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Performance Evaluation of In-Situ Iron Reactive Barriers at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site

Description: In November 1997, a permeable iron reactive barrier trench was installed at the S-3 Ponds Pathway 2 Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of the project is to evaluate the ability of permeable reactive barrier technology to remove uranium, nitrate, and other inorganic contaminants in groundwater and to assess impacts of biogeochemical interactions on long-term performance of the treatment system. Zero-valent iron (Fe0) was used as the reactive medium, which creates a localized zone of reduction or low oxidation reduction potential (ORP), elevated pH, and dissolved H{sub 2} as Fe{sup 0} corrodes in groundwater. These conditions favor the removal of metals and radionuclides (such as uranium and technetium) through redox-driven precipitation and/or sorption to iron corrosion byproducts, such as iron oxyhydroxides. The technology is anticipated to be economical and low in maintenance as compared with conventional pump-and-treat technology. Groundwater monitoring results indicate that the iron barrier is effectively removing uranium and technetium, the primary contaminants of concern, as anticipated from our previous laboratory studies. In addition to uranium and technetium, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, and magnesium are also found to be removed, either partially or completely by the iron barrier. Elevated concentrations of ferrous ions and sulfide, and pH were observed within the iron barrier. Although ferrous iron concentrations were initially very high after barrier installation, ferrous ion concentrations have decreased to low to non-detectable levels as the pH within the iron has increased over time (as high as 9 or 10). Iron and soil core samples were taken in February 1999 and May 2000 in order to evaluate the iron surface passivation, morphology, mineral precipitation and cementation, and microbial activity within and in the vicinity of the iron barrier. Results indicate that most of the iron filings collected in cores were still loose ...
Date: December 30, 2003
Creator: Watson, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

Description: Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials). (DLC)
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Green, P.H. & Watson, D.M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

K-Basins S/RIDS

Description: The Standards/Requirements Identification Document(S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility
Date: September 22, 1995
Creator: Watson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urethane foam process improvements. Final report

Description: A study was completed to evaluate the foam molding process for environmental and technical improvements. The investigation led to a replacement for chlorinated solvent usage, a potential permanent mold release coating, improved tooling design, and shrinkage characterization of foams filled with varying levels of aluminum oxide.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Watson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

Description: The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.
Date: February 28, 2002
Creator: Watson, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

Description: This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies. (LSP)
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Green, P.H. & Watson, D.M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1984

Description: During the reporting period, relatively minor changes have occurred in the research areas of interest to the Division. Nearly all the research of the Division can be classified broadly as mission-oriented basic research. Topics covered include: theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; and preparation and characterization of research materials. (GHT)
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Green, P.H. & Watson, D.M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The architecture of the High Performance Storage System (HPSS)

Description: The rapid growth in the size of datasets has caused a serious imbalance in I/O and storage system performance and functionality relative to application requirements and the capabilities of other system components. The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a scalable, next-generation storage system that will meet the functionality and performance requirements of large-scale scientific and commercial computing environments. Our goal is to improve the performance and capacity of storage systems by two orders of magnitude or more over what is available in the general or mass marketplace today. We are also providing corresponding improvements in architecture and functionality. This paper describes the architecture and functionality of HPSS.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Teaff, D.; Coyne, B. & Watson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99

Description: This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D. & Hylko, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

105-K Basin 1999 Debris Report

Description: The purpose of this report is to describe the quantities, character, and management (e.g., segregation and management after removal) of 105-K Basins debris managed in calendar year 1999.
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: WATSON, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bald eagles of the Hanford National Environmental Research Park

Description: Since 1961, near-yearly aerial surveys of bald eagles along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River have been conducted. Prey resources available to the eagles have also been monitored and we have thus been able to examine predator-prey relationships in a statistical fashion. We report on a unique set of data which provides insight into one of the factors (prey availability) controlling bald eagle wintering populations. The winter distribution of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) has been reported to closely follow the availability of prey (Servheen 1975, Southern 1963, Shea 1973, Spencer 1976). Fitzner and Hanson (1979) compared twelve years of eagle winter survey data on the Hanford DOE Site with waterfowl numbers and salmon redd densities over the same period and provided some statistical evidence that eagle wintering numbers varied somewhat dependently with changing salmon redd numbers but not with changing waterfowl numbers. This report re-examines Fitzner and Hanson's (1979) twelve year data set and supplies two additional years of data for the Hanford DOE Site in order to gain additional insight into predator-prey interactions.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Fitzner, R.E.; Watson, D.G. & Rickard, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

Description: The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1990
Creator: Dauble, D.D. & Watson, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

K-Basins S/RIDS

Description: The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES{ampersand}H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Watson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variable-density flow and transport modeling to evaluate anomalous nitrate concentrations and pressures in GW-134

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy operates the Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Four waste disposal ponds, referred to as the S-3 ponds, were located within this reservation near the western edge of the Y-12 Plant. The S-3 ponds were constructed in 1951 and received liquid waste until 1983. The main component of the waste received by the ponds was nitric acid. In 1988, the ponds were structurally stabilized and capped and the area above the ponds was converted into an asphalt parking lot. Coreholes were drilled in 1985 to characterize the geology of the region. These coreholes have since been equipped with monitoring equipment capable of performing pressure measurements and collecting fluid samples. A modeling study was also conducted to evaluate scenarios potentially capable of producing anomalous pressure and concentration data observed in GW-134. Results are described.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Jones, T.L.; Toran, L.E. & Watson, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

Description: Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Watson, D.; Leavitt, M. & Moss, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advancements in the characterization of 'hyper-thin' oxynitride gate dielectrics through exit wave reconstruction HRTEM and XPS

Description: The physical thickness of silicon oxynitride gate dielectric materials currently in development have dimensions in the range of 15-20 Angstrom ({approx}6-8 oxygen atoms), while approaching the dielectric constant equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 12 Angstrom silicon dioxide. These structures present serious challenges in meeting stringent requirements within the semiconductor industry for precise determination of thickness, interfacial roughness and chemical distribution. Limitations in conventional HRTEM must be removed that would minimize errors in such measurements. Our approach was to use the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM) One Angstrom Microscope (O Angstrom M), together with focal series acquisition (FSA) and exit wave reconstruction (EWR) techniques to obtain <0.8A interpretable resolution. HRTEM data on the same oxynitride materials from an aberration corrected (Cs=0) microscope were also collected as part of this work, as were scanning TEM (STEM) measurements. The H RTEM characterization provides an absolute calibration and validation for a precise ''near-line'' metrology to determine gate oxide thickness and nitrogen dose using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Principe, E.L.; Watson, D.G. & Kisielowski, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid State Division

Description: This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Green, P.H. & Watson, D.M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

Description: In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J. & Gurtisen, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department