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Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

Description: In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.
Date: October 5, 2006
Creator: Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J & Wright, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detector design for high-resolution MeV photon imaging of cargo containers using spectral information

Description: Monte Carlo simulations of a pixelated detector array of inorganic scintillators for high spatial resolution imaging of 1-9 MeV photons are presented. The results suggest that a detector array of 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm x 5 cm pixels of bismuth germanate may provide sufficient efficiency and spatial resolution to permit imaging of an object with uncertainties in dimension of several mm. The cross talk between pixels is found to be in the range of a few percent when pixels are shielded by {approx} 1mm of lead or tungsten. The contrast at the edge of an object is greatly improved by rejection of events depositing less than {approx} 1 MeV. Given the relatively short decay time of BGO, the simulations suggest that such a detector may prove adequate for the purpose of rapid scanning of highly-shielded cargos for possible presence of high atomic number (including clandestine fissionable) materials when used with low current high duty factor x-ray sources.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Descalle, M A; Vetter, K; Hansen, A; Daniels, J & Prussin, S G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma-ray imaging with coaxial HPGe detector

Description: We report on the first experimental demonstration of Compton imaging of gamma rays with a single coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. This imaging capability is realized by two-dimensional segmentation of the outside contact in combination with digital pulse-shape analysis, which enables to image gamma rays in 4{pi} without employing a collimator. We are able to demonstrate the ability to image the 662keV gamma ray from a {sup 137}Cs source with preliminary event selection with an angular accuracy of 5 degree with an relative efficiency of 0.2%. In addition to the 4{pi} imaging capability, such a system is characterized by its excellent energy resolution and can be implemented in any size possible for Ge detectors to achieve high efficiency.
Date: April 12, 2005
Creator: Niedermayr, T; Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Schmid, G J; Beckedahl, D; Kammeraad, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for increasing the efficiency of Compton imagers

Description: A Compton scatter camera based on position sensitive, planar Ge and Si(Li) detectors with segmented electrodes is being developed at LLNL. This paper presents various methods that were developed to increase the position resolution of the detectors, the granularity and capability to reconstruct the scattering sequence of the gamma-ray within the detectors. All these methods help to increase the efficiency of the imager, by accepting more photons in the final image. The initial extent and diffusion of charge-carrier clouds inside the semiconductor detectors are found to affect profoundly the fraction of interactions that deposit charge in multiple adjacent electrodes. An accurate identification of these charge-shared interactions is a key factor in correctly reconstructing the position of interactions in the detector.
Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K; Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cunningham, M; Gunter, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NSLS-II BPM System Protection from Rogue Mode Coupling

Description: Rogue mode RF shielding has been successfully designed and implemented into the production multipole vacuum chambers. In order to avoid systematic errors in the NSLS-II BPM system we introduced frequency shift of HOM's by using RF metal shielding located in the antechamber slot of each multipole vacuum chamber. To satisfy the pumping requirement the face of the shielding has been perforated with roughly 50 percent transparency. It stays clear of synchrotron radiation in each chamber.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Blednykh, A.; Bach, B.; Borrelli, A.; Ferreira, M.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hetzel, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rogue Mode Shileding in NSLS-II Multipole Vacuum Chambers

Description: Modes with transverse electric field (TE-modes) in the NSLS-II multipole vacuum chamber can be generated at frequencies above 450MHz due to its geometric dimensions. Since the NSLS-II BPM system monitors signals within 10 MHz band at RF frequency of 500 MHz, frequencies of higher-order modes (HOM) can be generated within the transmission band of the band pass filter. In order to avoid systematic errors in the NSLS-II BPM system, we introduced frequency shift of HOMs by using RF metal shielding located in the antechamber slot. We demonstrated numerical modeling and experimental studies of the spurious TE modes in the NSLS-II vacuum chambers with antechamber slot. Calculated frequencies of TE-modes in considered chambers with and without RF shielding were verified experimentally. Flexible BeCu RF shielding inside each chamber at proper location shifts frequencies of H{sub 10p}-modes above {approx}900MHz, except chambers S6 odd and even. These chambers need special attention because of synchrotron radiation from downstream magnets. S6 odd multipole vacuum chamber needs to be measured and the RF shielding length has to be optimized. RF shielding looks adequate for baseline design. Fifty percent of open space provides adequate pumping speed.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Ferreira, M.; Blednykh, A.; Bacha, B.; Borrelli, A.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Kosciuk, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shape transitions in neutron-rich Ru isotopes: spectroscopy of 109,110,111,112Ru

Description: The spectroscopy of neutron-rich {sup 109,110,111,112}Ru nuclei was studied by measuring the prompt {gamma} rays originated from fission fragments, produced by the {sup 238}U({alpha},f) fusion-fission reaction, in coincidence with the detection of both fragments. For {sup 109,111}Ru, both the negative-parity (h{sub 11/2} orbitals) and positive-parity (g{sub 7/2} and/or d{sub 5/2} orbitals) bands were extended to substantially higher spin and excitation energy than known previously. The ground-state and {gamma}-vibrational bands of {sup 110,112}Ru also were extended to higher spin, allowing observation of the second band crossing at the rotational frequency of {approx}450 keV in {sup 112}Ru, which is {approx}50 keV above the first band crossing. At a similar rotational frequency, the first band crossing for the h{sub 11/2} band in {sup 111}Ru was observed, which is absent in {sup 109}Ru. These band crossings most likely are caused by the alignment of the g{sub 9/2} proton pair. This early onset of the band crossing for the aligned {pi}g{sub 9/2} orbitals may be evidence of a triaxial shape transition from prolate to oblate occurring in {sup 111}Ru. The data together with a comparison of cranked shell model predictions are presented.
Date: June 29, 2005
Creator: Hua, H; Cline, D; Hayes, A B; Teng, R; Riley, D; Clark, R M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF beam control system for the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC

Description: The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is two counter-rotating rings with six interaction points. The RF Beam Control system for each ring will control two 28 MHz cavities for acceleration, and five 197 MHz cavities for preserving the 5 ns bunch length during 10 hour beam stores. Digital technology is used extensively in: Direct Digital Synthesis of rf signals and Digital Signal Processing for, the realization of state-variable feedback loops, real-time calculation of rf frequency, and bunch-by-bunch phase measurement of the 120 bunches. DSP technology enables programming the parameters of the feedback loops in order to obtain closed-loop dynamics that are independent of synchrotron frequency.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Brennan, J.M.; Campbell, A.; DeLong, J.; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Rose, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF BEAM CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE BROOKHAVEN RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER, RHIC

Description: The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is two counter-rotating rings with six interaction points. The RF Beam Control system for each ring will control two 28 MHz cavities for acceleration, and five 197 MHz cavities for preserving the 5 ns bunch length during 10 hour beam stores. Digital technology is used extensively in: Direct Digital Synthesis of rf signals and Digital Signal Processing for, the realization of state-variable feedback loops, real-time calculation of rf frequency, and bunch-by-bunch phase measurement of the 120 bunches. DSP technology enables programming the parameters of the feedback loops in order to obtain closed-loop dynamics that are independent of synchrotron frequency.
Date: June 22, 1998
Creator: BRENNAN,J.M.; CAMPBELL,A.; DELONG,J.; HAYES,T.; ONILLON,E.; ROSE,J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of radioactive background rejection in 76Ge neutrino-lessdouble-beta decay experiments using a highly segmented HPGe detector

Description: A highly segmented coaxial HPGe detector was operated in a low background counting facility for over 1 year to experimentally evaluate possible segmentation strategies for the proposed Majorana neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment. Segmentation schemes were evaluated on their ability to reject multi-segment events while retaining single-segment events. To quantify a segmentation scheme's acceptance efficiency the percentage of peak area due to single segment events was calculated for peaks located in the energy region 911-2614 keV. Single interaction site events were represented by the double-escape peak from the 2614 keV decay in {sup 208}Tl located at 1592 keV. In spite of its prototypical nature, the detector performed well under realistic operating conditions and required only minimal human interaction. Though the energy resolution for events with interactions in multiple segments was impacted by inter-segment cross-talk, the implementation of a cross-talk correlation matrix restored acceptable resolution. Additionally, simulations utilizing the MaGe simulation package were performed and found to be in good agreement with experimental observations verifying the external nature of the background radiation.
Date: February 5, 2007
Creator: Chan, Yuen-Dat; Campbell, D.B.; Vetter, K.; Henning, R.; Lesko, K.; Chan, Y.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NSLS-II RF BEAM POSITION MONITOR

Description: An internal R&D program has been undertaken at BNL to develop a sub-micron RF Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the NSLS-II 3rd generation light source that is currently under construction. The BPM R&D program started in August 2009. Successful beam tests were conducted 15 months from the start of the program. The NSLS-II RF BPM has been designed to meet all requirements for the NSLS-II Injection system and Storage Ring. Housing of the RF BPM's in +-0.1 C thermally controlled racks provide sub-micron stabilization without active correction. An active pilot-tone has been incorporated to aid long-term (8hr min) stabilization to 200nm RMS. The development of a sub-micron BPM for the NSLS-II has successfully demonstrated performance and stability. Pilot Tone calibration combiner and RF synthesizer has been implemented and algorithm development is underway. The program is currently on schedule to start production development of 60 Injection BPM's starting in the Fall of 2011. The production of {approx}250 Storage Ring BPM's will overlap the Injection schedule.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Vetter, K.; Della Penna, A. J.; DeLong, J.; Kosciuk, B.; Mead, J.; Pinayev, I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging Performance of the Si/Ge Hybrid Compton Imager

Description: The point spread function (PSF) of a fully-instrumented silicon/germanium Compton telescope has been measured as a function of energy and angle. Overall, the resolution ranged from 3{sup o} to 4{sup o} FWHM over most of the energy range and field of view. The various contributions to the resolution have been quantified. These contributions include the energy uncertainty and position uncertainty of the detector; source energy; Doppler broadening; and the 1/r broadening characteristic of Compton back-projection. Furthermore, a distortion of the PSF is observed for sources imaged off-axis from the detector. These contributions are discussed and compared to theory and simulations.
Date: November 10, 2005
Creator: Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cork, C; Cunningham, M; Fabris, L; Gunter, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First-Generation Hybrid Compact Compton Imager

Description: At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are pursuing the development of a gamma-ray imaging system using the Compton effect. We have built our first generation hybrid Compton imaging system, and we have conducted initial calibration and image measurements using this system. In this paper, we present the details of the hybrid Compton imaging system and initial calibration and image measurements.
Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Cunningham, M; Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cork, C; Fabris, L; Gunter, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMBINED MEASUREMENTS WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL DESIGN INFORMATION VERIFICATION SYSTEM AND GAMMA RAY IMAGING - A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT BETWEEN OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY, AND THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTER AT ISPRA

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have jointly performed tests to demonstrate combined measurements with a three-dimensional (3D) design information verification (DIV) system and a gamma-ray imager for potential safeguard applications. The 3D DIV system was made available by the European Commission's Joint Research Center to ORNL under a collaborative project between the U.S. Department of Energy and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The system is able to create 3D maps of rooms and objects and of identifying changes in positions and modifications with a precision on the order of millimeters. The gamma ray imaging system consists of a 4{pi} field-of-view Compton imaging system which has two fully operational DSSD (Double-Sided Segment Detector) High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors developed at LLNL. The Compton imaging instrument not only provides imaging capabilities, but provides excellent energy resolution which enables the identification of radioisotopes and nuclear materials. Joint Research Center was responsible to merge gamma-ray images with the 3D range maps. The results of preliminary first measurements performed at LLNL demonstrate, for the first time, mapping of panoramic gamma-ray images into 3D range data.
Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K; Ruhter, W; Chivers, D; Dreicer, M; Coates, C et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Very extended shapes in the A~;110 region

Description: High-angular-momentum states in {sup 108}Cd were populated via the {sup 64}Ni({sup 48}Ca,4n) reaction at a beam energy of 207 MeV. Gamma rays were detected using the Gammasphere array. A rotational band has been observed with a dynamic moment of inertia and deduced lower limit of the quadrupole moment suggesting a major-to-minor axis ratio larger than 1.8:1, placing it among the most deformed structures identified in any nucleus, to date.
Date: September 12, 2001
Creator: Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Gorgen, A.; Cromaz, M.; Deleplanque,M.A.; Diamond, R.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aspects of the coriolis interaction in U235

Description: We have performed three separate experiments at LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron over a period of several years in which {sup 235}U (thick target) was Coulomb-excited. It involved stand-alone experiments with Gammasphere and with the 8PI Spectrometer using {sup 136}Xe beams at 720 MeV, and a CHICO-Gammasphere experiment with an {sup 40}Ar beam at 180 MeV. In addition to extending the known negative-parity bands to high spin, we have assigned levels in some seven positive-parity bands which are in some cases (e.g. [631]1/2, [624]7/2 and [622]5/2) strongly populated by E3 excitation. The CHICO data has been analyzed to extract E2 and E3 matrix elements from the observed yields. Additionally, many E1 and M1 matrix elements could be extracted from the {gamma}-ray branching ratios.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Ward, D.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Fallon, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy of target fragmentation

Description: Fragmentation reactions, typically performed at energies {approx}E/A>50 MeV, produce neutron-rich nuclei but leave little angular momentum in the residues. In this work we have examined the product distribution and angular momentum input for a {sup 12}C beam at 30 MeV/A on a thick (40 mg/cm{sup 2}) target of {sup 51}V, testing the feasibility of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy study of target fragments at this lower energy. This technique allows the study of some neutron-rich nuclei to moderate spins, complementing the beam fragmentation studies.
Date: October 6, 2004
Creator: Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Lee, I.Y.; Ward, D.; Fallon, P.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Very extended shapes in 108Cd: evidence for the occupation of 'hyper-intruder' orbitals

Description: High-spin states in {sup 108}Cd were studied following the reaction {sup 64} Ni({sup 48}Ca,4n) at a beam energy of 207 MeV. Gamma rays were detected using the Gammasphere array. Two rotational bands have been observed at very high angular momentum. Measurements of fractional Doppler shifts yielded lower limits for the quadrupole moments and showed that the observed structures are at least as deformed as the superdeformed structures e.g. in the A {approx} 150 region, and possibly exceed a 2:1 axis ratio. The existence of very extended shapes has been predicted by cranked Strutinsky calculations, and recent projected shell model calculations suggest that the {pi}i{sub 13/2}hyper-intruder orbital is occupied in these newly observed bands.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: Gorgen, A.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Cromaz, M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department