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Building Code Compliance and Enforcement: The Experience of SanFrancisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinanace and California'sBuildign Standards for New Construction

Description: As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. Because statewide codes are enforced by local officials, these problems may increase over time as energy standards change and become more complex and as other standards (eg, health and safety codes) remain a higher priority. The California Energy Commission realizes that code enforcement by itself is insufficient and expects that additional educational ...
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INDEEP annual report (1994--1995)

Description: This report is the first Annual Report of the International Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (INDEEP), summarizing the activities of the first year (1994--1995). During this time period, the authors conducted the following activities: (1) reviewed existing international demand-side management (DSM) program data bases; (2) reviewed participating country`s experience in DSM program evaluation; (3) prepared case studies on 1--4 DSM programs per country; (4) tested the DEEP data collection instrument (DCI) and prepared an INDEEP DCI; (5) contacted potential users of the INDEEP data base; and (6) organized an INDEEP workshop. As a result of these activities, the authors accomplished more in the first year than what was expected, so that the work planned for five years can be accomplished in a shorter period of time and with a reduced budget. The key findings from the first year are the following: (1) based on a review of the literature and discussions with DSM experts in the participating countries, they found the proposed INDEEP data base to be unique and not duplicative of other data bases; (2) after intensive ``field testing`` of the INDEEP data collection instrument (DCI) on 14 European DSM programs, a four-page DCI was developed that INDEEP experts agreed to use for data collection in the second year of the project; (3) based on informal networking, DCI field testing, meetings with potential users of the INDEEP data base, and the INDEEP workshop, they found substantial interest in the INDEEP project, particularly from DSM program designers; (4) discussions with DSM experts in the participating countries and at an INDEEP workshop attended by over 40 European DSM experts led to a consensus for the project to proceed for another year, focusing on: (a) additional data collection, (b) entering of data onto an Excel spreadsheet, and (c) close collaboration with potential ...
Date: April 1995
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption-desorption studies on tuff. II. Continuation of studies with samples from Jackass Flats, Nevada and initial studies with samples from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: Distruibution coefficients were determined by a static (batch) technique for sorption-desorption of radionuclides between tuffs from drill holes UE25a No. 1 and J-13 at the Nevada Test Site and water from well J-13. Measurements were performed under atmospheric and controlled atmosphere conditions. Under atmospheric conditions tuffs high in zeolite minerals had sorption ratios of {similar_to}10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} ml/g with Sr, Cs, Ba, Ce, Eu, Am, and Pu. For tuffs similar mineralogically to a microgranite the sorption ratios were {similar_to}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} ml/g. Values for U and Tc were obtained under controlled atmosphere (< 0.2 ppM 0{sub 2}) conditions. Studies were also begun to measure distribution ratios by a dynamic (column) technique. The ratios obtained for the elements studied, Sr, Cs, and Ba, were similar to, although lower than, those obtained by batch methods.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Vine, E.N.; Aguilar, R.D. & Bayhurst, B.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The monitoring evaluation, reporting and verification of climate change mitigation projects

Description: Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations, climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG benefits (i.e., environmental, economic, and social benefits). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues involved in MERV activities. They identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as: (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other benefits; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Vine, E. & Sathaye, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INDEEP Annual report (1995-1996)

Description: The International database on Energy Efficiency Programs (INDEEP) project is designed to make available information on electric and gas utility demand-side management (DSM) programs, as well as DSM programs carried out by government agencies and others. Efforts in the program for this time period are described.
Date: June 1996
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study

Description: Recently, US energy service companies (ESCOs) have begun to actively explore markets outside the US. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e., marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural barriers). Consequently, most of these firms pursue international project opportunities very selectively due to the costs and risks associated with project development. Despite these barriers, some ESCOs view international work as a strategic expansion of their business, assuming that there will be adequate business in the future to repay them for their initial investment. In this paper, the authors present the findings from a recently completed study on the proposed development of an ESCO industry in Japan. The study was based on four sources of information: (1) a review of the published and unpublished literature on ESCOs; (2) interviews with 26 ESCOs in the US, the US Department of Energy, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO); (3) ESCO presentations at the October 1996 NAESCO meeting; and (4) informal discussions with ESCO experts in the US. They believe that the lessons learned in this study can be transferred or applied to other countries interested in developing an ESCO industry. While energy prices have remained relatively stable over the last several years in Japan and energy capacity is not perceived as a near-term problem, other ``market drivers`` necessary for the emergence of a successful and vibrant ESCO industry exist in Japan. Despite the presence of these market drivers, significant barriers to the successful development of an ESCO industry exist in Japan.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Vine, E. & Murakoshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The reliability of DSM impact estimates

Description: Demand-side management (DSM) critics continue to question the reliability of DSM program savings, and therefore, the need for funding such programs. In this paper, the authors examine the issues underlying the discussion of reliability of DSM program savings (e.g., bias and precision) and compare the levels of precision of DSM impact estimates for three utilities. Overall, the precision results from all three companies appear quite similar and, for the most part, demonstrate reasonably good precision levels around DSM savings estimate. The conclude by recommending activities for program managers and evaluators for increasing the understanding of the factors leading to DSM uncertainty and for reducing the level of DSM uncertainty.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Vine, E.L. & Kushler, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The evolution of the US ESCO industry: From ESCO to SuperESCO

Description: As the restructuring of the U.S. electric utility industry proceeds, utility companies are expected to be either competing or partnering with Super ESCOs to provide energy-efficiency services and energy to utility customers. In this paper, Super ESCOs and utilities were interviewed to see how these organizations are currently interacting and planning to interact in the future. As part of this investigation, the types of products and services Super ESCOs will be providing in the future and how utility restructuring will affect their business were examined.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Vine, E.; Nakagami, Hidetoshi & Murakoshi, Chiharu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The demise of residential new construction programs: Is there life after death?

Description: Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the US, the authors find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because they are not cost-effective. They believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (2) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices significantly exceeding state and federal standards; (3) recognizing these programs` role in increasing compliance by participants with existing state building codes; and (4) obtaining an energy-savings credit for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. The issues involved in evaluating residential new construction programs will be challenging as evaluators attempt to quantify the savings from program spillover.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Vine, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

Description: This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Vine, E.; De Buen, O. & Goldfman, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

Description: Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes /sup 85/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 152/Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 233/U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S. & Thompson, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

Description: Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

Description: Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

Description: Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Vine, E. & Sathaye, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

Description: While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Vine, E. & Kazakevicius, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International DSM and DSM program evaluation: An INDEEP assessment

Description: This paper discusses the current level of demand-side management (DSM) occurring in selected European countries and reviews the availability of information on DSM programs and program evaluation. Next, thirteen European DSM programs are compared by examining such factors as: motivations for program implementation, marketing methods, participation rates, total energy savings, and program costs. The transfer of DSM program results and experiences found in these case studies is also discussed, as well as the lessons learned during the design, implementation, and evaluation of these programs. This paper represents a preliminary assessment of the state of DSM and DSM program evaluation in Europe. The findings from this work also represent the first steps in a joint international effort to compile and analyze the measured results of energy efficiency programs in a consistent and comprehensive fashion. The authors find that these programs represent cost-effective resources: the cost of energy saved by the programs ranged from a low of 0.0005 ECUs/kWh (0.01 {cents}/kWh) to a high of 0.077 ECUs/kWh (9.7 {cents}/kWh), with an average cost of 0.027 ECUs/kWh (3.3 {cents}/kWh). Weighted by energy savings, the average cost of energy saved by the programs was 0.014 ECUs/kWh (1.8 {cents}/kWh).
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing energy and environmental reporting protocols

Description: In this paper, we concentrate on the reporting and verification of energy and emissions reductions rather than absolute levels. Absolute emissions levels are collected by the US Department of Energy`s (US DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) and other agencies, using reporting and verification procedures that are straightforward and build upon previous data collection activities. In contrast, energy savings or reductions cannot be measured directly; instead they must be estimated by subtracting the final energy use from initial energy use. In the meantime, conditions may change, such as economic activity or weather, so that a simple subtraction may yield misleading results. Therefore, estimation, verification, and reporting of energy and emissions savings require considerably more information to ensure that the reductions are due to efficiency improvements rather changes in other conditions. The treatment of this additional information is a major challenge in efforts to report and tabulate energy savings in a consistent manner. This paper identifies several problem areas in reporting programs and some of the mechanisms for dealing with them.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Schrock, D.W.; Stoops, J.L.; Meier, A.K.; Vine, E.L. & Solomon, B.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current status of laboratory sorption studies

Description: LASL batch sorption methodology was used to obtain data on granite, argillite, and tuff samples. Effects of solution-to-solid ratio, isotope concentration, atmosphere, and mineralogy were investigated for the elements strontium, cesium, barium, cerium, europium, technetium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. A circulating system was used in making sorption measurements for comparison with conventional batch techniques. The mineralogy of several tuff, granite, and argillite samples was studied and compared with sorption ratios. A significant correlation between sorption of strontium, cesium, and barium and major rock phases was observed.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Vine, E.N.; Wolfsberg, K.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developmental issues in environmental reporting protocols

Description: In this paper, we review the policy differences and associated reporting and verification protocols between three energy and/or environmental reporting programs in the United States, specifically the Conservation Verification Protocols (CVP) - a voluntary set of procedures for reporting acid rain reductions from energy conservation, the Greenhouse Gas Voluntary Reporting Program (GGVRP) to acknowledge greenhouse gas-reducing activities, and a national database on energy efficiency programs (DEEP) an informational database on utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. The most important lesson learned in developing these reporting programs is that the accuracy of the program for reporting energy savings activities is dependent upon both the estimation and verification protocols used in the program and the mapping procedures used to generate emission impacts from energy savings. Additionally, the types of protocols that may be used in the program depend upon who is participating in the program. The free market can also be a useful tool in determining how much money reporting entities want to spend on energy savings and emissions reductions estimation and verification protocols by placing a dollar value on atmospheric emissions. After such programs are implemented, the program managers should ensure that an iterative, quality control process is utilized. The reporters of such information must be made aware that their numbers will be reviewed carefully and will be questioned for accuracy. Finally, the accuracy and confidence of the reported information should be reviewed on a periodic basis to ensure that the goals and expectations of the program and the reporting entities are being met.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Schrock, D. W.; Stoops, J. L.; Meier, A. K.; Vine, E. L. & Solomon, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential building code compliance: Implications for evaluating the performance of utility residential new construction programs

Description: Knowing how well builders comply with (or exceed) energy-related building codes is critical for completing a sound evaluation of utility residential new construction programs and for determining the actual cost-effectiveness of these programs. Obtaining credit from utility regulators for additional energy savings from code compliance in participant houses as a result of the utility program is one of the key options available for utilities for improving the cost-effectiveness of these programs. In this paper, the authors examine residential building energy code compliance and specific code violations in three states (California, Oregon and Washington). They then compare residential building energy code compliance for program participants and nonparticipants as well as estimates of the energy savings impacts from noncompliance. The authors also point out some of the methodological limitations of these studies which limit the ability to generalize from these studies.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Office worker response to an automated venetian blind and electric lighting system: A pilot study

Description: A prototype integrated, dynamic building envelope and lighting system designed to optimize daylight admission and solar heat gain rejection on a real-time basis in a commercial office building is evaluated. Office worker response to the system and occupant-based modifications to the control system are investigated to determine if the design and operation of the prototype system can be improved. Key findings from the study are: (1) the prototype integrated envelope and lighting system is ready for field testing, (2) most office workers (N=14) were satisfied with the system, and (3) there were few complaints. Additional studies are needed to explain how illuminance distribution, lighting quality, and room design can affect workplans illuminance preferences.
Date: March 1998
Creator: Vine, E.; Lee, E.; Clear, R.; DiBartolomeo, D. & Selkowitz, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of commercial lighting programs: A DEEP assessment

Description: In this paper, we present key findings from a Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) report on commercial lighting programs. In the DEEP report, which is the first in a series, we examine the measured performance of 20 utility-sponsored, demand-side management (DSM), lighting efficiency programs in the commercial and industrial sectors. We assess the performance of the lighting programs based on four measures: the total resource costs of the programs, participation rates, energy savings per participant, and utility costs per participant. At an average cost of 3.9 C/kWh, these programs are judged to be cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their areas. We critically examine participation rates, energy savings per participant, and utility costs per participant in order to understand precisely what aspects of program performance they measure. Finally, we summarize some of the primary difficulties in collecting DSM data in a consistent and comprehensive fashion, and offer some solutions to this challenging problem.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Vine, E.L.; Eto, J.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R. & Payne, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility residential new construction programs: Going beyond the code. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) Project

Description: Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs, primarily sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the United States, we find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because current inclusion of only direct program effects leads to the conclusion that they are not cost-effective. We believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices that significantly exceed state and federal standards; (2) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (3) recognizing the role of these programs in increasing compliance with existing state building codes; and (4) allowing utilities to obtain an ``energy-savings credit`` from utility regulators for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. Utilities can also leverage their resources in seizing these opportunities by forming strong and trusting partnerships with the building community and with local and state government.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated performance of an automated venetian blind/electric lighting system in a full-scale office environment

Description: Comprehensive results are presented from a fill-scale testbed of a prototype automated venetian blind lighting system installed in two unoccupied, private offices in Oakland, California. The dynamic system balanced daylight against solar heat gains in real-time, to reduce perimeter zone energy use and to increase comfort. This limited proof-of-concept test was designed to work out practical ''bugs'' and refine design details to increase cost effectiveness and acceptability of this innovative technology for real-world applications. We present results from 14 months of tuning the system design and monitoring energy performance and control system operations. For this southeast-facing office, we found that 1-22% lighting energy savings, 13-28% cooling load reductions, and 13-28% peak cooling load reductions can be achieved by the dynamic system under clear sky and overcast conditions year round, compared to a static, partly closed blind with the same optimized daylighting control system. These energy savings increase if compared to conventional daylighting controls with manually-operated blinds. Monitored data indicated that the control system met design objectives under all weather conditions to within 10% for at least 90% of the year. A pilot human factors study indicated that some of our default control settings should be adjusted to increase user satisfaction. With these adjustments, energy savings will decrease. The final prototype design yielded a 10-year simple payback for this site. If mechanical system downsizing opportunities and qualitative improvements to worker's comfort are included, this innovative technology could be more cost effective. Marketing information for commercializing this technology is given.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: DiBartolomeo, D. L.; Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, S. E. & Vine, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department