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Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

Description: We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.
Date: March 31, 2010
Creator: Vogt, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The energy dependence of the total charm cross section

Description: We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. We compare the next-to-leading order calculation of the total cross section with results obtained using PYTHIA.
Date: October 18, 2007
Creator: Vogt, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The total charm cross section

Description: We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.
Date: September 14, 2007
Creator: Vogt, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarkonia as a multi-purpose tool

Description: Quarkonia can be a very useful tool for understanding the medium in which they are produced and pass through. However, their usefulness as a tool depends on how well certain aspects of their behavior in cold matter are understood.
Date: December 21, 2010
Creator: Vogt, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarkonium shadowing in pPb and Pb+Pb collisions

Description: The d+Au data from RHIC, including the pA results from the fixed-target CERN SPS pA data, suggest increased importance of initial-state shadowing and decreasing nuclear absorption with increasing energy. This is not surprising since smaller x is probed at higher energy while absorption due to multiple scattering is predicted to decrease with energy. The CERN SPS data suggest a J/{psi} absorption cross section of about 4 mb without shadowing, and a larger absorption cross section if it is included since the SPS x range is in the antishadowing region. The d+Au RHIC data support smaller absorption, {sigma}{sup J/{psi}}{sub abs} {approx} 0-2 mb. Thus our predictions for J/{psi} and {Upsilon} production in pPb and Pb+Pb interactions at the LHC are shown for initial-state shadowing alone with no absorption or dense matter effects. We note that including absorption would only move the calculated ratios down in proportion to the absorption survival probability since, at LHC energies, any rapidity dependence of absorption is at very large |y|, outside the detector acceptance.
Date: May 21, 2007
Creator: Vogt, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi and Upsilon Production at the LHC

Description: The charmonium yields are expected to be considerably suppressed if a deconfined medium is formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In addition, the bottomonium states, with the possible exception of the {Upsilon}(1S) state, are also expected to be suppressed in heavy-ion collisions. However, in proton-nucleus collisions the quarkonium production cross sections, even those of the {Upsilon}(1S), scale less than linearly with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. These 'cold nuclear matter' effects need to be accounted for before signals of the high density QCD medium can be identified in the measurements made in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We identify two cold nuclear matter effects important for midrapidity quarkonium production: 'nuclear absorption', typically characterized as a final-state effect on the produced quarkonium state and shadowing, the modification of the parton densities in nuclei relative to the nucleon, an initial-state effect. We characterize these effects and study their energy and rapidity dependence.
Date: June 23, 2009
Creator: Vogt, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chasing the x sub f dependence of J/. Psi. production

Description: We discuss the combined effects of hard scattering processes and intrinsic heavy-quark components in the hadron wavefunction on the x{sub f} dependence of J/{psi} production. The A dependence arises from nuclear absorption, comover interactions, shadowing of parton distributions, and intrinsic heavy quarks. 9 refs., 1 fig.
Date: June 10, 1991
Creator: Vogt, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Event-by-event study of neutron observables in spontaneous and thermal fission

Description: The event-by-event fission model FREYA is extended to spontaneous fission of actinides and a variety of neutron observables are studied for spontaneous fission and fission induced by thermal neutrons with a view towards possible applications for SNM detection. We have shown that event-by-event models of fission, such as FREYA, provide a powerful tool for studying fission neutron correlations. Our results demonstrate that these correlations are significant and exhibit a dependence on the fissioning nucleus. Since our method is phenomenological in nature, good input data are especially important. Some of the measurements employed in FREYA are rather old and statistics limited. It would be useful to repeat some of these studies with modern detector techniques. In addition, most experiments made to date have not made simultaneous measurements of the fission products and the prompt observables, such as neutron and photons. Such data, while obviously more challenging to obtain, would be valuable for achieving a more complete understanding of the fission process.
Date: September 14, 2011
Creator: Vogt, R & Randrup, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of Event-by-Event Fission Modeling with FREYA

Description: The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. We first discuss the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended to include spontaneous fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f), {sup 240}Pu(sf) and {sup 252}Cf(sf), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.
Date: September 16, 2011
Creator: Vogt, R & Randrup, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Event-by-Event Fission with FREYA

Description: The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. The presentation first discusses the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended up to energies where pre-equilibrium emission becomes significant and one or more neutrons may be emitted prior to fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n,f), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also briefly suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.
Date: November 9, 2010
Creator: Randrup, J. & Vogt, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

J/psi production and absorption in p + A and d+Au collisions

Description: The level of 'anomalous' charmonium suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and its interpretation as a signal of quark-gluon plasma formation requires a robust understanding of charmonium production and absorption in proton-nucleus collisions. In a previous study we have shown that, contrary to common belief, the so-called J/{psi} 'absorption cross section', {sigma}{sub abs}{sup J/{psi}}, is not a 'universal constant' but, rather, an effective parameter that depends very significantly on the charmonium rapidity and on the collision energy. Here we present ugraded Glauber calculations with the EPS09 parameterization of nuclear modifications of the parton densities. We confirm that the effective 'absorption cross section' depends on the J/{psi} kinematics and the collision energy. We also make further steps towards understanding the physics of the mechanisms behind the observed 'cold nuclear matter' effects.
Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Vogt, R; Lourenco, C & Woehri, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEND: A Database for High Energy Nuclear Data

Description: We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. The database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. It should eventually contain all published data from older heavy-ion programs such as the Bevalac, AGS, SPS and FNAL fixed-target programs, as well as published data from current programs at RHIC and new facilities at GSI (FAIR), KEK/Tsukuba and the LHC collider. This data includes all proton-proton, proton-nucleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of experiments. To enhance the utility of the database, we propose periodic data evaluations and topical reviews. These reviews would provide an alternative and impartial mechanism to resolve discrepancies between published data from rival experiments and between theory and experiment. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support.
Date: February 21, 2007
Creator: Brown, D & Vogt, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

Description: We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either deexcite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission prefragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.
Date: December 13, 2007
Creator: Vogt, R. & Randrup, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shadowing effects on vector boson production

Description: We explore how nuclear modifications to the nucleon structure functions, shadowing, affect massive gauge boson production in heavy ion collisions at different impact parameters. We calculate the dependence of Z{sup 0}, W{sup +} and W{sup -} production on rapidity and impact parameter to next-to-leading order in Pb+Pb collisions at 5.5 TeV/nucleon to study quark shadowing at high Q{sup 2}. We also compare our Pb+Pb results to the pp rapidity distributions at 14 TeV.
Date: November 10, 2000
Creator: Vogt, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department