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Compact X-band high power load using magnetic stainless steel

Description: We present design and experimental results of a high power X-band load. The load is formed as a disk-loaded waveguide structure using lossy, Type 430 stainless steel. The design parameters have been optimized using the recently developed mode-matching code MLEGO. The load has been designed for compactness while maintaining a band width greater than 300 MHz.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Tantawi, S.G. & Vlieks, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IKE: An interactive klystron evaluation program for SLAC linear collider klystron performance

Description: When the new 65 MW klystrons for the SLC were planned, a computer based interlock and data recording system was implemented in the general electronics upgrade. Significant klystron operating parameters are interlocked and displayed in the SLC central control room through the VAX control computer. A program titled ''IKE'' has been written to record klystron operating data each day, store the data in a database, and provide various sorted operating and statistical information to klystron engineers, and maintenance personnel in the form of terminal listings, bar graphs, and special printed reports. This paper gives an overview of the IKE system, describes its use as a klystron maintenance tool, and explains why it is valuable to klystron engineers.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Kleban, S.D.; Koontz, R.F. & Vlieks, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reliability and lifetime predictions of SLC klystrons

Description: The energy upgrade of SLAC, with the first of the new 67 MW SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) klystrons, began over four years ago. Today there are over 200 of these klystrons in operation. As a result, there is a wealth klystron performance and failure information that enables reasonable predictions to be made on life expectancy and reliability. Data from initial tests, follow-up tests and daily operation monitoring on the accelerator is stores for analysis. Presented here are life expectancy predictions with particular emphasis on cathode life. Also, based on this data, we will discuss some of the principal modes of failure. 3 refs., 2 figs.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Lee, T.G. & Vlieks, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalous electron loading in SLAC 5045 klystron and relativistic klystron input cavities

Description: Recent studies of RF breakup and instability in the SLAC 5045 klystrons have revealed that many production klystrons show loading of the input cavity by low energy electrons even under cold cathode no beam conditions. Sometime after the onset of the RF drive pulse, the input cavity absorbs a portion of the incident RF drive that would otherwise be reflected from the not-beam-loaded cavity. This power absorption is a function of drive level, and of axial magnetic field surrounding the cavity. No power absorption is present when the axial magnetic field is zero. This same phenomenon has been observed in the input cavity of relativistic klystron experiments being conducted as part of the SLAC-LBL-LLNL development program. The phenomenon may be associated with RF breakup and RF instability in SLAC 5045 klystrons, and with unstable pulse shortening in the relativistic klystron experiments. This paper outlines some old and new observations of microwave beam device malfunctions that probably are associated with low energy electron fluxes in the vacuum environments of microwave power devices. 2 refs., 5 figs.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Koontz, R.F.; Fowkes, R.W.; Lavine, T.L.; Miller, R.H. & Vlieks, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a multi-megawatt x-band solid state microwave switch

Description: The authors present design methodology for high power microwave switches. Among all possible applications for such a switch they emphasize the design parameters for application to the pulse compression system associated with the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The switch is based on the excitation of a plasma layer within a silicon wafer by either a laser or an electron beam. They investigate problems associated with high power operation of such a switch. Mainly, they explore solutions to the problems of thermal runaway, avalanche breakdown, photo-emission, and secondary emission. Different design methodologies are presented.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Tantawi, S.G.; Lee, T.G.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E. & Zolotorev, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of the SLAC Linear Collider klystrons

Description: There are now 200 new, high power 5045 klystrons installed on the two-mile Stanford Linear Accelerator. Peak power per klystron averages over 63 MW. Average energy contribution is above 240 MeV per station. Electron beam energy has been measured as high as 53 GeV. Energy instability due to klystron malfunction is less than 0.2%. The installed klystrons have logged over one million operating hours with close to 20,000 klystron hours cumulative operating time between failures. Data are being accumulated on klystron operation and failure modes with failure signatures starting to become apparent. To date, no wholesale failure modes have surfaced that would impair the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) program.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Allen, M.A.; Fowkes, W.R.; Koontz, R.F.; Schwarz, H.D.; Seeman, J.T. & Vlieks, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A semi-automated system for the characterization of NLC accelerating structures

Description: *A system for characterizing the phase shift per cell of a long X-band accelerator structure is described. The fields within the structure are perturbed by a small cylindrical metal bead pulled along the axis. A computer controls the bead position and processes the data from a network analyzer connected to the accelerator section. Measurements made on prototype accelerator sections are described, and they are shown to be in good agreement with theory.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Hanna, S.M.; Bowden, G.B.; Hoag, H.A.; Loewen, R.; Vlieks, A.E. & Wang, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High gradient electron guns

Description: Experiments have been conducted to determine peak operating gradients attainable in thermionic electron guns. These tests are part of a study of high-current-density, long-life cathodes suitable for use in high power klystrons. We also investigated the use of chromium oxide coating as a means of inhibiting electronic breakdown across the focus electrode anode gap. Field gradients in excess of 280 kV/cm have been achieved for a gun operating at 240 kV with a beam current of 228 A, at pulse widths of the order of 1 {mu}s. 3 refs., 5 figs.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Fant, K.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Koontz, R.F.; Vlieks, A.E. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)) & Miram, G. (Miram (G.), Atherton, CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational experience with SLAC energy upgrade

Description: To produce energies of over 50 GeV for SLC, all klystron stations on the accelerator are being upgraded to produce 250 MeV energy contribution per station. This involves installing new, higher power, longer pulse klystrons, upgrading klystron modulators to provide these higher voltage, longer klystron beam pulses, and a new interlock and protection system. A new VAX based diagnostic system including automated microwave measurements, klystron beam monitors, and modulator performance checks is being implemented. Figure 1 shows a block diagram of the klystron-modulator system. To date, over half of the new klystrons have been installed and tested, the modulator upgrade program has converted 22 sectors (8 stations each) of modulators out of 30, and a four sector sampling of klystrons has been run at full SLC specs, namely 350 kV beam voltage, 3.5 microsecond pulse duration, peak output power in excess of 60 MW, and PRF of 120 pps. This paper discusses the klystron design, modulator design, interlock and diagnostic systems, and the results of the initial operation.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Schwarz, H.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

100 MW klystron development at SLAC

Description: A klystron designed to operate at 11.4 GHz and 440 kV is presently SLAC's strongest rf power source candidate for the Next Linear Collider. It is expected to provide 100 MW of rf power with a pulse width of 1 microsecond. Many of the conventional tube technologies are being pushed to their limits. High electron beam power densities, rf electric gradients in cavity gaps and stresses on the ceramic rf output windows are among the most severe problems to be dealt with. This paper describes progress in the development of this device including results from single and double gap output cavities and various styles of rf output windows. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Vlieks, A.E.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Lee, T.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulation of the SLAC X-100 klystron using RKTW2D

Description: We have performed numerical simulations of the X-100 klystron being developed at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The X-100 is being developed as a possible source for the next generation of linear collider, and will be required to produce {approx}100 MW of power for a duration of {approx}800 ns. Our simulations were performed using the simulation programs RKTW1D and RKTW2D, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The codes were used to investigate the operation of the klystron over a wide range of operating conditions. We will present comparisons of the simulation results with experimental results. 3 refs., 5 figs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Ryne, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)) & Vlieks, A.E. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breakdown phenomena in high power klystrons

Description: In the course of developing new high peak power klystrons at SLAC, high electric fields in several regions of these devices have become an important source of vacuum breakdown phenomena. In addition, a renewed interest in breakdown phenomena for nanosecond pulse, multi-megavolt per centimeter fields has been sparked by recent R and D work in the area of gigawatt RF sources. The most important regions of electrical breakdown are in the output cavity gap area, the RF ceramic windows, and the gun ceramic insulator. The details of the observed breakdown in these regions, experiments performed to understand the phenomena and solutions found to alleviate the problems will be discussed. Recently experiments have been performed on a new prototype R and D klystron. Peak electric fields across the output cavity gaps of this klystron exceed 2 MV/cm. The effect of peak field duration (i.e. pulse width) on the onset of breakdown have been measured. The pulse widths varied from tens of nanoseconds to microseconds. Results from these experiments will be presented. The failure of ceramic RF windows due to multipactor and puncturing was an important problem to overcome in order that our high power klystrons would have a useful life expectancy. Consequently many studies and tests were made to understand and alleviate window breakdown phenomena. Some of the results in this area, especially the effects of surface coatings, window materials and processing techniques and their effects on breakdown will be discussed. Another important source of klystron failure in the recent past at SLAC has been the puncturing of the high voltage ceramic insulator in the gun region. A way of alleviating this problem has been found although the actual cause of the puncturing is not yet clear. The ''practical'' solution to this breakdown process will be described and a possible mechanism ...
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Vlieks, A.E.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoyt, E.W.; Lebacqz, J.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator's RF Pulse Compression And Transmission

Description: The overmoded rf transmission and pulsed power compression system for SLAC's Next Linear Collider (NLC) program requires a high degree of transmission efficiency and mode purity to be economically feasible. To this end, a number of new, high power components and systems have been developed at X-band, which transmit rf power in the low loss, circular TE01 mode with negligible mode conversion. In addition, a highly efficient SLED-II* pulse compressor has been developed and successfully tested at high power. The system produced a 200 MW, 250 ns wide pulse with a near-perfect flat-top. In this paper we describe the design and test results of the high power pulse compression system using SLED-II. The NLC rf systems use low loss highly over-moded circular waveguides operating in the TE01 mode. The efficiency of the systems is sensitive to the mode purity of the mode excited inside these guides. We used the so called flower petal mode transducer [2] to excite the TE01 mode. This type of mode transducer is efficient, compact and capable of handling high levels of power. To make more efficient systems, we modified this device by adding several mode selective chokes to act as mode purifiers. To manipulate the rf signals we used these modified mode converters to convert back and forth between over-moded circular waveguides and single-moded WR90 rectangular waveguides. Then, we used the relatively simple rectangular waveguide components to do the actual manipulation of rf signals. For example, two mode transducers and a mitered rectangular waveguide bend comprise a 90 degree bend. Also, a magic tee and four mode transducers would comprise a four-port-hybrid, etc. We will discuss the efficiency of an rf transport system based on the above methodology. We also used this methodology in building the SLEDII pulse compression system. At SLAC we built 4 ...
Date: September 14, 2011
Creator: Tantawi, S.G.; Adelphson, C.; Holmes, S.; Lavine, Theodore L.; Loewen, R.J.; Nantista, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent Measurements And Plans for the SLAC Compton X-Ray Source

Description: A compact source of monoenergetic X-rays, generated via Compton backscattering, has been developed in a collaboration between U.C Davis and SLAC. The source consists of a 5.5 cell X-band photoinjector, a 1.05 m long high gradient accelerator structure and an interaction chamber where a high power (TW), short pulse (sub-ps) infrared laser beam is brought into a nearly head-on collision with a high quality focused electron beam. Successful completion of this project will result in the capability of generating a monoenergetic X-ray beam, continuously tunable from 20 - 85 keV. We have completed a series of measurements leading up to the generation of monoenergetic X-rays. Measurements of essential electron beam parameters and the techniques used in establishing electron/photon collisions will be presented. We discuss the design of an improved interaction chamber, future electro-optic experiments using this chamber and plans for expanding the overall program to the generation of Terahertz radiation.
Date: February 14, 2006
Creator: Vlieks, A.E.; Akre, R.; Caryotakis, G.; DeStefano, C.; Frederick, W.J.; Heritage, J.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.
Date: May 12, 2010
Creator: Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P; Chu, T S; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An X-Band Gun Test Area at SLAC

Description: The X-Band Test Area (XTA) is being assembled in the NLCTA tunnel at SLAC to serve as a test facility for new RF guns. The first gun to be tested will be an upgraded version of the 5.6 cell, 200 MV/m peak field X-band gun designed at SLAC in 2003 for the Compton Scattering experiment run in ASTA. This new version includes some features implemented in 2006 on the LCLS gun such as racetrack couplers, increased mode separation and elliptical irises. These upgrades were developed in collaboration with LLNL since the same gun will be used in an injector for a LLNL Gamma-ray Source. Our beamline includes an X-band acceleration section which takes the electron beam up to 100 MeV and an electron beam measurement station. Other X-Band guns such as the UCLA Hybrid gun will be characterized at our facility.
Date: September 7, 2012
Creator: Limborg-Deprey, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T.S.; Dunning, M.P.; Jobe, R.K.; Jongewaard, E.N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF power generation for future linear colliders

Description: The next linear collider will require 200 MW of rf power per meter of linac structure at relatively high frequency to produce an accelerating gradient of about 100 MV/m. The higher frequencies result in a higher breakdown threshold in the accelerating structure hence permit higher accelerating gradients per meter of linac. The lower frequencies have the advantage that high peak power rf sources can be realized. 11.42 GHz appears to be a good compromise and the effort at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is being concentrated on rf sources operating at this frequency. The filling time of the accelerating structure for each rf feed is expected to be about 80 ns. Under serious consideration at SLAC is a conventional klystron followed by a multistage rf pulse compression system, and the Crossed-Field Amplifier. These are discussed in this paper.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Fowkes, W.R.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.
Date: May 18, 2010
Creator: Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision X-Band Linac Technologies for Nuclear Photonics Gamma-Ray Sources

Description: Nuclear photonics is an emerging field of research requiring new tools, including high spectral brightness, tunable gamma-ray sources; high photon energy, ultrahigh-resolution crystal spectrometers; and novel detectors. This presentation focuses on the precision linac technology required for Compton scattering gamma-ray light sources, and on the optimization of the laser and electron beam pulse format to achieve unprecedented spectral brightness. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology will be shown to offer optimal performance in a compact package, when used in conjunction with the appropriate pulse format, and photocathode illumination and interaction laser technologies. The nascent field of nuclear photonics is enabled by the recent maturation of new technologies, including high-gradient X-band electron acceleration, robust fiber laser systems, and hyper-dispersion CPA. Recent work has been performed at LLNL to demonstrate isotope-specific detection of shielded materials via NRF using a tunable, quasi-monochromatic Compton scattering gamma-ray source operating between 0.2 MeV and 0.9 MeV photon energy. This technique is called Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Energetic Radiation (or FINDER). This work has, among other things, demonstrated the detection of {sup 7}Li shielded by Pb, utilizing gamma rays generated by a linac-driven, laser-based Compton scattering gamma-ray source developed at LLNL. Within this context, a new facility is currently under construction at LLNL, with the goal of generating tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range, at a repetition rate of 120 Hz, and with a peak brightness in the 10{sup 20} photons/(s x mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x 0.1% bw).
Date: August 31, 2011
Creator: Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The NLC Injector System

Description: The Next Linear Collider (NW) Injector System is designed to produce low emittance, 10 GeV electron and positron beams at 120 hertz for injection into the NLC main linacs. Each beam consists of a train of 9.5 bunches spaced by 2.8 ns; each bunch has a population of 1.15 x 10{sup 10} particles. At injection into the main linacs, the horizontal and vertical emittances are specified to be {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub x} = 3 x 10{sup -6} m-rad and {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub y} = 3 x 10{sup -8} m-rad and the bunch length is 100 {micro}m. Electron polarization of greater than 80% is required. Electron and positron beams are generated in separate accelerator complexes each of which contain the source, damping ring systems, L-band, S-band, and X-band linacs, bunch length compressors, and collimation regions. The need for low technical risk, reliable injector subsystems is a major consideration in the design effort. This paper presents an overview of the NLC injector systems.
Date: November 5, 1999
Creator: Bharadwaj, V.; Clendenin, J.E.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Jobe, R.; Kotseroglou, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relativistic klystron research at SLAC and LLNL

Description: We are developing relativistic klystrons as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications such as large linear electron-positron colliders and compact accelerators. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here briefly on our experiments so far. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Date: June 1, 1988
Creator: Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relativistic klystrons for high-gradient accelerators

Description: Experimental work is being performed by collaborators at LLNL, SLAC, and LBL to investigate relativistic klystrons as a possible rf power source for future high-gradient accelerators. We have learned how to overcome or previously reported problem of high power rf pulse shortening and have achieved peak rf power levels of 330 MW using an 11.4-GHz high-gain tube with multiple output structures. In these experiments the rf pulse is of the same duration as the beam current pulse. In addition, experiments have been performed on two short sections of a high-gradient accelerator using the rf power from a relativistic klystron. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80-MW of rf power.
Date: September 5, 1990
Creator: Westenskow, G.A.; Aalberts, D.P.; Boyd, J.K.; Deis, G.A.; Houck, T.L.; Orzechowski, T.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department