framework of a model of first and second order change.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Scott, Gregory Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of Interpersonal Skills Training on the Effectiveness of Self-Managed Work Teams

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teams that received interpersonal training would function more effectively as a team than the teams that did not receive training. Individuals from a large division of a major defense contractor in the southern part of the United States served as subjects. Data were collected using the Team Effectiveness Profile designed to measure team effectiveness. This survey measures the overall score as well as five sub-scores. It was hypothesized that the teams that received training would function more effectively than the teams that did not receive training. The hypotheses were not supported. Results were explained, among other things, by the internal and external changes that hampered the transition towards self-managed work teams.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Flax, Stacey L. (Stacey Lynn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Verbal Dominance Behaviors using Constructivist Theory

Description: This study assessed how Constructivist theory accounts for verbal dominance. Conversations of rotating dyads were tape recorded, then coded for measures of dominance. Subjects completed a trait dominance scale and a constructivist personality test. Interpersonal rankings of dominance were found to be more consistent with observed behavior than trait dominance scores. Extreme trait dominance scores were associated with a constructivist measure indicating maladjustment. Dyads identified as more resistant to change were found to use fewer verbal control strategies; male/male dyads were characterized by direct, functional interactions. Dyads that were highly comfortable with one another utilized fewer verbal control methods. Lastly, interactions in which participants reported unfamiliar self-experiencing utilized higher levels of verbal control. Implications for group processing, assessment of dominance and sex differences are discussed.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Curlin, Caroline
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship of Team Design and Maintenance on Performance and Satisfaction for Self-Directed Work Teams

Description: Five models for designing work teams from the Work Group Design Measure (Campion & Medsker, 1992b) and the models7 relationships to effectiveness criteria were compared using 30 self-directed work teams (SDWTs) in a manufacturing/production setting of a large defense contractor. The models which are from social psychology, socio-technical systems theory, industrial engineering, and organizational psychology include Job Design, Composition, Context/Resources, Potency/Interdependence, and Process. The study also examined distinguishing demographics, team characteristics, and interpersonal processes within the teams that differentiate higher performing teams and/or teams with higher job satisfaction. Effectiveness criteria were performance and job satisfaction. Among the findings, four of the five team design models (i.e., excluding the Composition Model), and the team-oriented interpersonal group processes correlated with performance and SDWT member job satisfaction.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Root, Dawn G. (Dawn Gaignat)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Occupationally Injured Employee: Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes from Psychosocial Stressors

Description: This research explores whether a firm's psychosocial stressors contribute to strains or outcomes important to the organization. The psychosocial stressors chosen for study include: role conflict and ambiguity, workload (qualitative and quantitative), participative decision making, autonomy, and security. Independent variables were the emotional strains of job satisfaction and job commitment. The independent variables for behavioral strains included injury, lost days, workers' compensation claims, and absenteeism. Three moderators: age, gender, and social support were evaluated for interaction effects. The study sampled 77 occupationally injured and 81 non-injured employees from one medium sized Army community hospital. This study uses multivariate hierarchical multiple set regression as its principal analytical method. The hierarchial procedure orders the sets into an a priori hierarchy and enters each set sequentially from the hierarchy, evaluating the increase in $\rm R\sp2.$ The results suggest that psychosocial stressors are significant variables to consider when investigating workers' emotional and behavioral strains. For example, age, participation, and satisfaction were found statistically significant in differentiating between the occupationally injured and the non-injured samples. The study also found that ambiguity, participation, and autonomy influenced emotional strains. Additionally, age and social support appear to moderate the relationship between some psychosocial factors and emotional and behavioral strains. Age moderated the relationship with only emotional strains, while social support moderated both emotional and behavioral strains. Further, social support was found to have a main effect on the emotional strains of satisfaction and commitment, but not on any behavioral ones. Age was found to have a direct effect on the behavioral strains of workers' compensation claims. Finally, although not statistically significant when entered as a set and evaluated using the statistical analysis techniques in this study, a relationship between age and workers' compensation claims and qualitative workload and absenteeism were suggested. The economic and human costs associated with ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Mosesman, Leonard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cluster Analysis of the MMPI-2 in a Chronic Low-Back Pain Population

Description: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most frequently used psychological measure in the assessment of chronic pain. Since the introduction of the MMPI-2 in 1989 only two published studies have focused on cluster analysis of chronic pain patients. This study investigated MMPI-2 cluster solutions of chronic low-back pain patients. Data was collected from 2,051 chronic low-back pain patients from a multidisciplinary pain clinic in the southwestern United States. A hierarchical clustering procedure was performed on K-corrected T-scores of the MMPI-2 using the three validity and ten clinical scales. Four relatively homogeneous subgroups were identified for each sex with the MMPI-2. In general, these results replicated the findings of previous researchers using both the MMPI and MMPI-2.
Date: December 1997
Creator: DeBeus, Roger J. (Roger John)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Organizational Commitment: A Cross-National Comparison of Arab and Non-Arab Employees in Saudi Petrochemical Companies

Description: Individuals with different personal demographics and job-based factors have different attitudes and behaviors, which can influence their levels of commitment to their organizations. These differences in organizational commitment increase as their cultural backgrounds differ significantly. Personal demographics and job-related factors are reliable predictors of employees' commitment to their employing organizations. The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate if there is a difference in the level of employees' commitment to Saudi petrochemical companies on the basis of differences in their personal demographics and job-related factors.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Al-Kahtany, Abdulwahab Said
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Impacting Employee Acceptance of an Alternative Reward System

Description: This study is intended to analyze employee acceptance of an alternative reward system that reinforces continuous learning, teamwork, major expansion of individual capabilities, business knowledge application, and business unit (team) performance. This system is in contrast with traditional pay systems that reward seniority and individual performance determined by the subjective ratings of a direct supervisor, with pay increases based mainly on current job grade (and the availability of higher job grades within the company) and comparison with market value of the job. Individuals from three areas of a major electronics manufacturing company in the southwestern part of the United States served as subjects.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Rose, Jodi (Jodi Louise)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Hostility and Social Support with Chronic Pain and Health Indicators

Description: The purposes of the study were to examine the psychosocial variables of hostility and social support, and their independent relationships with resting physiological levels and chronic pain symptoms, and to examine the independent relationships of chronic pain chronicity and social support with hostility.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Witham, Kevin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Empirical Investigation of Personality and Situational Predictors of Job Burnout

Description: Empirical research exploring the complex phenomenon of job burnout is still considered to be in its infancy stage. One clearly established stream of research, though, has focused on the antecedents of the three job burnout components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. In particular, situational characteristics have received a great deal of attention to date. Four situational factors: (1) role ambiguity, (2) role conflict, (3) quantitative role overload, and (4) organizational support were included in this analysis to test their significance as predictors of job burnout. Another set of antecedents that has received far less attention in job burnout research is personal dispositions. Individual differences, most notably personality traits, may help us understand why some employees experience burnout whereas others do not, even within the same work environment. Four personality characteristics: (1) self-esteem, (2) locus of control, (3) communal orientation, and (4) negative affectivity were included to test their significance as predictors of job burnout. An on-site, self-report survey instrument was used. A sample of 149 human service professionals employed at a large government social services department voluntarily participated in this research. The main data analysis techniques used to test the research hypotheses were canonical correlation analysis and hierarchical analysis of sets. While role ambiguity showed no significant associations with any of the three job burnout components, the remaining situational factors had at least one significant association. Among all the situational characteristics, quantitative role overload was the strongest situational predictor of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, while organizational support was the strongest situational predictor of personal accomplishment. The personality predictor set as a whole showed a significant relationship with each of the job burnout components, providing strong proof that dispositional effects are important in predicting job burnout. Among all the personality characteristics, negative affectivity was the strongest personality predictor of emotional ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Caudill, Helene L. (Helene Litowsky)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Organizational Considerations for and Individual Perceptions of Web-Based Intranet Systems

Description: Utilization of World Wide Web style Web-Based Intranet Systems (W-BIS) is a rapidly expanding information delivery technique in many organizations. Published reports concerning these systems have cited return on investment values exceeding 1300% and direct payback time periods as low as six to twelve weeks. While these systems have been widely implemented, little theoretically grounded research has been conducted in relation to users' acceptance, utilization or the perceived quality of these systems. The study employed a two-site investigation of corporate Web-Based Intranet Systems, with surveys distributed via the traditional mail system. The complete survey instrument distributed to employees included the ServQual/ServPerf, User Information Satisfaction, Ease of Use/Usefulness, and Computer Playfulness instruments. In addition to these previously developed instruments, the survey instrument for this study included measures of Web-Based Intranet Systems utilization and usefulness along with respondent demographics and subordinate-reported managerial commitment. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the ServQual/ServPerf instrument in an information systems service environment. The same analysis was conducted of the more generally accepted User Information Satisfaction instrument.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Myerscough, Mark Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Validity of the Weighted Application Blank as a Predictor of Tenure in the Nursing Home Industry; A Test of Two Models

Description: The first purpose was to develop and validate a quantitative selection tool, the weighted application blank, tailored to the nursing home industry. The second purpose of this study was to determine whether data scaling and increased statistical rigor can reduce the frequency of type I and type II errors in the weighted application.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Kettlitz, Gary Russell
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of Student Activities Mid-Managers toward their Career Goals and Career Opportunities

Description: The problem of this study was career goals of student activities mid-managers and their perceptions of attaining these career goals. An introduction and the purposes of the study are included in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 includes a review of selected literature on professional development and mobility. The methodology used to conduct this study is described in Chapter 3. The findings are presented in Chapter 4, and the summary, discussion, conclusions, and recommendations are contained in Chapter 5. The 455 student activities mid-managers employed at institutions holding membership in the National Association for Campus Activities were mailed a questionnaire composed of demographic items and questions seeking information relevant to the purposes of this study. A total of 296 (65%) usable surveys were returned. The results of the study indicate that the positions of chief student affairs officer and dean of students were career goals of the subjects. The dean of students position was the only position that was perceived as attainable by the subjects. When looked at by gender, males desired and believed that the positions of chief student affairs officer and dean of students were reachable. Women desired both positions, but believed that only the position of dean of students was attainable. A t-test revealed a significant difference between the desire of males and females regarding the position of chief student affairs officer. Fourteen items were presented to the subjects to assess their perceptions of institutional support for professional growth. The sample identified 8 of the 14 items as present in their organizations. A t-test revealed no significant difference between the perceptions of males and females regarding institutional support on any of the 14 items.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Connell, Matthew Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Analysis of Patient Status Following Substance Abuse Treatment and Utilization of Medical Care

Description: Subjects were 2,950 patients who had previously received inpatient treatment for substance abuse at 40 treatment centers in 13 states and were followed up by the Chemical Abuse/Addiction Treatment Outcome Registry (CATOR) via telephone during the 2 years immediately following their treatment. All subjects were contacted every 6 months and asked a series of questions regarding their relapse status, medical utilization, illnesses, injuries, and arrests. Patient status was based on 3 categories: (1) abstinence from any abuse of a chemical, (2) brief relapse of less than 3 months abuse of any chemical, or (3) total relapse of longer than 3 months of any chemical. Findings showed that abstainers had fewer days in the hospital for emotional problems and detoxification. Abstainers also had fewer visits to the hospital for emergency reasons. Males in the brief relapse category had a greater number of injuries than abstainers or total relapsers. Regarding arrests and automobile accidents, no difference was discovered. However, regarding Drunk While Driving (DWI) arrests, abstainers had fewer arrests.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Jones, French Allan
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Construct Validation Study of the Relationship Between Interpersonal Behavior Styles as Described by the Social Style of Behavior Profile and Leadership Styles as Described by the Leader Behavior Analysis

Description: The extensive use of leadership training in industry suggests a need for validated information concerning the role of interpersonal behavior in the study of leadership styles. Early leadership research focused primarily on the traits of a leader. Subsequent research has attempted to f a correlation between leader behavior and personality type. Findings indicate that personality typologies, which include attitude and value constructs, are too broad to explain leader behavior. In order to move toward specificity in the study of leadership, it is necessary to determine if interpersonal behavior styles are related to leader behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of variables from data gathered on leadership styles from the Leader Behavior Analysis and variables related to interpersonal behavior reported from the Social Style of Behavior Profile. The dimensions of leadership style flexibility and social style of behavior versatility were also examined. A random sample of 100 corporate employees were used in this study. The research instruments that were tested for independence were the Leader Behavior Analysis and the Social Style of Behavior Profile. The results of this study indicate that the constructs of leadership style and social style are independent dimensions. Additionally, the results of the study indicate that the constructs of leader flexibility and social style versatility are independent dimensions.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Allen, Billie (Billie Morgan)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Associated with the Use of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings: an Empirical Investigation

Description: Although ingratiatory behaviors have been investigated by social psychologists for almost twenty-five years, and have been discussed as being used in organizational settings as an upward influence strategy, few empirical studies have explored the use of ingratiation in organizations. The intent of this study has been to empirically investigate the use of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings. In doing so, a theory-based rationale for the occurrence of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings was developed. The framework developed for this study examined ingratiation as both an individually initiated and organizationally induced behavior. Next, a scale was developed to measure the frequency with which employees resort to ingratiatory behaviors in relationships with their superiors. Finally, a series of research propositions about the occurrence of ingratiatory behaviors in organizations were tested across a variety of organizational settings.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Kumar, Kamalesh
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of Factors Deterring Participation in Continuing Professional Education

Description: This study was conceived as an attempt to determine .and analyze factors deterring participation in continuing professional education among social workers in environments where continuing education for relicensure is mandatory and voluntary. The specific research design implemented to complete this study was the ex-post facto descriptive design. The sample included 106 social workers randomly selected in the state of Texas where continuing education is mandatory and 94 social workers in the state of Louisiana where continuing education is voluntary. The instrument used was the Deterrent to Participation Scale developed by Scanlan (1983) and a demographic inventory. Scanlan (1983) earlier identified six factors deterring participation in continuing professional education: Disengagement, Lack of Quality, Family Constraints, Cost, Lack of Benefit, and Work Constraints. The study concluded that social workers in both states considered work constraint as a major factor deterring participation in continuing professional education. Also the factors of cost and lack of quality were also considered as crucial barriers in their efforts to participate in continuing professional education. The Wilks' multivariate test of significance of the means and univariate F tests at alpha level p < .05 revealed differences in the combined mean scores of social workers in both states when the variables of age, marital status, and position held were tested. In comparing the ranking of the six factors deterring participation in continuing professional education, a Spearman rank correlation coefficient revealed respondents in both states rank the six factors in the same order. The findings were congruent with earlier studies of barriers to participation in continuing education among professionals. The researcher recommended a study which would include a larger number of social workers and a longitudinal study to measure changes in barriers to participation in continuing professional education.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Akintade, Aribigbola
Partner: UNT Libraries

Small Business Owner-Managers and Corporate Managers: a Comparative Study of Achievement Motivation, Risk Taking Propensity and Preference for Innovation

Description: Despite the economic significance of entrepreneurship, relatively little is known about the entrepreneur, particularly how the entrepreneur differs from the corporate manager. This problem is both cause and symptom of the discord regarding definitions of the entrepreneur, rendering sampling, research replication and generalizations about entrepreneurs problematic. As a result, inquiry has failed to adequately establish how entrepreneurs differ from managers, a problem partially stemming from a dearth of methodologically rigorous comparisons of entrepreneurs with managers. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of psychological constructs to predict a proclivity for entrepreneurship. Moreover, differences in types of small business owner-managers were also investigated. Included in the research model were three common themes in the entrepreneurship literature: achievement motivation, risk taking propensity and preference for innovation. Also incorporated were the interactions of the psychological constructs, as well as individual and firm demographic variables.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Stewart, Wayne H. (Wayne Howard)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of the Relationship between Work Value Congruence in a Dyad and Organizational Commitment as Mediated by Organizational Influences

Description: Researchers suggest that value congruence in superior-subordinate dyads results in positive outcomes for an organization (Kemelgor, 1980; Meglino, Ravlin, & Adkins, 1989; 1990; Parkington & Schneider, 1979; Senger, 1971; Weeks, Chonko, Kahle, 1989). Further, evidence is presented which suggests that commitment at the organizational level is achieved, in part, through value congruence at the individual level of analysis. Analysis at the individual level reflects the effect of shared values on interpersonal relations. Work value congruence in a dyad enhances the development of a high quality dyadic relationship. The subordinate in such a relationship perceives being allowed more participation in decision making, more positive work experiences, and less role stress (Turban & Jones, 1988). These items have been found to be predictor variables of commitment from Steer's (1977) framework of antecedents. In this study, a research model was proposed which suggests that work value congruence in the subordinate-superior dyad leads to organizational commitment through its effect on subordinate perceptions of role stress characteristics, participation, and work experiences. The model integrates the organizational aspects of the Steer's (1977) framework for organizational commitment with the interpersonal effect of work value congruence. A field study design using a sample of 96 subordinate-superior dyads at a large Midwestern manufacturing corporation was used for the study. The influence of dyadic work value congruence on organizational commitment as mediated by subordinate perceptions of role stress, participation, and initiation structure/consideration were tested using hierarchical regression. The results of the study indicate that value congruence has a direct influence on OC rather than being mediated by perceptions of role stress characteristics, participation in decision making, and work experiences as predicted in the proposed model. Role stress characteristics and participation in decision making were also found to directly influence levels of OC, however, support was not found for the positive ...
Date: May 1997
Creator: Dale, Kathleen M. (Kathleen Marie)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Importance and Responsibility of Student Development Goals Among Chief Academic and Chief Student Affairs Officers

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine if there were significant differences in the perceived importance and responsibility of student development goals between chief academic officers (CAOs) and chief student affairs officers (CSAOs). The population for this study consisted of CAOs and CSAOs at liberal arts institutions located in 15 southern states.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Chandler, Kristie B. (Kristie Byrne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategic Reorientation in the Computer Software and Furniture Industries: a Hierarchical Regression Analysis

Description: Insufficient literature exists in the area of incremental and revolutionary change to explain and predict the convergence and reorientation phenomena happening in organizations. The process of strategic reorientation involves the internal organizational complexities of fast-paced (within two years) changes in competitive strategy as a necessary condition coupled with changes in at least two of organization structure, power distribution, and control systems. Antecedent forces believed to influence the discontinuous change process include industry sales turbulence, structural inertia/firm size, firm past financial performance, CEO turnover, top management team turnover, management team heterogeneity, management environmental awareness, and external attributions for negative financial performance. Punctuated equilibrium was the foundational theory for this study in which a strategic reorientation model published in Strategic Management Journal was reconstructed. The research question was: What seem to be the significant time-based antecedent forces or conditions that lead to strategic reorientation? The study used two hierarchical logit regression models to analyze data gathered from COMPUSTAT PC Industrial Data Base and Compact Disclosure (CD-ROM) over the years 1987-1993 from the turbulent computer software and stable furniture industries. Qualitative data were found in 10-K reports and President's Letters in Annual Reports filed with the SEC and available on Laserdisclosure. The sample, exclusive of 3 multivariate outliers, included 74 software firms and 43 furniture firms for a pooled total of 117 firms. When separate industries were analyzed using the first of the Systat logit hierarchical regressions, results showed no statistically significant effects. By contrast, when data were pooled, the second hierarchical logit regression model, which included industry turbulence and firm size, showed these one-tailed statistically significant results: strategic reorientation is positively affected by prior industry turbulence and CEO turnover, but is negatively affected by prior top management team turnover and the interaction between industry turbulence and external attributions for negative financial performance.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Gordon, Shelley S. (Shelley Sampson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Other Perceptions under Challenge: a Personal Construct Approach to Hostility and the Type A Behavior Pattern

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine if exposure to a challenging interpersonal situation would have an adverse impact on intra- and interpersonal constructs. Individual difference variables including level of hostility and anger, Type A behavior, control in social situations, depression and sex were examined as "predictors" of those more likely to be adversely affected by personal challenge. Eighty subjects, 40 male and 40 female, completed questionnaires at a pretesting session including measures of hostility, the Type A behavior pattern, trait anger, exaggerated social control, depression, and self-other constructs. Twenty subjects then participated in a "supportive" role-play condition where the confederate was agreeable and friendly. Sixty subjects participated in a "challenge" role-play condition; the confederate was disagreeable, confrontive, and unpleasant. The posttesting measures were then completed.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Bollinger, Hautina K. (Hautina Kay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Construct Use and Self-Aspect Change in Recovery From Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: a Personal Construct Analysis

Description: Cognitive ratings that use bipolar constructs based upon similarity and contrast have been shown to be biased towards the similarity pole in approximately a 62/38 ratio. This bias has also been known to shift in the contrastive direction for individuals who have psychiatric problems. This quantitative measure of cognitive change has a potential for characterizing cognitive changes that occur during the disease process, including recovery from disease. The present study investigated changes in self-aspect ratings and bipolar construct use in adult male veterans who had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results indicated that treatment subjects' self-aspect and construct ratings were more negative than controls'. Results also indicated that all subjects rated core interpersonal self-aspects closest to the expected bias, while self-aspects related to cardiac recovery problems were rated in the most contrastive direction. The results finally suggested that the greatest degree of change for the treatment subjects were in emotionally generated constructs. The results suggested a preliminary validation for characterizing cognitive changes in the disease process by measuring shifts in bipolar construct ratings.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Zolten, Avram J. (Avram Jeffery)
Partner: UNT Libraries