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The Effect of Nine Diet and Water Combinations on the Culture Health of Ceriodaphnia Dubia

Description: Culture health of Ceriodaphnia dubia was evaluated for organisms cultured using all combinations of three foods and three waters. Criteria used to assess health of cultures included adult and neonate weights, time required to produce first broods, neonate production, adult survival, and resistance to hexavalent chromium. Diet/water combinations which produced the most neonates were not found to produce adults which were more resistant to chromium than those which produced fewer neonates. Of those evaluated, a diet of Selenastrum capricornutum and a yeast-trout chow-cereal leaf mixture was best for culturing and testing Ceriodaphnia. The best synthetic water tested was a mixture of nine parts reconstituted hard water and one part bottled mineral water.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Patterson, Paul W. (Paul William)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interactions among Temperature, pH, and Cyfluthrin on Survival of the Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas

Description: The 96-hr LC50 of cyfluthrin in Pimephales promelas ata temperature of 23*C and a pH of 8 was 1.08 g/L. The toxicity of cyfluthrin was inversely related to temperature and pH. A temperature of 10*C and a pH of 6 significantly decreased the 96-hr LC50 to 0.009 gg/L. Likewise, sublethal exposures to cyfluthrin significantly affected the fathead minnow's ability to tolerate high and low temperatures. Cyfluthrin compromised the fathead minnow's lower temperature tolerance (CTMin) by 60C and the upper temperature tolerance (CTMax) by 20C. Although cyfluthrin may not be present in the environment in large amounts due to its physical and chemical properties, small concentrations ( g/L) may adversely affect fish populations.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Heath, Susan M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Stress Protein Response of Pimephales promelas to Copper

Description: Organisms synthesize stress proteins in response to a variety of stressors. The 68/70-kDa proteins (synonymous to the 72/73-kDa proteins) have shown to be the most promising stress proteins, and have been proposed as a biomarker of general organismal stress. The 68/70-kDa proteins were used in an antigen/antibody based approach to determine the duration of the stress protein response of Pimephales promelas following an acute exposure to copper sulphate.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Covington, Sean M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ephippia Production, Activation, and Use of Ex-Ephippio Neonates of Ceriodaphnia Dubia as Toxicity Test Organisms

Description: Ceriodaphnia dubia is widely used as a test organism in monitoring water quality. At the present time, cultures must be continuously maintained in the laboratory. In an attempt to avoid continuous culture and maintenance, the hatching of ephippial eggs of C. dubia would provide test organisms when needed. In order to determine the parameters required for maximum hatching, approximately ninety-four thousand ephippia were exposed to a variety of conditions ranging from light and temperature regimes to drying and freezing. A low hatching yield occurred which is believed to be caused by diminished ephippia viability and/or fertility. To evaluate factors influencing the viability and fertility rate, stains of embryos were examined as were male to female ratios and mating experiments.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Poage, Duane W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of Diet, Water, and Culture Size for Ceriodaphnia Dubia Laboratory Culturing

Description: Six reagent waters, eleven diets, and two culture sizes were evaluated for culturing C. dubia. Different filtration techniques were used to prepare the reagent waters. The eleven diets were comprised of two algae augmented with eight supplements. Reproduction and growth were assessed to discern differences among C. dubia raised in mass cultures and cultured in individual cups, during which, bacterial population densities, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate concentrations of the diets were measured. Results showed that a glass-distilled, carbon filtered, deionized reagent water and a Selenastrum capricornutum- Cerophyl® diet were optimum for culturing. Mass culturing supported the highest reproduction and growth, while no correlation was found between nutritional measurements and production.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Allen, Jerry D. (Jerry Dee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Predicted and Actual Trophic Status of Lake Ray Roberts, Texas Based on Chlorophyll A

Description: Two years before impoundment, the trophic status of Lake Ray Roberts was predicted by applying the total phosphorus input into the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) eutrophication model. Predicted mean summer epilimnetic (MSE) chlorophyll a of Elm Fork arm, Isle duBois arm and Main Body were in the eutrophic category of the OECD model. Observed MSE chlorophyll a two years after impoundment of Elm Fork arm, Isle duBois and Main Body had not reached their predicted means and were at the mesotrophic-eutrophic boundary of the OECD model. Six years after impoundment, observed MSE chlorophyll a for Main Body, was closer to its predicted mean and in the eutrophic category of the OECD model. Six years after impoundment, Elm Fork arm was the most productive area of Lake Ray Roberts. Observed means of chlorophyll a, total phosphates, suspended solids and turbidity were often highest in the Elm Fork arm. Wastewater effluent from Gainesville and Valley View, TX, had an impact on productivity in Elm Fork arm.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Lytle, Lili Lisa
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Copper on Immune Responses of Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

Description: Copper exposures of 400 μg/L for 5,10 and 15 days resulted in no significant differences in antibody titers of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides injected with Aeromonas hydrophila compared to control-injected bass. Twenty days of exposure did significantly increase titers. The control group had significantly lower antibody titers than either control-injected or copper-exposed.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Connell, Patrice M. (Patrice Michelle)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development and Application of an Assessment Protocol for Watershed Based Biomonitoring

Description: With numerous bioassessment methodologies available, a regional protocol needs to be developed to ensure that results are comparable. A regional assessment protocol was developed that includes collecting five benthic macroinvertebrate samples, identifying organisms to genus, and calculating the following metrics: Number of Taxa, Total Number of Individuals, Simpson's Diversity Index, Shannon's Diversity Index, Percent Contribution of Dominant Taxa, Hilsenhoffs Biotic Index, and Percent Contribution of Dipterans. Once the protocol was developed, it was used to assess the Bayou Chico tributaries and watershed. All three tributaries had been significantly impacted by human activity as had the watershed as a whole. This study indicates that a regional protocol could be developed and is appropriate for biomonitoring at the watershed scale.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Schwartz, Joseph Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of a Constructed Wetland to Reduce Toxicity from Diazinon at the Pecan Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, Denton, TX

Description: The City of Denton Pecan Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility has periodically failed effluent toxicity testing. A Toxicity Identification Evaluation has determined that Diazinon in the effluent is contributing to the observed toxicity. Chlorpyrifos is also implicated as a factor. The City of Denton constructed a half acre experimental wetland to remove Diazinon related toxicity. Results from spiking and microcosm experiments indicate that the wetland can reduce the Diazinon.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Baerenklau, Amy L. (Amy Lyn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Evaluation of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Response to Effluent Dechlorination in Pecan Creek

Description: This study evaluated the effects of chlorinated effluent discharged from the City of Denton, Texas' wastewater treatment plant on Pecan Creek's fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and their recovery upon dechlorination. A baseline of ecological conditions was established while chlorine was present in the effluent (June 1993- October 1993), and was evaluated again after dechlorination with sulfur dioxide (October 1993-August 1994). In situ Asiatic clam and fathead minnow ambient toxicity tests, and fish and macroinvertebrate collections were used to establish this baseline for comparison to post-dechlorination results.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Wise, Patricia D. (Patricia Diane)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessing the Effects of a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on Zooplankton, Phytoplankton and Corbicula Flumina in a Constructed Wetland

Description: Wetland wastewater treatment offers low-cost, energy efficient alternatives to conventional wastewater technologies. In this study, an artificial wetland was constructed at the City of Denton, Texas Pecan Creek Water Reclamation Plant to facilitate diazinon removal from treated effluent.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Hymel, Stephanie Ramick
Partner: UNT Libraries

Environmental Factors Influencing Chlorophyll-a Concentrations in Lake Texoma

Description: An analysis of algal biomass measured by chlorophyll-a concentration in Lake Texoma was performed as a part of a monitoring program to develop baseline environmental data in order to detect the potential effects of engineered changes in chloride concentrations in the reservoir. This portion of the research project focused on two main research objectives. The first objective was evaluating the effect of sampling strategy on the ability to adequately reflect standing crop estimates and trends in algal biomass. Two sampling regimes utilizing replication of three versus ten samples were applied and then analyzed using a minimum detectable difference algorithm to determine the necessary magnitude of replication to represent the variation in the metric. Chlorophyll-a distribution was analyzed for zonation patterns expected in a river-run reservoir to establish the importance of representative sampling of river, transition and main lake zones of the reservoir for management decisions and trophic characterization.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Gibbs, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sokolovic)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of Similarity Indicies to Assess the Spatial Differences of the Phytoplankton Communities in Lake Ray Roberts, Texas

Description: A study of the phytoplankton communities of Lake Ray Roberts was conducted at three sampling sites on two sampling dates during the summer of 1995, assessing both community structure and chlorophyll a concentrations. Eight similarity indices were then used to characterize and compare the communities of these sites. Both community similarity and chlorophyll a concentrations were evaluated using a minimum detectable difference equation to determine the amount of change that must occur in these parameters in order to be deemed statistically significant. The Bray-Curtis Index was shown to be the most adequate index evaluated, and was subsequently used in conjunction with bootstrap analysis to determine the similarity between the three sampling sites.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Banks, Kenneth E. (Kenneth Edward)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Assessment of Storm Water Toxicity from the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex and Denton, Texas

Description: With the advent of national storm water regulations, municipalities with populations greater than 100,000 are required to obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permits (NPDES) for storm water discharges. In addition to the sampling required for the permit process, the City of Fort Worth contracted with the University of North Texas' Institute of Applied Sciences to conduct acute toxicity testing using Pimephales prcmelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia on storm water samples received from the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. A Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed on four samples that exhibited acute toxicity to C. dubia. High levels of metals as well as diazinon were some of the probable toxicants found.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Keating, Paul Redmond
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Behavioral Model for Detection of Acute Stress in Bivalves

Description: A behavioral model for acute responses in bivalves, was developed using time series analysis for use in a real-time biomonitoring unit. Stressed bivalves closed their shell and waited for the stressful conditions to pass. Baseline data showed that group behavior of fifteen bivalves was periodic, however, individuals behaved independently. Group behavior did not change over a period of 20 minutes more than 30 percent, however, following toxic exposures the group behavior changed by more than 30 percent within 20 minutes. Behavior was mathematically modeled using autoregression to compare current and past behavior. A logical alarm applied to the behavior model determined when organisms were stressed. The ability to disseminate data collected in real time via the Internet was demonstrated.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Allen, H. Joel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Documentation of Biodiversity Impacts (Including Cumulative Biodiversity Impacts) in Environmental Impact Statements

Description: In the United States, biodiversity impact assessment has historically received little attention. Responding in 1993, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) released guidelines on incorporating biodiversity into environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The objectives of the study here were to identify the level of documentation of biodiversity impact assessment in sample Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); identify whether in the years following the release of 1993 CEQ guidelines any significant changes have taken place in assessment of biodiversity; identify deficiencies, and if the need exists, formulate appropriate recommendations and approaches for addressing biodiversity in EISs. The study involved a systematic review of 30 EISs published since the release of CEQ guidelines, and five EISs published prior to it. The review involved answering a series of standard questions, which attempted to ascertain the level of biodiversity impacts included in each impact statement. Trends in approaches to biodiversity impact assessment were investigated and deficiencies summarized. The analysis resulted in a series of recommendations for improving the manner in which biodiversity impact assessment can be approached.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Bhatia, Sarika
Partner: UNT Libraries

Plankton Community Response to Dechorination of a Municipal Effluent Discharged into the Trinity River

Description: Chorine is used by the Village Creek Waste Water Treatment Plant to kill pathogenic microorganisms prior to discharge of the effluent into the Trinity River. The residual chlorine in the river impacted aquatic life prompting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 1990 to require dechlorination using sulfur dioxide. One pre-dechlorination and four post-dechlorination assessments of phytoplankton, periphyton, and zooplankton communities were conducted by the Institute of Applied Sciences at the University of North Texas. Dechlorination had no effect on the phytoplankton community. The periphyton community exhibited a shift in species abundance with a more even distribution of organisms among taxa. No change occurred in zooplankton species abundance, however, there was a decrease in zooplankton density following dechlorination.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Bryan, Brynne L. (Brynne Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of the Use of the Bivalves Ischadium recurvum Rafinesque, 1820 and Corbicula fluminea Muller, 1774 as Biological Indicators of Relative Water Quality in Terms of Growth and Upper Temperature Tolerance

Description: Growth of mussels under laboratory conditions was examined under various food regimes in different water types and temperatures. Growth was less than would be useful as an indicator and comparisons with field exposures were of minimal value. The effects of organophosphates on bivalves were examined via toxicity tests, tissue concentration, and by controlling exposure through the use of physical constraints. Upper temperature tolerance of both bivalve species was examined with respect to different acclimation temperatures and organophosphate exposures. Deviations from control exposures occurred at some temperatures. Copper effectively lowered the mean heat coma temperatures of C. fluminea at some concentrations, however, chlorine exposures did not alter heat coma temperature.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Hemming, Jon Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Response of Aquatic Insect Communities and Caged In situ Asiatic Clams (Corbicula fluminea) to Dechlorinated Municipal Effluent in the Trinity River in North Texas

Description: Dischargers to the Trinity River in North Texas were required to dechlorinate their effluents in 1990-91. Field surveys were conducted above and below an outfall to determine the response of resident immature insects and caged in situ juvenile Asiatic clams to chlorinated and dechlorinated effluent. Within six months after dechlorination began, insect community composition and C. fluminea survival significantly improved at stations below the outfall. Significantly lower clam growth within one mile below the dechlorinated effluent indicated the presence of non-chlorine toxicants. Effects from chlorinated and dechlorinated effluent exposure were comparable between Ceriodaphnia dubia lab tests and in situ C. fluminea.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Spon, Sandra T. (Sandra Teresa)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Laboratory Study of the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea Müller) as Influenced by Substrate, Food Source and Water Type

Description: Growth of Corbicula fluminea was monitored in the laboratory. Three experiments were conducted. Experiment I utilized three substrates and one food type. Experiment II utilized three substrates and two food types. Experiments I and II were conducted to determine if substrate type or food type effected growth. Experiment III used no substrates, one food type and was conducted to determine growth response to different types of water. Clams were maintained in three substrates: sand, gravel and clay. Clams were also maintained without substrate. Growth was monitored by measuring shell length (mm) and recording the weight (mg) of clams over a period of thirty days. At the end of the test period data were evaluated for normality and homogeneity.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Halbrook, Courtney (Courtney Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Responses of Pristina leidyi Smith 1896 (Naididae: Oligochaeta) to Cadmium, Vanadium, and Some Environmental Factors

Description: Concern over sediment toxicity has increased the need for toxicity test information with organisms that inhabit sediments. Oligochaetes are exposed to toxicants through feeding and direct body contact with aquatic sediments. Chronic testing with oligochaetes has historically focused on tubificids with test lengths of one year or more to encompass several generations. Most naidid oligochaetes have generation times of three to seven days and could provide chronic information in a matter of weeks. The cosmopolitan distributed naidid, Pristina leidyi, was evaluated for use as a toxicity test organism. Results of research conducted includes culture methods, effects of temperature on reproduction, growth rates in a reference sediment, acute toxicity tests, and chronic toxicity tests.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Smith, David P. (David Paul), 1956-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biology and Energetics of Tropisternus Lateralis Nimbatus (SAY) (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) in a Playa on the Southern High Plains of Texas and Aquatic Coleoptera Diversity from Seven Playas on the Southern High Plains of Texas

Description: A study of the biology of Tropisternus lateralis, a hydrophilid beetle, was conducted during the flood period of a single playa on the Southern High Plains of Texas from early June 1995 through early September 1995. Mechanism of colonization, tolerance/avoidance to drought, larval density, and secondary production were analyzed. T. lateralis colonized playas from surrounding aquatic habitats and avoided drought through aerial dispersion. Once in the playa, larval density increased over time. Secondary production was 1.31 g/m2/.25 yr. In addition, aquatic Coleoptera diversity was studied in seven playas on the Southern High Plains of Texas. A total of twenty three species were identified from the study region. Nine species not reported in playa literature were identified.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Cook, Robert E. (Robert Edward), 1969-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Remote Sensing of Landscape-Level Ecological Attributes at Ray Roberts Lake in North Texas

Description: Biological diversity is a key component in assessing ecosystem health. Alteration, degradation and loss of habitat due to human influence is currently the primary stressor resulting in decreases in diversity. Reliable assessment of large areas in terms of biological integrity are needed for conservation and preservation efforts. Remotely sensed data provide an integrated view of reflected electromagnetic energy over large areas of the earth. These energy patterns provide unique spectral signatures which can be correlated to land cover and habitat. This research sought relationships between traditional ecological measures and information gathered from satellite digital imagery. Reliable interpretation of earth surface characteristics relies largely on accurate rectification to a map projection and subsequent thematic classification. Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for rectification was superior than digitizing topographical maps. Differentially corrected GPS locations provided optimum rectification with SPOT satellite imagery while marginally better rectifications were obtained for Landsat MSS imagery using uncorrected GPS positions. SPOT imagery provided more accurate land cover classifications than did MSS. Detection of temporal land cover change using MSS imagery was hampered by confusion among intermediate successional classes. Confusion between upland and bottomland forest classes occurred with both SPOT and MSS. Landscape analyses using thematic maps produced from the previously discussed endeavors suggested that terrestrial habitat in the Ray Roberts Lake area became more fragmented and complex in shape. Habitat patches became smaller but more numerous. Forested areas were most effected and conservation efforts should focus on management strategies that promote vegetation succession and forest maturation. Remotely sensed SPOT data were successfully used to predict tree basal area. There were no significant relationships found with other in situ measures or between MSS data and any vegetation measures. Remote sensing provided information suitable for large scale projects concerning landscape-level ecological issues. Rectification and classification accuracies were the ...
Date: December 1997
Creator: Smith, David P. (David Paul), 1956-
Partner: UNT Libraries