31 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Step structure of GaInAsSb grown by OMVPE (Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy)

Description: The microscopic surface morphology of GaInAsSb grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE)on GaSb substrates has been studied by atomic force microscopy. The effects of growth temperature, alloy composition, and substrate misorientation on the step structure were investigated. The competition between thermodynamically driven phase separation and kinetically limited surface diffusion is discussed.
Date: May 23, 1999
Creator: Charache, G.W. & Wang, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OMVPE growth of GaInAsSb in the 2 to 2.4 {micro}m range

Description: Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} epilayers were grown lattice matched to GaSb substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy using all organometallic precursors, which include triethylgallium, trimethylindium, tertiarybutylarsine, and trimethylantimony. Layers were grown over a temperature range between 525 and 575 C, a V/III ratio range between 0.9 and 1.7, x < 0.2 and y < 0.2, and on (100) GaSb substrates with 2{degree} toward (100) or 6{degree} toward (111)B. The overall material quality of these alloys depends on growth temperature, In content, V/III ratio, and substrate misorientation. A mirror-like surface morphology and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) could be obtained for GaInAsSb layers with peak emission in the wavelength range between 2 and 2.4 {micro}m. Based on epilayer surface morphology and low temperature PL spectra, the crystal quality improves for growth temperature decreasing from 575 to 525 C, and with decreasing In content. In general, GaInAsSb layers grown on (100) GaSb substrates with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation exhibited smoother surfaces and narrower full width at half-maximum values of 4 K PL spectra than layers grown on the more standard substrate 9100 2{degree} toward (110). Nominally undoped GaInAsSb layers grown at 550 C are p-type with 300 K hole concentration of {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} and hole mobility of {approximately} 430 to 560 cm{sup 2}/V-s. The n- and p-type doping of GaInAsSb with diethyltellurium and dimethylzinc, respectively, are also reported.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Charache, G.W. & Wang, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Repair welding of fusion reactor components. Final technical report

Description: The exposure of metallic materials, such as structural components of the first wall and blanket of a fusion reactor, to neutron irradiation will induce changes in both the material composition and microstructure. Along with these changes can come a corresponding deterioration in mechanical properties resulting in premature failure. It is, therefore, essential to expect that the repair and replacement of the degraded components will be necessary. Such repairs may require the joining of irradiated materials through the use of fusion welding processes. The present ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conceptual design is anticipated to have about 5 km of longitudinal welds and ten thousand pipe butt welds in the blanket structure. A recent study by Buende et al. predict that a failure is most likely to occur in a weld. The study is based on data from other large structures, particularly nuclear reactors. The data used also appear to be consistent with the operating experience of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This reactor has a fuel pin area comparable with the area of the ITER first wall and has experienced one unanticipated fuel pin failure after two years of operation. The repair of irradiated structures using fusion welding will be difficult due to the entrapped helium. Due to its extremely low solubility in metals, helium will diffuse and agglomerate to form helium bubbles after being trapped at point defects, dislocations, and grain boundaries. Welding of neutron-irradiated type 304 stainless steels has been reported with varying degree of heat-affected zone cracking (HAZ). The objectives of this study were to determine the threshold helium concentrations required to cause HAZ cracking and to investigate techniques that might be used to eliminate the HAZ cracking in welding of helium-containing materials.
Date: September 30, 1997
Creator: Chin, B.A. & Wang, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-Situ Monitoring of GaSb, GaInAsSb, and AlGaAsSb*

Description: The suitability of the wavelength range provided by silicon photodiode detector arrays for monitoring the spectral reflectance during epitaxial growth of GaSb, AlGaAsSb, and GaInAsSb, which have cutoff wavelengths at 25 degree C of 1.7, 1.2, and 2.3 um, respectively, is demonstrated. These alloys were grown lattice matched to GaSb in a vertical rotating-disk reactor, which was modified to accommodate near normal reflectance without affecting epilayer uniformity, By using a virtual interface model, the growth rate and complex refractive index at the growth temperature are extracted for these alloys over the 600 to 1000 nm spectral range. Excellent agreement is obtained between the extracted growth rate and that determined by ex-situ measurement.
Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Breiland, W.G.; Jensen, K.F.; Vineis, C.J. & Wang, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-Organized Superlattices in GaInAsSb Grown on Vicinal Substrates

Description: Self-organized superlattices are observed in GaInAsSb epilayers grown lattice matched to vicinal GaSb substrates. The natural superlattice (NSL) is oriented at a slight angle of about 4{sup o} with respect to the vicinal (001) GaSb substrate. This vertical composition modulation is detected at the onset of growth. Layers in the NSL are continuous over the lateral extent of the substrate. Furthermore, the NSL persists throughout several microns of deposition. The NSLs have a period ranging from 10 to 30 nm, which is dependent on deposition temperature and GaInAsSb alloy composition. While the principle driving force for this type of phase separation is chemical, the mechanism for the self-organized microstructure is related to local strains associated with surface undulations. By using a substrate with surface undulations, the tilted NSL can be induced in layers with alloy compositions that normally do not exhibit this self-organized microstructure under typical growth conditions. These results underscore the complex interactions between compositional and morphological perturbations.
Date: June 9, 2003
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Vineis, C.J. & Calawa, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Substrate Orientation on Phase Separation in Epitaxial GaInAsSb

Description: The effect of substrate misorientation on phase separation in Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} nominally lattice-matched to GaSb is reported. The layers were grown at 575 C by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on vicinal (001) GaSb substrates, miscut 2{sup o} {yields} (-111)A, (1-11)B, or (101). Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} (x {approx} 0.1, y {approx} 0.09) layers, which have 300-K photoluminescence (PL) peak emission at {approx}2.1 {micro}m, grow step-bunched and exhibit minimal phase separation. The full width at half maximum of 4-K PL spectra is slightly smaller at 7 meV for layers grown on substrates miscut toward (1-11)B compared to 9 meV for layers grown on substrates miscut toward (-1-11)A and (101). Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} layers with higher alloy composition (0.16 {le} x {le} 0.19, 0.14 {ge} y {le} 0.17), which have 300-K PL peak emission at {approx}2.4 {micro}m, have significant phase separation. These layers are characterized by increased lattice constant variations and epitaxial tilt, broad PL spectra with significant band tailing, and strong contrast modulation in transmission electron microscopy. The degree of decomposition depends on substrate miscut direction: Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} layers grown on (001) 2{sup o} {yields} (1-11)B substrates are more homogeneous than those grown on (001) 2{sup o} {yields} (-1-11)A and (001) 2{sup o} {yields} (101) substrates. The results are attributed to the smaller adatom diffusion length on substrates miscut toward (1-11)B.
Date: April 20, 2001
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Calawa, D.R. & Vineis, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of Surface Structure and Phase Separation in GaInAsSb

Description: Atomic force microscopy was used to study changes in the surface step structure of GaInAsSb layers with varying degrees of phase separation. The layers were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on (001) GaSb substrates with 2{sup o} miscut angles toward (-1-11)A, (1-11)B, and (101). Alloy decomposition was observed by contrast modulations in plan-view transmission electron microscopy, and broadening in x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence peaks. GaInAsSb layers with a minimal degree of phase separation exhibit a step-bunched step structure. A gradual degradation in the periodicity of the step structure is observed as the alloy decomposes into GaAs- and InSb-rich regions. The surface eventually develops trenches to accommodate the local strain associated with composition variations, which are on the order of a few percent. The surface composition is affected by substrate miscut angle, and although phase separation cannot be eliminated, its extent can be reduced by growing on substrates miscut toward (1-11)B.
Date: August 21, 2000
Creator: Vineis, C.J.; Wang, C.A. & Calawa, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-situ Reflectance Monitoring of GaSb Substrate Oxide Desorption

Description: The use of specular reflectance to monitor GaSb substrate oxide desorption in-situ is reported. Substrates were loaded into the organometallic vapor phase epitaxy reactor either as-received (epi-ready) or after receiving a solvent degrease, acid etch and rinse. A variety of surface preparations and anneal conditions were investigated. HCL was used as the etchant, and in certain cases was followed by an additional etch in Br{sub 2}-HCl-HNO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}COOH for comparison. Rinse comparisons included 2-propanol, methanol, and deionized water. Substrates were heated to either 525, 550, or 575 C. Features observed in the in-situ reflectance associated with the oxide desorption process were interpreted based on the starting oxide chemistry and thickness. Based on in-situ reflectance and ex-situ atomic force microscopy data, a recommendation on a reproducible GaSb substrate preparation technique suitable for high-quality epitaxial growth is suggested.
Date: August 21, 2000
Creator: Vineis, C.J.; Wang, C.A. & Jensen, K.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent progress in GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaics grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

Description: Studies on the materials development of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} alloys for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices are reviewed. Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} epilayers were grown lattice matched to GaSb substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) using all organometallic precursors including triethylgallium, trimethylindium, tertiarybutylarsine, and trimethylantimony with diethyltellurium and dimethylzinc as the n- and p-type dopants, respectively. The overall material quality of these alloys depends on growth temperature, In content, V/III ratio, substrate misorientation, and to a lesser extent, growth rate. A mirror-like surface morphology and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) are obtained for GaInAsSb layers with peak emission in the wavelength range between 2 and 2.5 {micro}m. The crystal quality improves for growth temperature decreasing from 575 to 525 C, and with decreasing In content, as based on epilayer surface morphology and low temperature PL spectra. A trend of smaller full width at half-maximum for low temperature PL spectra is observed as the growth rate is increased from 1.5 to 2.5 and 5 {micro}m/h. In general, GaInAsSb layers grown on (100) GaSb substrates with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation exhibited overall better material quality than layers grown on the more standard substrate (100)2{degree} toward (110). Consistent growth of high performance lattice-matched GaInAsSb TPV devices is also demonstrated.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Oakley, D.C. & Charache, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extending the cutoff wavelength of lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaics devices

Description: This paper reports the growth, materials characterization, and device performance of lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices with cutoff wavelength as long as 2.5 {micro}m. GaInAsSb epilayers were grown lattice matched to GaSb substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) using all organometallic precursors including triethylgallium, trimethylindium, tertiarybutylarsine, and trimethylantimony with diethyltellurium and dimethylzinc as the n- and p-type dopants, respectively. The growth temperature was 525 C. Although these alloys are metastable, a mirror-like surface morphology and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) are obtained for alloys with PL peak emission at room temperature as long as 2.5 {micro}m. In general, however, a trend of decreasing material quality is observed as the wavelength increases. Both the surface roughness and PL full width at half-maximum increase with wavelength. In spite of the dependence of material quality on PL peak emission wavelength, the internal quantum efficiency of TPV devices with cutoff wavelengths of 2.3 to 2.5 {micro}m is as high as 86%.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Oakley, D.C. & Charache, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-situ monitoring of GaSb, GaInAsSb, and AlGaAsSb

Description: Suitability of silicon photodiode detector arrays for monitoring the spectral reflectance during epitaxial growths of GaSb, AlGaAsSb, and GaInAsSb, which have cutoff wavelengths of 1.7, 1.2, and 2.3 {micro}m, respectively, is demonstrated. These alloys were grown lattice matched to GaSb in a vertical rotating-disk reactor, which was modified to accommodate near normal reflectance without affecting epilayer uniformity. By using a virtual interface model, the growth rate and complex refractive index at the growth temperature are extracted for these alloys over the 600 to 950 nm spectral range. Excellent agreement is obtained between the extracted growth rate and that determined by ex-situ measurement. Optical constants are compared to theoretical predictions based on an existing dielectric function model for these materials. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the entire reflectance spectrum yields valuable information on the approximate thickness of overlayers on the pregrowth substrate.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Vineis, C.J.; Wang, C.A.; Jensen, K.F. & Breiland, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OMVPE growth and characterization of GaInAsSb for thermophotovoltaics

Description: Studies on the materials development of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} alloys for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices are reviewed. Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} epilayers were grown lattice matched to GaSb substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) using all organometallic precursors including triethylgallium, trimethylindium, tertiarybutylarsine, and trimethylantimony with diethyltellurium and dimethylzinc as the n- and p-type dopants, respectively. The overall material quality of these alloys depends on growth temperature, In content, V/III ratio, substrate misorientation, and to a lesser extent, growth rate. A mirror-like surface morphology and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) are obtained for GaInAsSb layers with peak emission in the wavelength range between 2 and 2.5 {micro}m. The crystal quality improves for growth temperature decreasing from 575 to 525 C, and with decreasing In content, as based on epilayer surface morphology and low temperature PL spectra. A trend of smaller full width at half-maximum for low temperature PL spectra is observed as the growth rate is increased from 1.5 to 2.5 and 5 {micro}m/h. In general, GaInAsSb layers grown on (100) GaSb substrates with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation exhibited overall better material quality than layers grown on the more standard substrate (100) 2{degree} toward (110). Consistent growth of high performance lattice-matched GaInAsSb TPV devices is also demonstrated.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Wang, C. A. & Charache, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Substrate misorientation effects on epitaxial GaInAsSb

Description: The effect of substrate misorientation on the growth of GaInAsSb was studied for epilayers grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The substrates were (100) misoriented 2 or 6{degree} toward (110), (111)A, or (111)B. The surface is mirror-like and featureless for layers grown with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation, while, a slight texture was observed for layers grown on all other misorientations. The optical quality of layers, as determined by the full width at half-maximum of photoluminescence spectra measured at 4K, is significantly better for layers grown on substrates with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation. The incorporation of Zn as a p-type dopant in GaInAsSb is about 1.5 times more efficient on substrates with 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation compared to 2{degree} toward (110) misorientation. The external quantum efficiency of thermophotovoltaic devices is not, however, significantly affected by substrate misorientation.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Oakley, D.C. & Charache, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical constants of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} lattice-matched to GaSb(001): Experiment and modeling

Description: The optical constants {epsilon}(E)[={epsilon}{sub 1}(E)+i{epsilon}{sub 2}(E)] of two epitaxial layers of GaInAsSb/GaSb have been measured at 300 K using spectral ellipsometry in the range of 0.35--5.3 eV. The {epsilon}(E) spectra displayed distinct structures associated with critical points (CPs) at E{sub 0} (direct gap), spin-orbit split E{sub 0}+{Delta}{sub 0} component, spin-orbit split (E{sub 1}, E{sub 1}+{Delta}{sub 1}) and (E{sub 0}{prime}, E{sub 0}{prime}+{Delta}{sub 0}{prime}) doublets, as well as E{sub 2}. The experimental data over the entire measured spectral range (after oxide removal) has been fit using the Holder model dielectric function [Phys.Rev.B 56, 4037 (1997)] based on the electronic energy-band structure near these CPs plus excitonic and band-to-band Coulomb enhancement effects at E{sub 0.}, E{sub 0}+{Delta}{sub 0} and the E{sub 1}, E{sub 1}+{Delta}{sub 1} doublet. In addition to evaluating the energies of these various band-to-band CPs, information about the binding energy (R{sub 1}) of the two-dimensional exciton related to the E{sub 1}, E{sub 1}+{Delta}{sub 1} CPs was obtained. The value of R{sub 1} was in good agreement with effective mass/k{sup {rightharpoonup}}{center_dot}p{sup {rightharpoonup}} theory. The ability to evaluate R{sub 1} has important ramifications for recent first-principles band structure calculations which include exciton effects at E{sub 0}, E{sub 1}, and E{sub 2} [M.Rohlfing and S.G.Louie, Phys.Rev.Lett. 81, 2312 (1998) and S. Albrecht et al., Phys.Rev.Lett. 80, 4510 (1998)]. The experimental absorption coefficients in the region of E{sub 0} were in good agreement with values obtained from a linear interpolation of the end point materials. The experimental results were compared to a recent evaluation and fitting (Holden model) of the optical constants of GaSb.
Date: June 1999
Creator: Charache, G. W.; Muñoz, M.; Wei, K.; Pollak, F. H.; Freeouf, J. L. & Wang, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ohmic Contacts to n-type GaSb and n-type GaInAsSb

Description: An investigation with the objective of improving n-type ohmic contacts to GaSb-based devices is described. This study involves a series of n-GaInAsSb and n-GaSb samples with varying doping, grown on both n-GaSb and semi-insulating GaAs substrates. These samples were fabricated into mesa-etched TLM structures, and the specific contact resistivity and sheet resistance of these layers as a function of majority electron concentration were measured. Extremely low specific contact resistivities of about 2 x 10{sup -6} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} and sheet resistances of about 4 {Omega}/{open_square} are found for n-type GaInAsSb doped at about 3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}.
Date: June 16, 2003
Creator: Huang, R.K.; Wang, C.A.; Harris, C.T.; Connors, M.K. & Shiau, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of n-GaSb and n-GaInAsSb for Low Resistance Ohmic Contacts

Description: A comparison of n-GaSb and n-GaInAsSb epilayers for ohmic contacts in GaSb-based devices is studied. The epilayers were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy and doped with Te. At similar electron concentrations, the atomic Te concentration, as determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, is more than 2 times higher in n-GaSb compared to n-GaInAsSb. In addition, the electron mobility is lower in n-GaSb than n-GaInAsSb at similar electron concentrations. The electron concentration saturates at about 1.3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} for n-GaSb, but linearly increases for n-GaInAsSb. Pd/Ge/Au/Pt/Au metallization was studied for ohmic contacts. A specific contact resistivity of 1 x 10{sup -5}{Omega}-cm{sup 2} for n-GaSb was measured. The specific contact resistivity can be greatly improved by contacting n-GaInAsSb, and a significantly lower specific contact resistivity of 2 x 10{sup -6} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} for n-GaInAsSb was measured.
Date: July 10, 2003
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Shiau, D.A.; Huang, R.K.; Harris, C.T. & Connors, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the Auger Recombination Rate in p-type 0.54-eV GaInAsSb by Time-Resolved Photoluminescence

Description: Auger recombination in p-type GaSb, InAs and their alloys is enhanced due to the proximity of the bandgap energy and the energy separation to the spin split-off valence band. This can affect the device performance even at moderate doping concentration. They report electron lifetime measurements in a p-type 0.54-eV GaInAsSb alloy, commonly used in a variety of infrared devices. They have studied a series of double-capped heterostructures with varied thicknesses and doping levels, grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on GaSb substrates. The Auger coefficient value of 2.3 x 10{sup -28} cm{sup 6}/s is determined by analyzing the photoluminescence decay constants with a systematic separation of different recombination mechanisms.
Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Anikeev, S.; Donetsky, D.; Belenky, G.; Luryi, S.; Wang, C.A.; Borrego, J.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recombination Parameters in InGaAsSb Epitaxial Layers for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

Description: Radio-frequency (RF) photoreflectance measurements and one-dimensional device simulations have been used to evaluate bulk recombination parameter and surface recombination velocity (SRV) in doubly-capped 0.55 eV, 2 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} doped p-InGaAsSb epitaxial layers for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. Bulk lifetimes of 90-100 ns and SRVs of 680 cm/s to 3200 cm/s (depending on the capping layer) are obtained, with higher doping and higher bandgap capping layers most effective in reducing SRV. RF photoreflectance measurements and one-dimensional device simulations are compatible with a radiative recombination coefficient (B) of 3 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 3}/s and Auger coefficient (C) of 1 x 10{sup -28} cm{sup 6}/s.
Date: March 17, 2003
Creator: Kumar, R.J.; Gutmann, J.J.; Borrego, J.M.; Dutta, P.S.; Wang, C.A.; Martinelli, R.U. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lattice-matched epitaxial GaInAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic devices

Description: The materials development of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} alloys for lattice-matched thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is reported. Epilayers with cutoff wavelength 2--2.4 {micro}m at room temperature and lattice-matched to GaSb substrates were grown by both low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy. These layers exhibit high optical and structural quality. For demonstrating lattice-matched thermophotovoltaic devices, p- and n-type doping studies were performed. Several TPV device structures were investigated, with variations in the base/emitter thicknesses and the incorporation of a high bandgap GaSb or AlGaAsSb window layer. Significant improvement in the external quantum efficiency is observed for devices with an AlGaAsSb window layer compared to those without one.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Turner, G.W.; Spears, D.L.; Manfra, M.J. & Charache, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ternary and quaternary antimonide devices for thermophotovoltaic applications

Description: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices have been fabricated using epitaxial ternary and quaternary layers grown on GaSb substrates. GaInSb ternary devices were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with buffer layers to accommodate the lattice mismatch, and GaInAsSb lattice-matched quaternaries were grown by MOVPE and by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Improved devices are obtained when optical absorption occurs in the p-layer due to the longer minority carrier diffusion length. Thick emitter p/n devices are limited by surface recombination, with highest quantum efficiency and lowest dark current being achieved with epitaxially grown surface passivation layers on lattice-matched MOVPE quaternaries. Thin emitter/thick base n/p devices are very promising, but require improved shallow high-quality n-type ohmic contacts.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Hitchcock, C.W.; Gutmann, R.J.; Ehsani, H.; Bhat, I.B.; Wang, C.A.; Freeman, M.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GaInAsSb materials for thermophotovoltaics

Description: Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub 1{minus}y}Sb{sub y} (0.06 < x < 0.2, 0.05 < y < 0.18) epilayers were grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). For lattice-matched alloys, mirror-like surface morphologies were obtained by both OMVPE and MBE. The 4K photoluminescence (PL) of all layers had a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of less than 10 meV for PL peak emission < 1.9 {micro}m. PL FWHM increased to 30 meV for peak emission {approximately}2.12 {micro}m for OMVPE-grown layers. Nominally undoped layers are p-type with typical 300 K hole concentration of {approximately}9 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} and hole mobility {approximately}450 to 580 cm{sup 2}/V-s for OMVPE-grown layers, p- and n-type doping is reported for layers grown with either technique. The ideality factor of diode structures is {approximately}2 for both techniques.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Turner, G.W.; Manfra, M.J.; Choi, H.K. & Spears, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limiting phase separation in epitaxial GaInAsSb

Description: GaInAsSb alloys are of great interest for lattice-matched thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices because of the high performance attainable at 2.2 {micro}m. Extension of the TPV device cutoff wavelength to beyond 2.2 {micro}m is especially desirable since the emissive power of the source is significant at these longer wavelengths. However, the GaInAsSb quaternary alloy system exhibits a miscibility gap in the wavelength range of interest, and no devices with cutoff wavelengths longer than 2.3 {micro}m have been demonstrated. This paper reports the successful growth of GaInAsSb alloys which exhibit room temperature photoluminescence (PL) at wavelengths as long as 2.5 {micro}m. TPV devices with cutoff wavelengths out to 2.5 {micro}m exhibit external quantum efficiencies of 57%. These values are comparable to those measured for 2.2 {micro}m devices.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Wang, C.A.; Ransom, S.L.; Oakley, D.C.; Choi, H.K. & Charache, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvement of critical current density in thallium-based (Tl, Bi)Sr{sub 1.6}Ba{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 9-{delta}} superconductors

Description: Epitaxial (Tl,Bi)Sr{sub 1.6}Ba{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} ((Tl, Bi)-1223) thin films on (100) single crystal LaAlO{sub 3} substrates were synthesized by a two-step procedure. Phase development, microstructure, and relationships between film and substrate were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Resistance versus temperature, zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization, and transport critical current density (J{sub c}) were measured. The zero-resistance temperature was 105--111 K. J{sub c} at 77 K and zero field was >2 {times} 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The films exhibited good flux pinning properties.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Ren, Z.F.; Wang, C.A.; Wang, J.H.; Miller, D.J. & Goretta, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department